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of Submarine Cables

Authors:

etcetera. The normal approach to avoid free spans is to

During cable installation, free spans can occur in areas change the route to circumvent the location with too

with uneven seabed. In combination with current and uneven seabed, but sometimes that is not possible or

waves there is a risk that Vortex Induced Vibrations the free span may occur after the cable has been laid

(VIV) are introduced in the cable span. VIV can cause and even trenched.

wear and fatigue on the cables weak components such

as the lead sheath. This paper proposes a method to The hazards that comes with a cable free span is mainly

assess VIV that utilises the cables hysteretic behaviour impact with fishing equipment or vibrations that

with high damping. A numerical model for calculation occur due to the flowing fluid around the cable which

of the dynamic bending stiffness of a submarine cable creates vortices which in turn can induce vibrations.

with bitumen coated armour wires is also presented. The vibrations may lead to fatigue and wear on cable

components. The flowing fluid around the cable can

Nomenclature: be induced by both ocean current and waves, this

phenomena is called Vortex Induced Vibrations, VIV.

VIV in power cables. There are industry accepted

standards to assess VIV in pipelines such as DNV RP

F105 [1]. Methodologies to assess the resulting fatigue

damage in umbilicals and flexible pipes have been

described in [2] and [3] with the verifying testing

described in [4]. There is also a range of purpose built

software for VIV assessment which reduce the level of

conservatism such as, VIVANA, Shear7 and OrcaFlex

VIV: Vortex Induced Vibrations for example. These software can account for the stick-

DNV: Det Norske Veritas slip behaviour of the helical layers of armour wires.

RP: Recommended Practice

Critical parameters to evaluate the risk for onset of VIV

1. Introduction are the bending stiffness and the structural damping

of the object. The Eigen frequency is proportional to

Free spans is a phenomena that can occur for power the square root of the bending stiffness and a higher

cables, umbilicals and pipelines. It can happen along Eigen frequency results in longer allowed free spans

the cable route if the seabed is so uneven that the cable and higher water velocities. These parameters are easily

cannot adapt to it, as shown in Pic. 1. Free spans can determined for a steel pipe with a linear bend stiffness.

also occur if the cable exits a J-tube bell mouth above For a power cable this becomes even more complex

the seafloor. The reason for the uneven seabed can due to the bitumen covering the helically laid armour

*Johan.1.hedlund@se.abb.com

KEYWORDS

Bending Stiffness, Free span, Structural damping, Vortex Induced Vibrations

89

Pic. 1: Model over free span due to cliff.

wires. The bitumen layer will have a large impact on the numerical model is developed to calculate the build-up

bending stiffness, the Eigen frequency and the allowed of stress in the armour wires resulting from the shear

free span length of a submarine cables. deformation in the bitumen layer during cable bending.

The resulting stress distribution is used to calculate the

A typical three core double armoured cable with copper bending moment required to bend the cable.

conductor, XLPE insulation, lead sheath, filler profiles

and two steel wire armour layers with bedding is shown The temperature varying viscoelastic parameters of

in the picture below: bitumen have been determined from small scale testing,

in reference [5].

and curvature is used to investigate the dynamic cable

bending stiffness during conditions representative for

VIV on how this affects the risk for onset of VIV. The

established bend moment curvature relationships are

also used to determine the viscoelastic damping of the

cables armour layer which is the major contribution to

the total structural damping.

2. Methodology

A power cable usually consists of 1 or 2 layers of helically

wound armour wires. For umbilicals and flexible pipes

without bitumen covered armour the methodology,

described in [3], is well established for determining the

stresses and strains in the armour wires when subjected

to tension and bending. That model uses coulomb

Pic. 2: Typical cross-section for double armoured submarine cable. friction along with the contact pressure between the

wire and surrounding materials and this results in

Bitumen, which is used as part of the corrosion that the wire either is stuck or slides, this is called

protection system of the armour wires, is a viscoelastic stick-slip. The helical geometry is the same for cables

material where the mechanical properties vary with as for umbilicals and flexible pipes and is very well

temperature and strain velocity. The bending stiffness described in [6]. The same methodology is applicable

and structural damping of a submarine cable with for submarine cables with some modifications and will

bitumen covered armour wires will therefore depend be used to calculate the dynamic bending moment.

on temperature, bending amplitude and bending speed.

2.1. Helical Geometry

This paper studies the effects of bitumen on the

bending stiffness of submarine cables and how the The helical geometry used to calculate the wire

stiffness varies with bending speed and temperature. A displacement is mathematically described in reference

90

Fig. 1: Helical geometry.

[6], below a simplification of the wire displacement in How the wire displacement is affected by bending if the

a Cartesian coordinate system along with explanatory wire sticks to the toroid can be simplified by introducing

Figure 1: the following expressions and replacing c with s, which

is the distance along the wire path:

(1) (5)

When the cable is bent the helix around a cylinder is and lay length is described by the following triangular

transformed into a helix around a toroid and an under relationship described in Rn and gives

length of wire is created on the outside of the bend and

an over length created on the inside of the bend this is

explained by the relationships below: (6)

(2)

be simplified to just depend on the radius, pitch angle,

From (2) the length of the deformed helix is achieved by cable curvature and the distance along the deformed

some manipulation where the ratio R/ << 1 is assumed: helix:

(3) (7)

Where: (8)

(4)

91

The result is an expression for wire displacement as a The model proposed in [6] defines the wire tension, Tw

function of the armour design and curvature is obtained as below:

when the wire sticks to the toroid underneath it. The

corresponding strain is found as the derivative of (8)

which can be used to calculate the stick strain and the (12)

bending moment during the stick phase.

2.2. Viscoelastic Model With the expression from [5] replacing the elastic

model described in (9), in order to adapt the model for

Reference [5] investigated the bitumen shear mechanics submarine cables with bitumen coated armour wires,

in a dynamic subsea power cable by performing pull the wire tension, can be expressed as:

out tests from a cable sample at various temperatures

and speed in order to characterize the shear force that

is generated by the bitumen layer when the armour wire (13)

slides in relation to its neighbouring layers. The work

comprising 29 different pull out tests and 3 cyclic pull

out tests resulted in an expression for the shear force,

in bitumen as a function of velocity and temperature,

the result is described by (9). The total expression results in:

(14)

(9)

(15)

a transient term with an exponent and a source term

This gives a viscous force equilibrium that differs which can be solved numerically for us. A numerical

compared to the force equilibrium described in reference solver based on [7] was used. With the solution for us

[6] that assumes an elastic relationship between shear the strain reduction in the wire along the arc due to

force and wire displacement. The force equilibrium is axial sliding can be established. By adding the constant

used to calculate the total wire displacement u that is bending component and the component from the

a function of how the cable moves around the toroid axial sliding the strain, , from bending motions is

when being bent. The total displacement consists of established.

two components, curvature, uk and sliding, us:

(16)

(10)

The tension in the wire is proportional to the strain in armour wire as a function of time dependent curvature

the wire: and temperature for a specific cross-section has been

established, all parameters required to calculate the

(11) dynamic bending moment are known.

wire, in the plane the cable is bent with the stress in

92

Fig. 3: Bending moment hysteresis loop.

the wire along the arc, creates a bending moment. By Figure 3 displays a clear hysteretic behaviour which is the

integrating that bending moment along the wire for result from the armour wires sliding in the viscoelastic

all wires in all armour layers and adding the bending bitumen but also an elastic component which comes

moment, EImin, from the other cable components, such from the strain in the armour wire and the elastic

as conductor, the total bending moment, the cable stiffness of the other cable components. The dynamic

experiences can be expressed as: bending stiffness can be expressed as a simplified linear

stiffness by performing a linear estimation between the

(17) maximum and minimum response which is the green

line in figure 3. For the cable used in this example the

dynamic bending stiffness, is EIDynamic is 2580 kNm2 which

ca be compared to the static bending stiffness, EIStatic that

3. Results is 10 kNm2. Bitumen will thus have a significant effect on

the dynamic bending stiffness of the cable and it differs

The dynamic bending moment is a function of how a factor of 258 between static and dynamic bending

curvature varies with time. For VIV the curvature stiffness for this case.

along the arc is a function of the dynamic mode shape

displacement that is expressed by: 3.2. Structural Damping

(18) damping coefficient is needed in order to take the

energy loss in each cycle into account in [1]. That can

be achieved by studying the hysteresis loop.

in phase, where the stress is a linear function of strain.

In a viscoelastic material the stress is also a function of

the strain change rate resulting in that stress and strain

The curvature can be approximated as equal to the are not in phase. For example, there can still be stress

second derivative of the displacement: in a viscoelastic material when the strain is zero and

vice versa; the stress can be zero even though there is a

strain in the material.

(19)

A viscoelastic material deviates from perfect elasticity

because a component of stress lags strain. The difference

3.1. Dynamic Bending Stiffness is called phase angle. The relationship between the

difference in phase angle between curvature and

By using (19) as input for the curvature in (17) the moment is the measure for damping in a viscoelastic

bending moment response as displayed in the figure material. In this case the cable is treated like a Maxwell

below is achieved for a typical amplitude response with material where curvature corresponds to strain and

a curvature of 0.001 and a typical double armoured bending moment is proportional to the stress.

cable in 7 degrees water:

93

Fig. 4: Bending moment hysteresis loop..

In the graph below the bending moment and curvature materials and the more complex behaviour with helical

are plotted as a function of time. The lag between moment wires coated in bitumen. With the expression in (17) a

and curvature is used to predict the viscoelastic damping, linear bending stiffness is calculated for a given mode

the phase angle has also been shown in the figure: shape and by determining the phase difference between

curvature and moment the critical damping ratio is

Figure 4 clearly shows that the proposed model predicts determined. Both parameters are required to determine

a viscoelastic behaviour of the cable since there is the amplitude response for a steel pipeline and the main

a phase lag between curvature and moment. In the differences between cables and pipes.

case of a cable; strain corresponds to cable curvature

and stress corresponds to cable bending moment. The The amplitude response in [1] depends on various

relationship between viscoelastic damping and other environmental parameters and a couple of parameters

forms of damping is described below according to [8]: from the cable. Two of the cable parameters are the Eigen

frequency and the damping ratio. The Eigen frequency,

n is proportional to the square root of the dynamic

(20) bending stiffness and is used to determine the reduced

velocity, VR which is given by the expression below:

critical damping for a given mode shade, amplitude (21)

response and frequency.

(22)

4. Analysis

The response amplitude for VIV is essential for

calculating stresses and fatigue loading. The amplitude

response is a result of the flow regime around the cable

and the structural damping. The bending stiffness of The reduced velocity is used in section 4.4.4 in [1] to

the cable governs when onset of VIV occurs and which calculate the amplitude of the vibrations, a reduced

vibration frequency that is induced. velocity below 2 means no risk for cross-flow VIV. The

amplitude is then adjusted with a reduction factor, Rk

VIV in power cables is not covered in any standard for damping that is expressed below:

such as [1]. The phenomena has been investigated in

[9] and a model for estimation of onset VIV is proposed

but it requires the dynamic bending stiffness and gives (23)

no method for calculation of the amplitude response.

In order to assess VIV for power cables could one

approach be to use [1] but then it needs to be adapted (24)

to the cable behaviour.

due to for example: the high specific gravity, the softer

94

Fig. 5: Damping ratio versus amplitude response. Fig. 6: Dynamic bending stiffness versus amplitude response.

By assuming a current dominated case for the first damping which reduces the amplitude response but

mode shape an amplitude response of is achieved. The a lower dynamic bending stiffness results in a higher

reduction factor can be calculated as a function of the reduced velocity, in this case the increase in damping

damping ration and the resulting amplitude response as a is dominating over the decrease in reduced velocity.

function of damping is displayed in Figure 5 below: Frequency dependency is something that characterize

viscoelastic behaviour and submarine cables.

Displayed in figure 5 is also the damping ratio as a

function of amplitude response for mode shape 1, 2 and 3 5. Discussion

calculated with the viscoelastic model accounting for the

damping induced by the bitumen layer. The cable used for Cables are in general known to be very resilient against

the calculation in figure 5 was a double armoured cable fatigue and few cases are known where VIV has been an

and a span length of 25 meters was assumed. A shorter issue. This might be due to the fact that submarine cables

span length has the same effect as a higher mode number are very flexible and easily adapts to the seabed compared

with larger curvature causing a higher damping ratio. The to pipelines. The high damping and viscoelastic behaviour

damping ratio of mode 2 is equivalent for a meter long of the dynamic bending stiffness also contributes to

free span. The thicker lines are the amplitude response as preventing the onset of vortex induced vibrations.

a function of damping for the first mode shape in red and

all other mode shapes in green. However, if free spans occurs there are at the moment

no best practice for assessing the risk for VIV and

The proposed model for the dynamic bending moment the resulting effects for submarine cables. This article

is used to investigate how the dynamic bending stiffness proposes a method to adapt the cables behaviour to

will vary with different mode shapes and amplitude a well-established standard for steel pipelines. The

responses. standard, [1] takes several environmental parameters into

consideration such as current statistics, current profile,

Figure 6 shows that the dynamic bending stiffness wave statistics, wave spectrum, directionality, turbulence,

decreases with increased response amplitude. For higher seabed profile, and soil data. This makes it applicable in

mode shapes the decrease in dynamic bending stiffness all kinds of conditions such as current dominated, wave

is more rapid than for lower. This has to be considered in dominated, both shallow and deep water, and for a wide

combination with the results in figure 5. The decrease in range of soil conditions.

dynamic bending stiffness will stop when the damping

curve between the amplitude response in [1] intersect Limited testing has been performed within the area but in

with the increased damping as a function of amplitude [9] a full scale test has been performed and the vibration

response for the cable, as displayed in figure 5. By amplitude was found to be 0,4 (A/D) for the first mode

comparing figure 5 and 6 it can be concluded how much shape, which indicates a very high damping level. The

the dynamic bending stiffness will decrease when the cable in the test was a double armoured mass impregnated

vibrations starts, and in this case it is no more than 5 %. cable with a lead sheath. The difference in static and

dynamic bending stiffness was also observed with a

Figure 7 shows that low frequencies has an insignificant static bending stiffness estimated to 5-15 kNm2 for single

impact on the dynamic bending stiffness; the change armoured cables and the dynamic bending stiffness in the

in dynamic bending stiffness is about 2 % between 0.5 range of 70-90 kNm2. That observation also indicates a

Hz and 2 Hz. Lower frequency results in an increased highly viscoelastic behaviour of the submarine cable.

95

Fig. 7: Frequency dependency for damping and dynamic bending stiffness

able to develop and discuss these models.

When predicting VIV for power cables the cables dynamic

bending stiffness and damping ratio shall be utilised either 7. References

with the full hysteresis loop for a given mode shape in a

purpose built software or with the methodology described [1] DNV Recommended Practice RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines,

in [1]. When using [1] the following approach can be 2006, Det Norske Veritas

utilised in order to take the cables viscoelastic behaviour [2] N. Sdahl, O. Steinkjer, E. Gjlmesli and K. Hansen-Zahl, 2011,

into account: Consistent VIV Fatigue Analysis Methodology of Umbilicals,

Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Ocean and

Calculate the dynamic bending stiffness for a small Arctic Engineering, OMAE2011-49459

curvature and low frequency and then multiply with 0.9 [3] G. Skeie, N. Sdahl and O. Steinkjer, 2012, Efficient Fatigue Analysis

in order to account for the 2% in frequency dependency of Helix Elements in Umbilicals and Flexible Risers: Theory and

and 5% in amplitude dependency. This approach is to be Applications Journal of Applied Mathematics, Vol. 2012, 246812

considered as conservative since a lower dynamic bending [4] L. Halvor, H. Braaten, T. Kristianssen and F.G. Nielsen, 2007,

stiffness creates a lower Eigen frequency and a higher Free-pan VIV Testing Of Full-Scale Umbilical, Proceedings of

reduced velocity. the Seventeenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering

The obtained reduced velocity is then used to calculate the Conference.

corresponding response amplitude without reduction for [5] J. Mullins, D. Morin, A. Tyrberg, C. Sonesson and J. Ekh, 2015,

damping. Bitumen shear mechanics in a dynamic subsea electrical cable,

The damping is later obtained in the intersection between Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Ocean and

the damping as a function of amplitude response for the Arctic Engineering, OMAE2015-41110

cable and the amplitude response as a function of the [6] M. Lutchansky, 1969, Axial stress in armour wires of bent submarine

damping ratio with the given reduced velocity according cables, Journal of Engineering Industry. 91(3) 687-693.

to reference [8]. This results in the damping ratio for [7] J.E. Guyer, D. Wheeler and J. A. Warren, 2009, Fipy: Partial

where the vibration is in equilibrium with the damping. Differential Equations with Python, Computing in Science &

An example of this is displayed in figure 5. Engineering. 11(3) 6-15

For calculation of the sagging term in reference [8] the static [8] R.D. Blevins, 1994, Flow Induced Vibrations, Krieger Publishing Co.,

bending stiffness shall be used in order to accommodate Florida, USA, 336-337

for the sagging over time. [9] G.E. Balog, K. Bjrlow-Larsen, A. Ericsson and B. Dellby, 2006,

Vortex Induced Vibration on Submarine Cables, Cigr Session 2006

By following this methodology the cables viscoelastic

behaviour is taken into account when both the vibration

amplitude and the vibration frequency is calculated. This 8. Biographies

drastically increase the Eigen frequency in the example given

it increases a factor of 16 which results that a 16 times higher Johan Hedlund was born on 16 April 1987 in Karlskrona

water current can be allowed for the same span length. Sweden. He graduated from the faculty of engineering at

Lund University with a master of science in 2012 and took

6. Acknowledgement up a position in engineering at ABB High Voltage Cables

after that.

The author would like to thank for all the support from

96

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