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FluidMechanicsApplications/A2MA33:Howfluidflowsina
combustionchamber

Contents
1 Introduction:
2 combustion:
3 combustionchamber:
4 Thebasicrequirementsofagoodcombustionchamberaretoprovide:
4.1 Higherpoweroutputrequiresthefollowing:
4.2 HighVolumetricEfficiencyrequiresthefollowing:
4.3 Highthermalefficiencyrequiresthefollowing:
4.4 Smoothengineoperationrequiresthefollowing:
5 Typesoffluidflow:
5.1 laminarflow:
5.2 turbulentflow:
6 Fluidmotionwithinthecombustionchamberisdescribedbyfollowing:
6.1 TURBULENCE:
6.2 SWIRL:
6.3 SQUISH&TUMBLE:
6.4 DIVIDEDCOMBUSTIONCHAMBERS
6.5 CREVICEANDBLOWBY
7 References

Introduction:
friendsnowgetreadytovisualizefluidflowincombustionchambers.Thisprojectdiscussesair,fuelandexhaustgasmotionthatoccurs
withinthecylindersduringthecompressionstroke,combustionstrokeandpowerstrokeofthecycle.Beforeproceedingiwouldliketo
introduceyouwiththebasictermsofthisproject.

combustion:
Ingeneralwecansaythatcombustionisaprocessinwhichfuelisburnedtoproduceheat.OrCombustionisanchemicalreaction
betweensubstances,usuallyincludingoxygen&usuallyaccompaniedbytheproductionofheatandlightintheformofflame.Therate
atwhichthereactantscombineisquitehigh,inpartbecauseofthenatureofthechemicalreactionitselfandinpartbecausemore
energyisgeneratedthancanescapeintothesinkwiththeresultthatthetemperatureofthereactantsisraisedtoacceleratethereaction
evenmore.Acommonexampleisalightedmatch.Whenamatchisstruck,frictionheatstheheadtoatemperatureatwhichthe
chemicalsreactandgeneratemoreheatthancanescapeintotheair,andtheyburnwithaflame.Ifawindblowsawaytheheatorthe
chemicalsaremoistandfrictiondoesnotraisethetemperaturesufficiently,thematchgoesout.Properlyignited,theheatfromtheflame
raisesthetemperatureofanearbylayerofthematchstickandofoxygenintheairadjacenttoit,andthewoodandoxygenreactina
combustionreaction.[1]

combustionchamber:

Thecombustionchamberisthatpartinwhichfuelsuppliedbyfeedingnozzles,is
mixedwithairflowcomingcomingfromthecompressorandburnsproducingheat
toobtainagasstreamtoatempasmuchaspossibleasrequiredbyengine.

combustuonchmaber'sdesignhasanimportantinfluenceupontheengineefficiency
anditsknockproperties.Thedesignofcombustionchamberincludesshapeof
combustionchamber,thelocationofthesparkingplugandthedispositionkingplug
andthedispositionofinletandexhaustvalves.duetothewideimportanceofdesign
ofcombustionchambersithasbeenasubjectofconsiderableamountofresearch
anddevelopmentsincelastfiftyyears.Ithasresultedinraisinfiftyyears.
CombustionchamberRD45F
Thebasicrequirementsofagoodcombustion
chamberaretoprovide:

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1.HighpoweroutputHighpoweroutput
2.Highthermalefficiencyandlowspecificfuelconsumption
3.SmoothengineoperationSmoothengineoperation
4.Reducedexhaustpollutants

Higherpoweroutputrequiresthefollowing:
1.Highcompressionratio.

Thecompressionratioislimitedbythephenomenonofdetonation.Detonationdependsonthedesignofcombustionchamberandfuel
quality.Anychangeindesignimprovestheantiquality.Anychangeindesignthatimprovestheantiknockcharacteristicsofa
combustionchamberpermitstheuseofahighercompressionratiowhichshouldresultinhigheroutputandefficiency.

1.Smallornoexcessair.
2.Completeutilizationoftheairnodeadpockets.
3.Anoptimumdegreeofturbulence.

Turbulenceisinducedbyinletflowthatinhancesthevolumetricefficiency.

HighVolumetricEfficiencyrequiresthefollowing:

Thisisachievedbyhavinglargediametervalveswithampleclearanceroundthevalveheads,propervalveampleclearanceroundthe
valveheads,propervalvetimingandstraightpassagewaysbystreamliningthecombustionchambersothattheflowiswithlesser
pressuredrop.Thismeansmorechargeperstrokeandproportionateincreaseinthepoweroutput.Largevalvesandstraightpassageways
alsoincreasethespeedatwhichthemaximumpowerisobtained.Thisfurtherincreasesthepowerbyincreasingthedisplacementper
minute.

Highthermalefficiencyrequiresthefollowing:
Highcompressionratio:discussedabove
Asmallheatlossduringcombustion:

Thisisachievedbyhavingacompactcombustionchamberwhichprovidessmallsurfacevolumeratio.Theotheradvantageofcompact
combustionchamberisreducedflametravel.agiventurbulence,thisreducesthetimeofcombustionandhencetimeloss.

Goodscavengingoftheexhaustgases

Smoothengineoperationrequiresthefollowing:

1.Moderaterateofpressureriseduringcombustion.
2.Absenceofdetonationwhichinturnmeans:
3.properlocationofsparkplug&exhaustvalve.
4.satisfactorycoolingofthesetwowhichisthehottestpart.

[2]or[3]

Typesoffluidflow:
Firstlyweshouldknowthetypesoffluidmtion:therearetwotypesoffluidmotion
characterizedbyREYNOLD'SNO.

1.laminar&
2.turbulent

laminarflow:

Theflowseparatesinto"layers"thatsliderelativetooneanotherwithoutmixing.If
weintroduceacolouredstreamintothelaminarflow,thecolourwillstayinthe
stream.Theflowiscalledsteady.Laminarflowmightberepresentedbyasetof
linesknownasstreamlines(flowlines). Laminarandturbulentflows

turbulentflow:

Avigorousmixingofthefluidoccurs.Acomplexflowpatternchangescontinuouslywithtime.Thevelocityoftheparticlesateach
givenpointvariouschaoticallywithtime.TheVelocityprofileforthelaminarflowofanonviscousliquiderraticmotionofthefluid
oftenshowssmallwhirlpoolcirclescallededdiesorvortices.Eddiesabsorbagreatdealofenergyduetheirrotationalkineticenergy.A
coloureddyeaddedtoastreamwillreadilydisperse.

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Atransitionfromlaminarflowtoturbulentflowoccurs

verysuddenlyastheflowrateincreases.Theflowbecomesunstableatsomecriticalspeed.

Turbulentflowoccurswhenthereareabrupt

boundarysurfaces.Theflowofbloodthroughanormalarteryislaminar.However,whenirregularitiesoccurtheflowbecomes
turbulentanditcanbeheardwithastethoscope.

Whentheflowbecomesturbulentthereisa

decreaseinthevolumeflowrate.

whenthefluidflowsaroundanobject,theshapeoftheobjectisanimportantparameterindeterminingthetypeofflow.

Inthecombustionchambersthefluid(airfuelmixture)flowsina"turbulentmanner"sothatbetterairfuelmixingtakesplaceand
volumeefficiencyincreased.Duetohighvelocityinvolved,allflowsinto,outofandwithinthecylindersareturbulentexceptthose
flowsinthecornersandcreviceswherethecloseproximityofthewallsdampensouttheturbulent.Turbulennceinacylinderishigh
duringintakeanddecreasesasflowrateslowsnearBDCandincreasesagainduringcompressionasswirl,squish,tumbleincreasesnear
TDC.Themotionthatoccurswithinthecylinderisquiteimportanttospeedevaporationofthefuel,toenhanceairfuelmixingandto
increasecombustionspeedandefficiency.Inadditiontothenormaldesiredturbulence,arotationalmotioncalledswirlisgeneratedon
theairfuelmixtureduringintake.Neartheendofthecompressionstroke,twoadditionalmassmotionsaregenerated:squishand
tumblesquishisaredialmotiontowardsthecentralline&tumbleisarotationalmotionaroundcircumferentialaxis.

Fluidmotionwithinthecombustionchamberisdescribedbyfollowing:
TURBULENCE:

Asdiscussedaboveitisduetothehighvelocityoftheflow.Asaresultofturbulence,thermodynamictransferrateswithinanengine
areincreasedbyanorderofmagnitude.Heattransfer,evaporation,mixing,andcombustionratesallincreasewhenthefuelisburned,
thehighturbulencenearTDCisverydesirableforthecombustionprocess.Itbreaksupandspreadstheflamefrontmanytimesfaster
thanthatofalaminarflame.Theairfuelisconsumedinaveryshorttime,andselfignitionandknockareavoided.Amaximumtumble
isachievedatabout120afterTDC.Itmaybeduetothejetairflowduringthevalveopeningthatthenormaltumbledecreasesinthe
beginningandincreasesintotheearlypartofthecompressionstroke.[4]or[5]

SWIRL:

thereisalsoalsoadesiredkindofmotioncalledswirlmotioninwhichairfuelmixtureenterstangentiallytothecombustionchamber
anditmovesinarotationalmanner.sothiskindofmotiongraduallyenhancestheairfuelmixtureandobviouslyincreasesvolumetric
efficiencyinthatwayandisverydesiredforbetterefficientengines.sodifferentcombustionchambergeometriesaredesignedtoallow
thiskindofmotionforbetterefficiency.Swirlisdefinedasthelargescalevortexintheincylinderfluidwiththeaxisofrotationparallel
tothepistonaxis.swirlisconsideredtobeastwodimensionalsolidbodyrotation,persiststhroughcompressionandcombustion
process.Thedecayofswirlinanenginecylinderduringthecompressionprocessisrelativelysmallsothattheoverallangular
momentumoftheswirlvortexisalmostconserved.

SQUISH&TUMBLE:

Anotherkindofmotionissquishmotion.ThisisalsoagreatimportanceassumingthepistonmovingupwardtowardstheTDC.Asit
reachesthetopdeadcentretheclearancevolumesuddenlydecreased.Asintheairfiltertheclearancevalveisshorterclearancevolume
andthebiggeroneisinthecombustionchambersoasitreachestheTDCtheclearancevolumereducestheshorteroneandnolonger
thebiggeroneandsotheairfuelmixturefromthebiggerclearancevolumehastomovedinsmallerclearancevolumebecausethereis
nospaceleftandastheairfuelmixturemovesreadilyintothesmallerclearancevolumeasweknowitsacompressionstrokesothe
combustionoccurshere.sparkplugignitestheairfuelmixturehereandtheburnt.Asthepistonmovesdownwardtowardsthepower
stroke,theclearancevolumewouldagainincreaseandtheburntgaseswouldagainoccupyingthebiggerclearancevolumeandthiskind
ofmotioniscalledasreversesquish.Thereisalsoasecondryeffectofreversesquishreferredassecondryswirllandisgenerallycalled
astumble.TumbleactioncausedbysquishaspistonapproachesTDC.Tumbleisarotationalmotionaboutcircumferentialaxisnearthe
ageofclearancevolumeinthepistonbowlorinthecylinderhead.[6]

DIVIDEDCOMBUSTIONCHAMBERS

Somecombustionchambersaredividedintopartsmeansthatsomeengineshavedividedcombustionchambers,generallywithabout
80%oftheclearancevolumeinthemainchamberabovethepistonandabout20%ofthevolumeasasecondrychamberconnected
throughasmallorifice.

CREVICEANDBLOWBY

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Inthecombustionchamberofanenginetherearetinycrevicesthatfillwithair,fuel,andexhaustgasduringtheenginecycle.These
creviceshavingtheclearancebetweenthepistonandcylinderwalls(about80%oftotal),imperfectfitinthethreadsofthesparkplugor
fuelinjector(5%),gapsinthegasketbetweenheadandblock(1015%),andunroundedcornersattheedgeofthecombustionchamber
andaroundtheedgesofvalvefaces.Althoughthisvolumeisontheorderofonly13%ofthetotalclearancevolume,theflowintoand
outofitgreatlyaffectstheoverallcycleoftheengine.Theblowbylossieduetotheleakingofgasflowthroughcrevicesorgaps
betweenthepiston,pistonringsandcylinderwalls.Thegasgenerallyleaksorflowsthroughthemtothecrankcase.althoughcrevice
volumeissmallenoughincomparisontototalcombustionchambervolume,theflowintoandoutofitaffectscombustionandengine
emissions.someofthegasflowinthecrevicebetweenthepistonandcylinderwallsgetspastthepistonintothecrankcasewhereit
raisesthecrankcasepressureandcontaminatesthelubricatingoil.[7][8]

References
1.JOELR,(1996),BasicEngineeringThermodynamics,AddisonWesley.
2.JagadeeshaT,AssistantProfessor,DepartmentofMechanicalEngineering,AdichunchanagiriInstituteofTechnology,
Chikmagalur
3.http://www.nitc.ac.in/dept/me/jagadeesha/Internal_Combustion_Engines/Chapter4.pdf
4.InternationalJournalonTheoreticalandAppliedResearchinMechanicalEngineering(IJTARME)
5.http://www.irdindia.in/journal_ijtarme/pdf/vol2_iss1/7.pdf
6.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PrlnicQD1HU
7.http://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/academics/rhaj/uploads/chapter%206%20Fluid%20motion%20in%20combustion%20chamber.pdf
8.http://www.iitg.ernet.in/scifac/qip/public_html/cd_cell/chapters/uk_saha_internal_combustion_engine/qipice20in
cylinder%20fluid%20motion.pdf

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