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Element Analysis

Shrestha Ranjit

Division of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University,

1223-24 Cheonan-daero, Sebuk-gu, Cheonan, South Korea.

Wontae Kim

Division of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University,

1223-24 Cheonan-daero, Sebuk-gu, Cheonan, South Korea.

Kooahn Kwon*

Center for Safety Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS),

267 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, South Korea.

This study presents fatigue analysis of a 3-D model of weld the fluctuating stress, temperature, environment, geometrical

structure using ANSYS 15 FE Software. The study was carried complexities, material imperfections and discontinuities [6].

on welding of two dissimilar materials in which SA106 and Fatigue failures can be very expensive since they generally

STS 304 are parent materials and M 309 is used as a filler occur without warning and are often quite serious with large

material. Butt welded joint specimen using gas metal arc damage to associated equipment. Therefore, it is very important

welding (GMAW) process was analyzed to cyclic loading. The to predict an accurate fatigue life considering factors such as

specimen was modeled in ANSYS 15 Workbench. At first weld quality, geometry, surface finish, and load conditions [7-

thermal analysis is done by giving a heat input which is 8].

equivalent to the heat generated by a GMAW welding process. Many methods are available to predict the fatigue life of welded

In the next step, a structural analysis was carried out to obtain components. Three common approaches exist for the fatigue

the mechanical response of the structural model, where the strength assessment of welded joints, which can be

temperature history obtained from the first step was employed distinguished by the parameters according to nominal stress,

as a thermal load in the analysis. Then on the same specimen, hot-spot stress, and notch stress [9-10]. As the finite element

fatigue analysis is conducted by applying cyclic loading. method (FEA) has become the favorite tool in structural

analysis, there is an unquestionable need for a direct connection

Keywords: Welded Structures, Fatigue Life, Finite Element of the fatigue assessment approaches to the simulations. FEA

Analysis, ANSYS is a modeling tool used to accurately calculate stresses,

deflection, natural frequencies and dynamic response of

mechanical systems [11-12].

Introduction This study presents a methodology developed to evaluate the

Many metallic structures in the industry are assembled through fatigue life of GMAW welded dissimilar material welded

some kind of welding process which is composed of heating, specimen under cyclic loading. Static and dynamic stresses are

melting and solidification using a heat source such as arc, laser, presented on a Modified Goodman Diagram since this is

torch or electron beam [1]. Design engineers are increasingly commonly recognized as a very easy and effective way to

faced with the need to join dissimilar materials as they are assess the stress amplitudes. Known material properties are

seeking creative new structures. Increased use of these used to quantify the fatigue safety margin using either a

materials for engineering applications is growing because of proportional increase method or other assessment of design

special performance requirements for corrosion resistance, high safety margin. This methodology will permit, in further studies,

strength-to-weight ratio, erosion resistance, or high- the modeling of both stresses, in-service and residual stresses,

temperature strength [2]. Welded structures are exposed to acting together, which seem like an advantage to engineers and

fatigue loading due to their operating and loading conditions. researchers who work in design and evaluation of structural

But research shows that even though they provide good components against fatigue failures.

strength in tension, they fail much quicker when subjected to

fatigue loading. This may be due to various reasons like

improper welding sequence, improper welding parameters or Numerical FEM Approach

improper preparation of the joint materials. The fatigue life Model Configuration

may also get reduced due to a combination of static and The gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is modeled in the present

dynamic stresses that in combination exceed the capability of welding simulation. Fig. 1 shows the welding configuration and

the material [3-5]. Fatigue failure is a complex and progressive geometry of the specimen under consideration. As shown in the

form of local damage which is significantly influenced by many figure, the moving torch is applied on the longitudinal upper

3390

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 5 (2016) pp 3390-3393

Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com

edge of the plate of 100 mm long, 14.5 mm wide and 2.9 mm Table 1 Properties of the materials

thick. The plate is simply supported at both ends. For the

fatigue analysis, a crack in the middle of the specimen is SN Properties Unit Materials

modeled. The Fig.2 shows the details of the crack. During M309 SA106 STS 304

meshing, physical preference was taken as mechanical, the 1 Density Kgm-3 7850 7750 7900

relative center was kept in medium mode and curvature was off 2 Coefficient of thermal m/m/C 12 11.5 9.4

in advanced size function. The resultant mesh had 47,663 expansion

elements and 9,471 nodes. The finite element model of the 3 Isotropic Elasticity

3.1 Young Modulus GPa 200 207 190

specimen with meshing is shown in Fig.3.

3.2 Poissons ratio - 0.3 0.3 0.29

4 Bilinear Isotropic Hardening

4.1 Yield Strength Mpa 215 295 276

4.2 Tangent Modulus Mpa 1075 1315 1380

5 Alternating Stress Mean Stress

5.1 1E1 3999 38600 13600

5.2 1E2 1413 12100 5560

5.3 1E3 789 3960 2370

5.4 1E4 Mpa 262 1420 1080

5.5 1E5 138 584 534

5.6 1E6 86 286 293

5.7 1E7 - 164 177

Figure 1: Geometry of the welding specimen 6 Strain-Life Parameters

6.1 Display Curve Type - Strain- Strain- Strain-

Life Life Life

6.2 Strength Coefficient Mpa 920 1254 1267

6.3 Strength exponent - -0.106 -0.15 -0.139

6.4 Ductility Coefficient - 0.213 0.6 0.174

6.5 Ductility Exponent - -0.47 -0.52 -0.415

6.6 Cyclic Strength Mpa 1000 1254 2245

Coefficient

6.7 Cyclic Strain hardening - 0.2 0.28 -0.334

exponent

7 Tensile Ultimate Strength Mpa 520 547 572

8 Isotropic Thermal Wm-1C-1 16.2 60.4 16.2

Conductivity

9 Specific Heat J/kg-K 500 469 500

Boundary Conditions

Thermal Boundary

A thermal analysis of heat conduction was carried out in the

first step to obtain temperature distribution histories over the

structural model. In the thermal analysis, the welding heat

input, Q was calculated by using Eq. (1).

VI

Q = A ( ) (1)

1000Ws

where A is welding efficiency; V is welding arc voltage; I is

welding current; V is welding arc voltage; Ws is the arc welding

speed; and Q is the heat input.

The arc efficiency, A for GMAW was assumed to be 0.80.

Also, the values of convective heat transfer coefficient, hf was

Figure 3: Finite element model of a specimen taken as stagnant air-simplified case and reference temperature

was taken 22C. The parameters used for giving heat input are

selected from the recommended values of current and voltage

Materials Properties for the particular thickness of weld where the voltage equals to

In this study, welding of two dissimilar materials was carried 22.73 V, current is equal to 277 Amp and welding speed is 5

out in which SA106 and STS 304 are parent materials and M mm/sec.

309 is used as a filler material. The material properties of SA

106, STS 304 and M309 vary according to the temperature Structural Boundary

history. Table.1 shows the details of the properties of the In the next step, a structural analysis was carried out to obtain

materials considered in this study. the mechanical response of the structural model, where the

temperature history obtained from the first step was employed

as a thermal load in the analysis. The material model of elastic-

3391

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 5 (2016) pp 3390-3393

Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com

strain hardening rule was chosen, in which its response over the

history was determined by the temperature-dependent material

properties inputted. The boundary condition or constraint on

the structural model needs also to be assigned accordingly.

Fatigue Loading

Fatigue analysis is conducted by applying cyclic loading.

During the fatigue analysis, Fatigue strength factor (kf) was

kept 1, loading type is ratio and equals to 0.1 with scale factor

Figure 6: Temperature distribution profile at time = 1 second

1, and analysis type is stress life with Goodman mean stress

theory with equivalent (Von Mises) stress component. The

Following this, thermal loading was import to setup structural

detail of fatigue loading condition is shown in Fig.4.

analysis which results in deformation and stress developed in

The fatigue analysis was done for 1800 s in which the specimen

the specimen. The Fig. 7 shows the deformation profile with

was subjected to 924 N for the first 300 s; 1848 N from 300 s

respect to time and Fig. 8 show the details of total deformation

to 600 s; 2772 N from 600 to 900 s; 3696 N from 900 s to 1200

obtained at the end of analysis.

s; 4620 N from 1200 to 1500 s and finally 5544 N from 1500 s

to 1800 s. The magnitude of the load for the fatigue analysis is

given by,

F

Load = (1 + sin(2ft)) (2)

2

where, F= load at offset yield, f=frequency, t=time.

Thermal analysis was done to determine the thermal state in the

weld and surrounding components. The Fig. 5 shows the details

of maximum and minimum temperature of the specimen Figure 8: Total deformation at time = 1800 s

recorded for 1 hour. The Fig. 6 shows the simulation results of

the thermal analysis at time 1 second which shows that The Fig. 9 shows the maximum and minimum equivalent stress

temperature exceeds well above the melting temperature of the profile with respect to time and Fig. 10 show the details of

substrate material in the welding region. equivalent stress developed at the end of analysis. The stress

distribution patterns in the specimen showed that it tended to

concentrate at or near points of application of thermal load,

stress field is generally not uniform in these areas. Stress was

concentrated at corners, edges, and other areas of abrupt change

in the shape of the specimen and was not uniform where the

cross-section of the structure changed suddenly and had large

gradients at localized points. For the measurement of stress

distribution pattern at different location, measurement profile

1-2 (0, 0, 0) & (100, 0, 0) was created in X-axis (as shown in

Fig. 10). The Fig. 11 shows the measurement of the Equivalent

stress along the profile.

The fatigue analysis of the specimen is analyzed for fatigue life.

The Fig.12 shows the maximum and minimum life of the

Figure 5: Temperature Profile of the specimen with respect to specimen determined in the simulation. The maximum life was

time found to be 1E7 cycles whereas the minimum life was found to

be 2.53E5.

3392

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 5 (2016) pp 3390-3393

Research India Publications. http://www.ripublication.com

input data (material properties, geometry, and loading).

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by the Radiation Technology

Development program of the National Research Foundation of

Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future

Planning (NRF-2015M2A2A9064147) and National Research

Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea

government (MEST) (NRF-2014R1A1A2054595).

Figure 9: Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stress with respect to time

References

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Figure 10: Equivalent (Von-Mises) Stressat time = 1800 s

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ASME Div. 2 Master curve," FratturaedIntegrita

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