Anda di halaman 1dari 18

Rate of Cooling Down in Glycerin Solution

Background Knowledge

In Indonesia, during rainy season which occurs very often in my hometown, we often
drink hot beverages to warm ourselves. For me, it is very comfortable to drink a glass of hot
chocolate while watching television during rainy season. However, sometimes I focus on
watching the television too much and letting my hot chocolate to cool up before I could finish
drinking the whole glass. The hot chocolate has already become cold because of the heat loss
to the surrounding. This happens very often in my life. The cooling of this hot chocolate
really bothers me, since I cannot enjoy the hot chocolate I make by my own to its fullest. I
think that the amount of chocolate powders I use during making the hot chocolate, besides
increasing its sweetness, could also affect the cooling of my hot chocolate.

The final temperature the chocolate drink, or any beverage (beverage will later be
addressed as solution) has after a certain time is affected by its initial temperature of the
solution after heating. The composition of the solution itself or its concentration (in
percentage of mass/mass) might affect the cooling because it will cause a difference in the
thermal capacity. Therefore, an experiment will be conducted to investigate how thermal
capacity and initial temperature after heating could affect the cooling down of solution. Since
thermal capacity is affected by the mass of the system and its specific heat capacity, while I
am interested in finding the effect of the solution concentration, the total mass of the solution
in this investigation will be kept constant. In addition, the concentration of the solution will
be varied by using water to dilute the solution. In this investigation, the hot chocolate will be
replaced by glycerin because it can exist in liquid state (which is pure) in room temperature
and can also be diluted by water, unlike chocolate which is commonly found to be solid at
room temperature in Indonesia.

The cooling of a solution can be modelled using a differential equation which is also
an advantage for me, so that I can apply my knowledge in the syllabus Option Calculus of
Mathematics Higher Level to get a further investigation in Physics. According to the
Newtons Law of Cooling1, the rate of the decrease in temperature of a system is proportional
to the difference in the temperature of system and surrounding temperature :

= ( ) [1]

The rate is given negative sign because it is a cooling event where temperature is decreasing.
Using a separable differential equation:

= . [2]
( )

Integrating [2]:

( ) = . [3]

1
Ugrad.math.ubc.ca,. Newton's Law of Cooling. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from
http://www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/diffeqs/cool.html

1
ln( ) = + [4]

= [5]

At = 0, = and substituting it into [5] become:

= 0 [6]

= [7]

Later in this experiment, the time used will be 5 minutes or 300 seconds, so at = 300, =
and substituting it and [7] into [5] become:

= ( ) 300 [8]

= 300 + (1 300 ) [9]

The equation [9] is similar to the form of:

= + [10]

Therefore, a graph will be plotted with as y axis and as x axis. The gradient should
equal to 300 and the y axis intercept should equal to (1 300 ) or (1 ).

Inverse function of = 300 is:


ln
= 300 [11]

Therefore, the value of will be obtained using the formula equation in [11]. Furthermore,
the value of can also be calculated through the above equations. Inverse function of
= (1 ) is:

= 1 [12]

Therefore, the surrounding temperature will also be found using the formula equation in
[12] to justify whether experimental error occurred or not and to evaluate it.

Specific heat capacity of water is 4.18 J/goC2, while glycerin is 2.43 J/goC3.

Total thermal capacity of the glycerin solution () is calculated through the following
formula based on the mass () and specific heat capacity ():
() = + = +

For glycerin 20%, ( ) = 10 2.43 + 40 4.18 192 J/

2
Bbc.co.uk,. Specific heat capacity. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from
http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/heatingandcooling/buildingsrev3.shtml
3
Engineeringtoolbox.com,. Liquids and Fluids - Specific Heats. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/specific-heat-fluids-d_151.html

2
Research Question

What is the relationship between total thermal capacity and rate of temperature cooling down?

Hypothesis

There will be greater cooling (greater decrease in temperature) after heated from higher
temperature. Higher concentration of glycerin will cause higher cooling rate.

Variables

Independent:
o Concentration of glycerin solution (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%)
o Temperature of heated solution (40oC, 50oC, 60oC, 70oC, 80oC)
Dependent:
o Temperature of solution after cooling

Controlled:
Table 1. Controlled variables in this investigation
Controlled
How? Why?
Variables
Type of Always use glycerin To investigate heat loss in glycerin and allow fair
solution solution. test.
Total mass of Always use 50.00 g So thermal capacity is not affected from its mass,
solution of total solution. but from the composition of the solution.
Time of cooling Always expose to So time of cooling does not affect the decrease in
environment for 5 temperature.
minutes to cool down.
Environmental Always conduct the So the surrounding temperature can be kept
temperature experiment in a constant and fair for each trial since surrounding
laboratory with air temperature will affect the cooling rate of
conditioner of 25oC. solution.
Container of Always use beaker To allow same amount of heat absorbed by
solution 100 ml of brand solutions container since different container may
Iwaki Pyrex. have different thermal capacity. To allow same
thermal conductivity in each trial. To allow same
surface area of container for each trial.

Methodology

Table 2. Apparatus used in this investigation Table 3. Materials used in this investigation
No. Apparatuses Quantity No. Materials Quantity
1. Beaker 100 ml 48 1. Distilled water 1,200 g
2. Hotplate 1 2. Glycerin 100% 1,200 g
3. Digital balance (0.01 g) 1
4. Stirring rod 1
5. Drop pipette 2
o
6. Temperature sensor (0.01 C) 1
7. Clamp and stand 1

3
Safety Precaution and Disposal:

The temperature used for heating is considerably hot and could damage our tissue
upon contact. Glove is recommended to avoid any burn. The glycerin solution after
experiment can be discarded in the sink after rinsing it with water.

Procedure:

1. Turn on and set the laboratorys air conditioner at temperature 25oC while closing all
the doors and windows. Put all the materials and apparatuses in the laboratory to
allow the whole experiment to proceed in environmental temperature of 25oC.
2. The glycerin solution of different concentration was made by diluting glycerin 100%
with water using drop pipette to help taking the solution in a beaker 100 ml, with
combination of glycerin 100% and water shown in Table 4 using a digital balance:
Table 4. Dilution of glycerin by distilled water
Mass of Glycerin 100% Mass of Distilled Water
Concentration (%)
(g) 0.01 (g) 0.01
20 10.00 40.00
40 20.00 30.00
60 30.00 20.00
80 40.00 10.00
Glycerin 100% is already available, while glycerin 0% is 100% distilled water

o The concentration of glycerin solution in Table 4 is found through the following calculation:
. 100%
(%) = 100%
. 100% + .

o For example, the concentration 20% is obtained from:


10.00
(%) = 100% = 20.00%
10.00 + 40.00

o The uncertainty in the concentration is found through this formula:


. 100% . 100% + .
= ( + )
. 100% . 100% + .

o For example, the uncertainty in concentration 20% is:


0.01 0.01 + 0.01
= ( + ) 20% = 0.028%
10.00 10.00 + 40.00

o The uncertainty in each concentration is very small and therefore will be assumed to be negligible.

3. The solution was stirred using a stirring rod.


4. Temperature sensor was placed on a clamp and stand, and then soaked into the
solution to measure the temperature.
5. The solution was heated until slightly more than 80oC (about 85oC) using a hotplate.
6. The solution was removed from the hotplate and allowed to cool down at
environmental temperature of 25oC.

4
7. During cooling down, once the temperature reached 80oC at a certain time, the
temperature of the solution 5 minutes after that certain time was recorded. It was also
done for temperature 70oC, 60oC, 50oC and 40oC.
8. It was repeated until 8 trials, and then glycerin solution of another concentration was
used.

Raw Data

Observation: when the glycerin solution is heated, it is observed that they are becoming less
viscous.

Below is an example of the raw data for glycerin 0%.

Table 5. Example of raw data final temperature after cooling down for 5 minutes once initial
temperature is reached on glycerin 0%

Initial Temperature (oC) 0.01


Glycerin
Trial 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00
concentration (%)
o
Final Temperature ( C) 0.01
1 35.31 41.53 47.48 54.11 57.63
2 35.10 42.13 48.31 53.30 58.30
3 34.87 41.39 47.97 52.74 57.78
4 35.29 42.01 47.23 51.61 58.41
0
5 35.22 41.28 47.30 52.89 57.27
6 34.97 41.43 47.18 52.63 57.26
7 35.13 41.19 47.55 53.59 57.27
8 34.93 41.09 46.66 52.75 58.32
Note: The complete raw data will be shown in Appendix.

Data Processing

The data processing shown below will only show for glycerin 0% as the example of the
calculation.
Table 6. Average final temperature on glycerin 0%

Initial Temperature (oC) 0.01


Glycerin
concentration (%) 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00
o
Final Temperature ( C)
35.10 41.51 47.46 52.95 57.78
0%
(0.22) (0.52) (0.83) (1.25) (0.58)

The average final temperature is found through the following formula:

=1 For = 40,
() = 35.31+35.10+34.87+35.29+35.22+34.97+35.13+34.93
() = = 35.10
8

5
The uncertainty of average final temperature is found through the following formula:

For = 40, () =
() = 35.3134.87
2 = 0.22
2

The data of final temperature against initial temperature (Table 6) will be plotted in Graph 1.

The uncertainty of the initial temperature is very small and therefore will be assumed to be
negligible.

Graph 1. Final temperature against initial temperature after 5 minutes cooling down on glycerin 0%

Glycerin 0%
58
Glycerin 0% = 0.5680x + 12.88
R = 0.9971
53
Final Temperature (oC)

Glycerin 0%
48 Maximum Gradient
Max gradient = 0.5868x + 11.41
Minimum Gradient
R = 1
Linear (Glycerin 0%)
43
Min gradient = 0.5471x + 13.44
Linear (Maximum Gradient)
R = 1
Linear (Minimum Gradient)
38

33
37 47 57 67 77
Initial Temperature (oC)

The gradient of the graph is = 0.5680 and the y axis intercept is = 12.88.
The uncertainty of the gradient and y axis intercept is calculated through following formula:
1 1
() = | ( )| = | (0.5868 0.5471)| = 0.0199
2 2

1
() = | (. . )|
2
1
= | (13.44 11.41)| = 1.02
2

The rate of cooling and surrounding temperature is found through the following calculation:
ln ln 0.5680 12.88
= = = 0.001885s 1 = = = 29.81
300 300 1 1 0.5680

6
The uncertainty of the rate of cooling and surrounding temperature is found through the
following calculation:
1 ln ln 1 ln 0.5868 ln 0.5471
= | ( + )| = | ( + )| = 0.000117s1
2 300 300 2 300 300

1 . . 1 11.41 13.44
= | ( )| = | ( )| = 1.03
2 1 1 2 1 0.5868 1 0.5471

Table 7. Rate of cooling and surrounding temperature on several concentrations of glycerin solution
Glycerin Total Thermal Surrounding
Rate of Cooling (s-1)
Concentration (%) Capacity (J/oC) Temperature (oC)
0 209 0.001885 (0.000117) 29.81 (1.03)
20 192 0.001987 (0.000251) 29.15 (2.05)
40 174 0.001889 (0.000310) 27.17 (2.68)
60 157 0.001603 (0.000177) 28.24 (1.86)
80 139 0.001381 (0.000101) 26.77 (1.52)
100 122 0.001176 (0.000090) 26.91 (1.24)
Since the uncertainty in glycerin concentration is assumed to be negligible, the total thermal
capacity which results from a calculation similar to the glycerin concentration will also be
assumed to be negligible.
29.81+29.15+27.17+28.24+26.77+26.91
Average surrounding temperature = = 28.01
6
Actual surrounding temperature = 25
Difference = 28.01 25 3
There is a difference of 3 between the calculated average surrounding temperatures from
experimental data compared to the actual surrounding temperature.

A graph rate of cooling against total thermal capacity (from Table 7) will be plotted below.
Graph 2. The relationship between total thermal capacity and rate of cooling

0.0022

0.002
Rate of Cooling (s-1)

0.0018

0.0016
y = 0.00000925x + 0.00012185
0.0014 R = 0.86944

0.0012

0.001
115 135 155 175 195 215

Total Thermal Capacity (J/oC)

7
Graph 2 shows the linear relationship between total thermal capacity and rate of cooling.
However, the R2 value or the correlation coefficient it has is only 0.86944 which is quite far
from 1, indicating that linear relationship may not be valid. Furthermore, the line also did not
pass through the error bar for total thermal capacity 209 J/oC. Fortunately, I realized that for
the total thermal capacity 122, 139, 157, 174 and 192 J/oC, there seems to be a linear
relationship with high validity. Therefore, I will try to plot a new graph which excludes the
thermal capacity of 209 J/oC, which is glycerin 0% or distilled water only.

Graph 3. The relationship between total thermal capacity and rate of cooling in glycerin solution

0.0022
Rate of Cooling (s-1)

0.002
y = 0.00001216x - 0.00029968
R = 0.98298 Glycerin 20%-100%
0.0018
Maximum Gradient
0.0016
Minimum Gradient

0.0014 Linear (Glycerin 20%-


max gradient = 0.00001646x - 0.00092184 100%)
R = 1
0.0012
min gradient = 0.00000670x + 0.00044831
R = 1
0.001
115 135 155 175 195
Total Thermal Capacity (J/oC)

When the data of water is excluded, I find that the relationship between total thermal capacity
and rate of cooling is a linear one with R2 value or correlation coefficient is 0.98298 which is
almost 1, indicating the valid relationship. Furthermore, its maximum and minimum gradient
is respectively shown by green and black lines. The gradient of the line is 0.00001216 with
1 1
uncertainty = |2 ( )| = |2 (0.00001646 0.00000670)| =
0.00000488.

Discussion

The glycerin is observed to be less viscous after heating it to a higher temperature.


This is because higher temperature will provide greater kinetic energy for the molecules to
move, reducing the cohesive forces and increasing the rate of molecular interchange which
will lead to decreasing the shear stress of the solution or the fluid, which will cause the
viscosity to be reduced4.

4
How does Temperature Change Viscosity in Liquids and Gases?. (2013). Azom.com. Retrieved 16 March
2016, from http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=10036

8
During cooling down, the thermal energy from heated solution is transferred to the
environmental surrounding and to the container or the beaker. The heat transfer from solution
to the environmental air is through convection where the air received heat from solution, got
an increase in its temperature, got expanded in its volume while having constant mass,
therefore reducing its density. The air with lower density would rise or move up while also
having a heat transfer to the air with lower temperature. Furthermore, the convection also
occurred from the beaker since the beaker itself was also heated. In addition, there was also
heat transfer from the glycerin to the beaker through the collision between the molecules in
glycerin and in beaker, or conduction.

Based on Graph 1 and Graph 4 9 in Appendix, the value of R2 is very close to 1 and
the error bar of the uncertainty is very small, indicating high precision of the data high degree
of the validity of the positively linear relationship between final temperature against the
initial temperature . These indicate that the experimental result approves the Newtons Law
of Cooling in [1] that had been derived into [9]. This is also justified from greater
temperature decrease when greater initial temperature is used which corresponds to the
hypothesis. Greater temperature difference of solution and surrounding will give out greater
rate of cooling. This is because greater temperature difference or greater thermal gradient will
cause the solution to have greater tendency to give out the heat to the surrounding to allow
thermal equilibrium to be reached since the solution is far away from the thermal equilibrium.

Graph 3 showed that an increasing total thermal capacity (decreasing glycerin


concentration) caused higher cooling rate. The graph had high R2 value, 0.98298 which is
almost 1. This indicated that the linear relationship of rate of cooling and total thermal
capacity is a valid one with positive value of gradient, which is 0.00001216 (0.00000488).
The error bar shown in Graph 3 might look quite big, however it was because the graph did
not start at the origin to focus more on the plotted data of cooling rate against total thermal
capacity. The uncertainties of cooling rate were shown in Table 7 and were quite small,
indicating the data was quite precise and reliable to get a valid analysis and conclusion. The
experimental result that showed the linear relationship of rate of cooling and total thermal
capacity disproved another hypothesis, which was greater concentration of glycerin solution
will cause higher cooling rate. The hypothesis was made because glycerin has lower specific
heat capacity than water; therefore higher glycerin concentration will result in solution of
lower total thermal capacity. This result could be caused by several factors.

The difference in the density of water and glycerin could contribute to the positive
correlation of rate of cooling and the total thermal capacity. Glycerin has density5 1.26 g/cm3
where water has density 1.00 g/cm3 at temperature 25oC. Glycerin has higher density than
water. Since same mass of solution was used, the difference in density would cause a
difference in volume where higher concentration of glycerin had lower volume since density
and volume is inversely proportional when same mass is used. Furthermore, the base area of
the cylinder beaker container was assumed to be the same from one to another. Lower
volume would give lower height of solution when base area is the same. The lower height

5
Physics.info,. Density. Retrieved 15 December 2015, from http://physics.info/density/

9
would give out lower contact area with the beaker. Overall, greater concentration of glycerin
caused lower contact area between the solution and the beaker. Lower contact area would
give lower rate of heat transfer or lower rate of cooling down because the contact between the
system and surrounding was diminished. This could have explained the cause of lower
cooling rate when higher glycerin concentration (and lower total thermal capacity) was used.

Another cause of this result could come from the unexpected cooling effect which
resulted from water evaporation. The evaporation of water happened at the surface where
water molecules in liquid state absorbed the heat from the solution, breaking the
intermolecular force and changing its state into gaseous state. Since this process absorbed the
heat in solution, its temperature would get decreased, causing an increase in cooling rate.
Furthermore, evaporation of water also caused less water present in the system, therefore less
total thermal capacity owned by the system and equal amount of heat transfer would cause
greater decrease in the temperature and further increased the cooling rate. Having greater
glycerin concentration means lower water molecules, thus resulting in less water evaporation
and lower cooling rate. Glycerin molecules could also inhibit the evaporation of water by
blocking the evaporation path of water molecules. Having impurities such as glycerin will
also increase the boiling point of the water because glycerin molecules interfere with the
movement of water molecules by blocking them from leaving the solution. These cause lower
cooling rate when there are more glycerin molecules or greater glycerin concentration.

Furthermore, the result in Graph 3 could also be affected by the difference in the
thermal conductivity of water and glycerin6. Thermal conductivity is the rate at which heat
flows through a material. The thermal conductivity of water is 0.609 Wm-1 K-1 and glycerin is
0.285 Wm-1K-1. Water has higher thermal conductivity, meaning that water could transfer
heat faster than glycerin. Greater water content or lower concentration of glycerin will cause
the solution to have higher thermal conductivity, which will cause a higher cooling rate since
the heat transfer is greater.

However, the linear relationship of cooling rate and total thermal capacity was
considered valid only for glycerin solution 20% 100% and invalid when the data of water
was included. The line in Graph 2 also did not pass through the error bar of waters data
although 8 trials were conducted for water and the precision was quite high. This indicated
that water did not follow the trend and was a discrepancy. One possible factor capable of
causing this discrepancy is because of the high specific heat capacity of water which makes it
well known to be thermally stable7. The high specific heat capacity of water is caused by the
strong hydrogen bond between their molecules. This causes more heat needs to be absorbed
by environment to decrease same value of temperature compared to glycerin solution 20%
80%. This causes the cooling down process to take longer time and thus the rate of cooling is
lower compared to glycerin 20% and 40%. However, it is still higher than glycerin 60%
100% due to aforementioned factors (difference in density, evaporation of water and
difference in thermal conductivity).

6
Engineeringtoolbox.com,. Thermal Conductivities for Some Common Liquids. Retrieved 20 February 2016,
from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-liquids-d_1260.html
7
Allott, A. (2014). Biology for the IB Diploma (p. 69). Oxford University Press.

10
There is slight difference of 3oC between actual surrounding temperature (25oC) and
surrounding temperature obtained through the calculation in Table 7. The calculated
surrounding temperature is found to be ranging from 26.7729.81oC with the average is
28.01oC. The calculated surrounding temperature is definitely slightly higher than the actual
temperature. This could be caused by the aforementioned factors that increase the cooling
rate. By having greater cooling rate, the value of (1 ) in [12] becomes smaller thus
increasing the calculated surrounding temperature.

Conclusion

After doing this investigation, the research question What is the relationship
between the specific heat capacity and rate of temperature cooling down? can now be
answered and the hypothesis There will be greater cooling (greater decrease in temperature)
after heated from higher temperature. Higher concentration of glycerin will cause higher
cooling rate can also be evaluated. Based on the results plotted in Graph 3, increasing the
thermal capacity would increase the cooling rate in a linear relationship which rejects the
hypothesis. This could be explained by several factors. Those are the density of glycerin
which is higher than water, the evaporation of water molecules and the thermal conductivity of
glycerin which is lower than water. However, there was a discrepancy where the cooling rate
had decreased although thermal capacity was increased. This happened in glycerin 0% or
water. This could be caused by the high specific heat capacity of water which makes it
thermally stable.

Evaluation and Improvement

I feel proud to be able to conduct this investigation. I managed to derive a differential


equation formula to help in my data processing and the result was valid, meaning my process
of deriving the formula was correct. On the other hand, I manage to make the solution
required in this investigation on my own by diluting glycerin with water. Furthermore, I also
conducted 8 trials for each solution which gave me sufficient data and high precision was
also seen from the small error bar. I also used a temperature sensor (data logger) to monitor
the temperature which gave out an accurate control in variable time. In addition, I also
manage to compare the actual surrounding temperature and the calculated surrounding
temperature to evaluate the error in this investigation. The result proved the existence of
several possible experimental errors which will be shown in Table 8 with their improvement.

Table 8. Experimental errors and their improvements


Limitations Improvement
The glass beaker container has specific heat capacity Use a container where the specific heat
0.837 J/goC8 where its value is much lower than the capacity value is close to the specific
solution of any concentration, causing the thermal heat capacity of the solution, such as

8
Physics.tutorvista.com,. Specific Heat. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from
http://physics.tutorvista.com/heat/specific-heat.html

11
capacity to also have much lower value than the container from lithium where the
glycerin solution. The huge difference in the thermal specific heat capacity is 3.582 J/goC9.
capacity causes the cooling rate to be higher than its
actual value by absorbing the heat from the solution.
During cooling down, some water may evaporate from Water is replaced by other substances
the solution causing a cooling effect which enhances with a higher boiling point and lower
the decrease in temperature and increasing the value of volatility like oil.
the cooling rate .
During heating the solution, some water in slight Cover the beaker using aluminum foil
amount may have evaporated. The amount of water or other covers during heating to
evaporated may differ when different solution reduce water evaporation or use
concentration is used. The evaporation of water could another liquid with much higher boiling
cause the cooling rate to be higher than its actual point such as oil.
value, causing it to be an unfair comparison among
different concentrations.
Although same size and same brand of beaker container Use exactly the same beaker for every
is used, the surface area may slightly differ from one to trial and clean it once it has been used
another. Greater surface area will cause greater cooling for a trial to be used for next trial.
rate and vice versa, causing an unfair comparison and
decreasing the accuracy.
Glycerin has greater density than water. When used at Replace the usage of glycerin with
same mass, the volume of glycerin will be lower thus another solution with density value
decreasing the contact area with the beaker and approaching 1.00 g/cm3 which is the
lowering cooling rate as had been explained in the density of water. Acetone could be
Discussion. used as it has density10 0.79 g/cm3.
The temperature of the solution may not be uniformly Using magnetic bar to stir the solution
distributed and the recorded temperature could differ during heating and cooling down to
with the overall solution temperature. allow a more uniform heat distribution.
The method of measuring the temperature decrease Despite recording temperature after a
after a certain period of time could cause some random certain time period, an alternative of
experimental errors and another alternative could be recording time taken for the system to
tried. reach a certain temperature could be
done.

9
Engineeringtoolbox.com,. Specific Heat of Common Substances. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/specific-heat-capacity-d_391.html
10
Physics.info,. Density. Retrieved 15 December 2015, from http://physics.info/density/

12
References

Allott, A. (2014). Biology for the IB Diploma (p. 69). Oxford University Press.

Bbc.co.uk,. Specific heat capacity. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from


http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa/heatingandcooling/buildingsre
v3.shtml

Engineeringtoolbox.com,. Liquids and Fluids - Specific Heats. Retrieved 13 December 2015,


from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/specific-heat-fluids-d_151.html

Engineeringtoolbox.com,. Specific Heat of Common Substances. Retrieved 13 December


2015, from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/specific-heat-capacity-d_391.html

Engineeringtoolbox.com,. Thermal Conductivities for Some Common Liquids. Retrieved 20


February 2016, from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-
liquids-d_1260.html

How does Temperature Change Viscosity in Liquids and Gases?. (2013). Azom.com.
Retrieved 16 March 2016, from http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=10036

Physics.info,. Density. Retrieved 15 December 2015, from http://physics.info/density/

Physics.tutorvista.com,. Specific Heat. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from


http://physics.tutorvista.com/heat/specific-heat.html

Ugrad.math.ubc.ca,. Newton's Law of Cooling. Retrieved 13 December 2015, from


http://www.ugrad.math.ubc.ca/coursedoc/math100/notes/diffeqs/cool.html

13
Appendix

Here is the documentation of the experiment.

Image 1. Experiment set up to record temperature

Here is the complete raw data.


Table 9. Raw Data final temperature after 300 seconds of cooling down since initial
temperature is reached
Initial Temperature (oC) 0.01
Glycerin
Trial 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00
concentration (%)
Final Temperature (oC) 0.01
1 35.31 41.53 47.48 54.11 57.63
2 35.10 42.13 48.31 53.30 58.30
3 34.87 41.39 47.97 52.74 57.78
4 35.29 42.01 47.23 51.61 58.41
0
5 35.22 41.28 47.30 52.89 57.27
6 34.97 41.43 47.18 52.63 57.26
7 35.13 41.19 47.55 53.59 57.27
8 34.93 41.09 46.66 52.75 58.32
1 34.93 41.25 46.93 52.34 57.81
2 34.66 40.73 46.68 52.11 56.85
3 34.69 41.01 46.60 51.79 56.51
4 34.18 40.47 46.11 51.10 55.31
20
5 35.00 41.54 47.41 52.56 57.43
6 34.71 41.24 47.06 52.17 57.11
7 34.25 40.60 46.28 51.35 55.94
8 34.38 40.58 46.33 51.54 56.48

14
1 34.33 40.86 46.68 52.35 57.53
2 33.95 39.34 47.22 52.89 58.21
3 34.22 40.53 46.51 51.84 57.36
4 34.19 40.42 46.42 52.16 58.11
40
5 34.50 40.67 46.40 51.74 57.01
6 34.38 40.42 45.93 51.27 56.28
7 33.64 39.51 45.09 50.20 54.87
8 33.81 40.10 45.45 50.50 55.06
1 35.14 42.11 48.44 54.52 60.01
2 35.07 41.53 47.91 54.15 61.02
3 35.15 41.95 48.54 54.41 59.63
4 35.03 41.66 47.98 53.97 60.13
60
5 35.38 42.09 48.33 54.20 60.96
6 35.06 41.42 47.40 53.20 59.99
7 35.60 42.33 48.75 54.55 59.87
8 35.44 42.01 47.83 53.33 58.95
1 35.20 41.97 48.89 55.23 61.86
2 35.37 42.17 49.02 55.36 62.05
3 35.32 42.19 48.96 55.42 61.48
4 35.27 42.04 48.68 54.98 61.06
80
5 35.68 42.59 49.25 56.00 62.18
6 35.44 42.15 48.74 55.51 61.87
7 35.35 42.14 49.03 55.56 62.02
8 35.28 42.08 48.84 55.27 61.75
1 36.08 43.40 50.30 57.25 63.91
2 35.99 43.29 50.19 57.09 63.99
3 35.97 43.07 49.89 57.07 64.24
4 36.11 43.25 50.07 57.04 63.53
100
5 35.97 43.13 50.13 57.56 64.04
6 36.07 43.19 50.43 57.63 63.90
7 36.08 43.32 50.19 57.45 64.82
8 35.88 43.11 50.03 57.52 64.39

Here is the averaged previous data.

Table 10. Data Processing Average final temperature

Initial Temperature (oC) 0.01


Glycerin concentration (%) 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00
o
Final Temperature ( C)
35.10 41.51 47.46 52.95 57.78
0%
(0.22) (0.52) (0.83) (1.25) (0.58)
34.60 40.93 46.68 51.87 56.68
20%
(0.41) (0.54) (0.65) (0.73) (1.25)
34.13 40.23 46.21 51.62 56.80
40%
(0.43) (0.76) (1.07) (1.35) (1.67)
35.23 41.89 48.15 54.04 60.07
60%
(0.29) (0.46) (0.68) (0.68) (1.04)

15
35.36 42.17 48.93 55.42 61.78
80%
(0.24) (0.31) (0.29) (0.51) (0.56)
36.02 43.22 50.15 57.33 64.10
100%
(0.12) (0.17) (0.27) (0.30) (0.65)

Here is the graph to find the rate of cooling down in different concentration of glycerin.

Graph 4. Final temperature against initial temperature after 5 minutes cooling down on glycerin 0%

Glycerin 0%
58
Glycerin 0% = 0.5680x + 12.88
R = 0.9971
Final Temperature (oC)

53
Glycerin 0%

48 Maximum Gradient

Max gradient = 0.5868x + 11.41 Minimum Gradient


43 R = 1 Linear (Glycerin 0%)
Min gradient = 0.5471x + 13.44 Linear (Maximum Gradient)
38 R = 1
Linear (Minimum Gradient)

33
37 47 57 67 77
Initial Temperature (oC)

Graph 5. Final temperature against initial temperature after 5 minutes cooling down on glycerin 20%

Glycerin 20%
58

53
Final Temperature (oC)

Glycerin 20% = 0.551x + 13.089 Glycerin 20%


R = 0.997
48 Maximum Gradient
Minimum Gradient
43 Linear (Glycerin 20%)
Max gradient = 0.5935x + 10.45
Linear (Maximum Gradient)
R = 1
38 Linear (Minimum Gradient)
Min gradient = 0.5105x + 14.59
R = 1
33
37 47 57 67 77
Initial Temperature (oC)

16
Graph 6. Final temperature against initial temperature after 5 minutes cooling down on glycerin 40%

Glycerin 40%

58
Glycerin 40% = 0.5674x + 11.755
R = 0.9987
Final Temperature (oC)

53
Glycerin 40%
Maximum Gradient
48
Minimum Gradient

43 Linear (Glycerin 40%)


Max gradient = 0.6194x + 8.9213 Linear (Maximum Gradient)
R = 1
38 Linear (Minimum Gradient)
Min gradient = 0.5144x + 13.981
R = 1
33
37 47 57 67 77
Initial Temperature (oC)

Graph 7. Final temperature against initial temperature after 5 minutes cooling down on glycerin 60%

Glycerin 60%

63

58
Final Temperature (oC)

Glycerin 60%= 0.6183x + 10.78


R = 0.9994 Glycerin 60%
53
Maximum Gradient

48 Minimum Gradient
Max gradient= 0.6539x + 8.7925
Linear (Glycerin 60%)
R = 1
43
Linear (Maximum Gradient)

38 Linear (Minimum Gradient)


Min gradient = 0.5879x + 12.003
R = 1
33
37 47 57 67 77
Initial Temperature (oC)

17
Graph 8. Final temperature against initial temperature after 5 minutes cooling down on glycerin 80%

Glycerin 80%
63

58
Final Temperature (oC)

Glycerin 80% = 0.6609x + 9.0773


R = 0.9998 Glycerin 80%
53
Maximum Gradient
48 Minimum Gradient
Linear (Glycerin 80%)
43
Linear (Maximum Gradient)
38 Linear (Minimum Gradient)
Min gradient = 0.6405x + 9.9838
R = 1
33
37 47 57 67 77
Initial Temperature (oC)

Graph 9. Final temperature against initial temperature after 5 minutes cooling down on glycerin 100%

Glycerin 100%
68

63
Glycerin 100% = 0.7027x + 8
R = 0.9999
Final Temperature (oC)

58
Glycerin 100%
53 Maximum Gradient
Max gradient= 0.7211x + 7.06
48 R = 1 Minimum Gradient
Linear (Glycerin 100%)
43
Min gradient = 0.6831x + 8.81 Linear (Maximum Gradient)
38 R = 1 Linear (Minimum Gradient)

33
37 47 57 67 77
Initial Temperature (oC)

18