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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol 723 (2015) pp 814-818 Online: 2015-01-12

(2015) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland


Study on the Relationships between Plastic Viscosity and Tack Value of

Offset Printing Ink

Yang Yong Gang1,2

Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, Beijing, China
School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China

Keywords: ink tack value; linear velocity of ink distributing roller; ink film separation velocity; plastic

Abstract: In order to find out the variation law of ink stickiness during the printing, the ink tack
value under 9 different linear velocities of ink distributing roller was tested, and the relation
equations between tack value and the roller linear velocity were built up. At the same time, the
plastic viscosities of 8 offset inks and their tack values under 9 separation velocities were also tested.
The study results showed that the higher the linear speed was, the larger the tack value was, and it
would stay in a relatively high tack value (regarded as infinite tack value). Also, the printing ink
having high viscosity may possess low tack value.

Ink tack, namely, the resistance ability to stop ink splitting during the dynamic printing process. The
physical quantity tack value is often used to describe the extent of ink tack. It is related to the
linear velocity of ink distributing roller (that is to say, ink film separation velocity). Ink tack value
increases with the separation velocity [1, 2, 3]. Moreover, the tack value cast great influence on
printing quality during the printing. For example, if tack value is too high, paper fiber is easier to be
picked, which ruin the image beauty. By the way, in the full color printing, different ink has
different tack values, so the color sequence related to ink tack value is quite meaningful to ideal ink
transfer [4, 5]. Ink flow is a behavior under the static stress, and the internal friction performance
hindering ink flow is called as viscosity [6]. In the paper, the relation between ink tack value and
ink film separation velocity was discussed so as to provide some methods and foundations for
adjusting ink tack. And the relationships between viscosity and tack value were also studied.

Experimental Materials and Instruments

The 4 offset inks (YMCK) from Tianjin Co. Ltd. and 4 offset inks (YMCK) from Hangzhou Co. Ltd.
are marked respectively as ink L1, ink L2, ink L3, ink L4, ink L5, ink L6, ink L7, ink L8.
VM-01 Laray viscosity meter, Type 106 electric Ink-O-Meter, Type PC-5000TRH-
Experimental Methods
Measuring ink tack value in different linear velocities
Firstly, 9 linear velocities, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800 (unit: r/m), were set.
In order to build up the relation between the ink-o-meter rotating speed and printability tester
picking velocity, the following Eq.1 can be applied:

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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 723 815

V r (1)
V: the linear speed of testing drive roller (the metallic roller), cm/s;
N: ink-o-meter rotating speed, r/m;
C: the perimeter of drive roller (it is about 24 cm).
With Eq.1, the 9 linear velocities are separately equal to 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, 4.8, 5.6, 6.4, 7.2
(unit: m/s). The ink tack values under the above 9 velocities were tested according to the standard
Building up the relationship between ink tack value and separation linear velocity
According to the above testing data, a relation curve diagram was drawn between ink tack value and
separation velocity, and then their nonlinear regression equations were calculated.
Testing the plastic viscosities of 8 offset inks
Under the conditions of environment temperature 252, relative humidity 53%3% and
thermostatic water-bath temperature 25, the plastic viscosity of 8 offset inks were measured with
the Laray viscosity meter according to the standard method GB/T 22770-2008.

Results and Discussions

The data relation between ink tack value and separation linear velocity
The data relations were seen in Fig. 1.

Fig.1 Relationship between ink tack and separation velocity

In Fig. 1, it was obvious to find out no matter what kind of the ink, tack value would raise with
the increasing of drive roller rotating velocity till a stable value (assume it as the infinite tack value).
It is because ink is a visco-elastic substance, viscose deformation as well as elastic deformation
would exist at the same time when suffering exogenic action under a low velocity [7]. However, if
the velocity comes to some extent, ink would mainly show its elastic deformation. The elastic
deformation has nothing to do with velocity. In other words, tack value reflects ink cohesive energy.
When the separation velocity becomes very high, it will make ink prevent ink film from splitting on
its maximal cohesive energy, which leads to the infinite tack value, keeping stable however the
velocity increases. This is a special property of ink [8].
The establishment of relation equation between tack value and separation velocity
According to the shape and characteristic of Fig.1, together with the former explanation and
practical experience, a nonlinear regressive curve y de b x (b0) was adopted to imitate data
points of Fig.1 in this paper [9], and then the responding regressive curve equations would be
calculated out.
816 Applied Mechanics and Materials III

As y de b x ,

ln y ln de b x ln d b x (2)

x: the separation velocity;

y: ink tack value;
b, d: the regressive coefficients.
If y1 ln y , x1 1 x , a ln d , Eq.2 would be changed to the Eq.3

y1 a bx1 (3)

So the data relationship between tack value and separation velocity in Table 1 would be changed
to the data relation between y1 and x1 in Table 1.
Table 1 The data relationship between y1 and x1
y1=ln y
1.25 0.63 0.42 0.31 0.25 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14
ln L1 1.74 1.99 2.13 2.29 2.37 2.43 2.49 2.53 2.57
ln L2 1.84 2.12 2.27 2.40 2.48 2.55 2.60 2.64 2.67
ln L3 1.96 2.24 2.40 2.51 2.59 2.67 2.71 2.73 2.73
ln L4 2.04 2.36 2.51 2.62 2.73 2.79 2.84 2.88 2.92
ln L5 0.83 1.44 1.77 1.97 2.12 2.24 2.32 2.39 2.45
ln L6 0.96 1.50 1.82 2.03 2.17 2.27 2.36 2.43 2.48
ln L7 2.04 2.35 2.57 2.66 2.77 2.84 2.90 2.93 2.97
ln L8 1.92 2.17 2.42 2.53 2.62 2.71 2.77 2.83 2.87
Taking L1 as an example, it can give Eq.4 according to data relations between y1 and x1.
y1=-0.7414x1+2.5746 (4)
Because R =0.9011, the relative coefficient |r|=0.95, it has high relative extent between y1 and
x1. But whether or not x1 and y1 are related with each other, it still needs significance testing to
check out. The normal significance level a=0.05, and the known data group n=9, the critical value
can be found out, that is rmin =0.666 [9]. As rrmin , it verifies Eq.4 should be meaningful.
a = 2.5746 = ln dso d = e2.5746=13.13, and b = -0.7414, the nonlinear regression equation
should be
y 13.13e 0.74 x (x0) (5)
The Eq.5 fitted well the data relation between tack value and separation velocity of ink L1. In
the same way, the other nonlinear regressive equations are as follows:
Ink L2 y 14.73e 0.74 x ; Ink L3 y 16.24e 0.72 x ; Ink L4 y 18.88e 0.78 x ; Ink L5:

y 12.42e 1.45 x ; Ink L6 y 12.70e 1.37 x ; Ink L7 y 20.08e 0.84 x ; Ink L8 y 17.70e 0.85 x
From the equations, d represents actually the infinite tack value of ink and also reflects ink
cohesive energy.
The relationships between plastic viscosity and tack value of the 8 offset inks
According to experimental test and calculation, the plastic viscosities (p) of the 8 offset inks were
given in Table 2.
Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 723 817

Table 2 Plastic viscosities of the 8 offset inks

Offset ink L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8

viscosity 21.2 48.8 42.4 38.4 62.8 81.0 70.0 39.0
p (Pas)

Now, If the above 9 linear velocities are looked as working velocity, the relationships between
plastic viscosity and tack value of the 8 offset inks could be seen in Fig.2.

0.8m/s 1.6m/s
2.4m/s 3.2m/s
20 4.0m/s 4.8m/s

Tack value


0 20 40 60 80 100
Plastic viscosity (Pas)

Fig.2 Relationship between plastic viscosity and tack value of the offset inks

From Fig.2, for the offset inks, plastic viscosity and tack value don't have a simple linear relation.
That is to say, for different offset inks, its tack value may be low when the plastic viscosity of one
offset ink is great. In fact, both two property parameters have remarkable difference at the aspect of
physical significance. In general, viscosity was reckoned as a shearing resistance property of fluid,
and its internal friction force happened at the horizontal direction, while tack value presented the
splitting resistance of fluid, and the vertical direction was its force one [10].

From this study, we can draw the following conclusions:
1. In some extent, the raise of ink film separation velocity can lead to the increase of ink tack value,
and finally reach a stable value (the infinite tack value), which is different for various inks.
2. For the offset inks, plastic viscosity and tack value don't have a simple linear relation.

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818 Applied Mechanics and Materials III

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Applied Mechanics and Materials III

Study on the Relationships between Plastic Viscosity and Tack Value of Offset Printing Ink