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Article VI Legislative Department

2. Legislative Power Legislative power is essentially the authority of the government to

enact laws, repeal, or amend them as well. Legislative power in the Philippines is
vested in the Congress, which consists of bicameral structure, namely: the Senate and
the House of Representative

3. Meaning of law The term laws, as used previously, refers to the statutes which are
the written enactments of the legislature governing the relations of the people among
themselves or between them and the government and its agencies.

4. Functions of laws Through laws, the legislative defines the rights and duties of
citizens, imposes taxes, appropriates funds, defines crimes and provides for their
punishment, creates and abolishes government offices, determines their jurisdiction and
functions, and in general, regulates human conduct and the use of property for the
promotion of the common good.

5. Under the 1987 Constitution, the power to make, propose or amend laws is also
extended to the people, in whom sovereignty resides, through the mechanisms of
initiative and referendum. By Initiative, we mean that the authority is reserved to the
people through direct participation of the electorate in law-making processes, either
national or local level. By Referendum, it means the process in which the people are
referred directly on any question of law passed by Congress or a local legislative body
for their approval or rejection.

6. Scope and Classification of the Powers of Congress

7. 1.General Legislative Power A general legislative power of Congress is usually

undefined by the Constitution. This power refers to the overall authority to enact laws for
the people and the State, unless the Constitution itself limits the subject matter on which
it may legislate.

8. 2. Specific Powers They are powers which the Constitution expressly directs or
authorizes Congress to exercise. Among the specific powers of Congress as mandated
by the Constitution are: a.Power to declare the existence of the state of war. (Art. VI,
Section 23 {1}); b.Power to delegate emergency powers to the President. (Art VI, Sec.
23 {2}); c.Power to Appropriation (Art. VI, Sec 24-25); d.Power to Taxation (Art. VI, Sec
28 {1-2});

9. e. Power to concur in treaties through the Senate and the House of Representatives
(Art. VII, Sec 21); f. Power to concur the grant of Amnesty (Art. VII, Sec. 19); and g.
Power to act as Board of Canvassers for Presidential and Vice-Presidential elections
(Art VI, Sec. 4)
10. 3. Implied Powers From the meaning itself, implied powers are those authority
enjoyed by the legislature to effectively exercise its constitutionally granted powers, like
the power to conduct investigation in aid of legislation (Sec 21), or to determine the
rules of its proceedings (Sec. 16 {3})

11. 4. Generally Non-Delegable Powers These are powers that are essentially inherent
in the Congress, which need no legislation or constitutional grant to that effect. These
fundamental powers of the State are taxation, eminent domain, and police power.

12. Composition of Congress

13. The Senate (1) Composition and election It is composed of 24 Senators. They are
elected at large (nationwide) by the qualified voters, as may be provided by law (Sec.
2). Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election of Senators shall be held on
the second Monday of May (Sec. 8)

14. (2) Term of office It is six (6) years. It shall commence, unless otherwise provided by
law, at noon on the 30th day of June next following election (Sec. 4, par. 1). The
Constitution has a similar provision with respect to the President and Vice-President
except that the hour and date of commencement of their term of office cannot be
changed by law.

15. (3) Qualifications A Senator must be: (a) a natural-born citizen of the Philippines; (b)
at least 35 years of age on the day of the election (i.e., day of the balloting); (c) able to
read and write; (d) a registered voter; and (e) a resident of the Philippines for not less
two (2) years immediately preceding the day of the election (Sec. 3)

16. (4) Maximum of terms In line with the state policy on equal access to opportunities
for public service and against political dynasties (Art II, Sec. 6), a Senator is disqualified
to serve for more than two (2) consecutive terms (Sec.4, par. 2)

17. The House of Representatives

18. (1)Composition and election/selection It is composed of not more than 250

members popularly known as Congressmen. They are elected from legislative or
congressional districts and through a party-list system. The party-list representatives are
filled by selection or election from the labor, peasant, etc. and other sectors as may be
provided by law, except religious sector (Sec. 5[1]). Unless otherwise provided by law,
the regular election of the members of the House of Representatives shall be held on
the second Monday of May (Sec. 8).

19. (2) Terms of office It is three (3) years, to begin also, unless otherwise provided by
the law, at noon on the 30th day next following election (Sec. 7, par. 1). (3)
Qualifications A representative must be: (a) a natural-born citizen of the Philippines; (b)
at least 25 years of age on the day of the election (c) able to read and write; (d) except
for a party-list representative, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be
elected; and (e) a resident thereof for a period of not less than one (1) year preceding
the day of the election (Sec. 6)

20. (4) Maximum terms The provisions are the same as those for Senators except that
the limit is for not more than three (3) consecutive terms (Sec. 7, par. 2)

21. Term of Office and Tenure of Office A term of office refers to the fixed period of
service when an elected official may validly keep his post. The term of office is usually
specified by the law. A tenure of office, on the other hand, refers to the actual period of
service when an elected official holds the office. Say, a congressman has resigned
halfway his term, this is not considered as an interruption, but the service is still
regarded his full term or his actual tenure. Thus, tenure is the actual incumbency.

22. Party List System The purpose of party list system is to bring the government closer
to people and assure that the democracy really works in our society. Party list
representative system is a device of balancing the representation in the election of the
members to the House of Representatives from marginalized or under represented
national, regional, and sectoral parties or organizations duly recognized by the

23. Only organized and duly registered parties with the COMELEC may participate
instead of individual candidates. These are: a. Sectoral Parties These refer to organized
groups of citizens whose principal advocacy concerns and special interests are in these
sectors, namely: labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous communities, veterans, and
elderly. b. Sectoral Organizations These organizations are groups of qualified voters
bound together by similar physical attributes or characteristics or by employment,
interests, or concerns.

24. c. Political Parties These are organized groups of qualified voters pursuing the same
ideology, political ideas, and principles for general conduct of the government. d.
Coalitions Coalitions refer to aggregations of duly registered national, regional, sectoral
parties, or organizations for political and/or electoral purposes.

25. Qualifications of a Party List Nominee 1. A natural-born citizen of the Philippines; 2.

A registered voter; 3. A resident of the Philippines for a period of not less than one (1)
year immediately preceding the election day; 4. Able to read and write; 5. A bona fide
member of the party he seeks to represent for at least ninety (90) days preceding the
election day; 6. A nominee shall come from a disadvantage group of citizens which are
organized and duly registered to the COMELEC; and 7. At least twenty-five (25) years
of age on the Election Day.
26. In case of the youth sector, a nominee must be at least 25, but not 30 years of age
on the date of election. Party list representatives are considered elected members of the
lower chamber, and as such, enjoy the same rights, salaries, and emoluments as
regular members of the House. They shall serve for three (3) year term with the
maximum of three (3) consecutive or successive terms.

27. Vacancy in Congress RA 6645 provides for An Act Prescribing the Manner of Filling
A Vacancy in the Congress of the Philippines, signed into a law by then President
Aquino on December 1987. In case of vacancy arising in the Senate at least 18 months
or in the House of Representatives at least one year before the next regular election for
members of Congress, the COMELEC upon receipt of certification of vacancy, shall call
for special election. The Senator or Member of the House of Representatives thus
elected shall serve only for the unexpired term. The election shall not be earlier than 45
days nor later than 90 days from the date of such resolution.

28. Termination of Members of Congress 1. Voluntary renunciation of the office (Art. VI,
Sec. 7 [21]); 2. Forfeiture of seat of a member in Congress during incumbency, in case
when he or she keeps another office or employment in the government or any
subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or
controlled corporation or subsidiaries (Sec. 13); 3. A penalty of suspension may serve a
member of the Congress for disciplinary action as determined by each Houses rules
proceeding (Sec. 16{3}). Congress can punish any of its members for disorderly

29. 4. An Electoral Tribunal, through a resolution, may disqualify a member of Congress

in election contest (Sec. 17); 5. By means of resignation, death, incapacity, or conviction
which carries a penalty of disqualification to hold office.

30. Compensation of Members of Congress The salaries of the members of both

Houses are fixed by law; it may be increased, but the effectivity of such shall only be
given to the members after the full term of their respective offices has elapsed.
However, no decrease of salary of members can be allowed, as they are entitled to the
right to salary. Art. XVIII, Sec. 17 reads, The President of the Senate and the Speaker
of the House shall receive an annual salary of P 240,000, and the Senators and the
members of the House of Representatives shall receive P204,000 each per year

31. Rights and Privileges of Members of Congress The Constitutional rights and
privileges of members of Congress shall include the following: 1. Right to salary; 2.
Freedom of speech and debate without question; 3. Freedom from arrest while the
Congress is in session, except when the offense of which a member is charged is
punishable by more than six years imprisonment; and 4. Parliamentary immunity. The
aim of this privilege is to facilitate that members of Congress can Effectively discharge
their functions without previous restraints.

32. Power of Congress

33. 1.Over and above, the power to make laws and to pass resolutions; 2.To approve
appointments made by the President through Commission of Appointments; 3.To decide
cases of electoral protest involving its members through an Electoral Tribunal; 4.To
declare the existence of a state of war by 2/3 votes of both Houses, voting
independently; 5.To ratify treaties upon 2/3 votes of all members of Congress, voting

34. 6. To grant the President emergency powers in times of war and national distress; 7.
To provide for the rules of presidential succession should the speaker of the House fails
to qualify; 8. To concur to a grant of amnesty by the President; 9. To exercise the power
to override the veto power of the President; 10. To hear and decide cases of
impeachment against high officials; 11. To exercise the power to amend or revise the
Constitution; 12. To prescribe, define, and apportion the jurisdiction of lower courts;

35. 13. To determine or apportion seats of Legislative districts; 14. The power to tax and
levy impositions; 15. To determine the disability of the President and the Vice-President;
16. To break a knot ion case when there is a tie for the position of President of the
Republic; 17. To cancel or extend Martial Law; 18. To investigate in aid of legislation; 19.
To approve the annual budget of the government as prepared by the Executive; 20. To
determine the rules of proceedings and more.

36. Parliamentary Immunities Art. VI, Sec. 2 provides two immunities, which a member
of Congress may enjoy in the exercise of his task (while the Congress is in session).
These are: 1.A Senator or a member of the House of Representatives shall be
privileged from arrest while the Congress is in session; and 2.No member shall be
questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the
Congress or in any committee thereof.

37. The privileges are personal ones and may be waived. There are, however,
exemptions from parliamentary immunities: a.Given gravity and seriousness of the
offense committed, any members of the Congress cannot invoke immunity from arrest,
when the penalty of the charge leveled against him carries the penalty of more than six
(6) years imprisonment; and b.When a member is not acting as a member of Congress,
but on his personal capacity.

38. Disabilities of Members of Congress While the members of the legislative may be
enjoy some constitutional and statutory grants or privileges, they are likewise
constrained by some technical disqualifications. As provided under Art. VI, Sec.14, the
prohibitions are: 1. No Senator or member of the House of Representatives may
personally appear as counsel before any court of justice or before the electoral
tribunals, or quasi-judicial and administrative bodies. 2. Any member shall not, either
directly or indirectly, show financial interests in any contract with the government or any
of its agency or instrumentality thereof, including GOCCs, during his incumbency. This
includes government franchise.

39. 3. Any member shall not intervene in any matter before any office of the government
for his own benefit.

40. Incompatible and Forbidden Office By Incompatible office, we mean that no member
of the Congress may hold any other office in the government or its subdivisions, agency,
or any instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporation,
during his incumbency. A member of Legislative cannot be appointed as a department
secretary or a director of any government positions while holding his position at the
same time, not unless he resigns.

41. By Forbidden office, we mean that no member of the Congress can be appointed to
any office created or the emoluments of which have been increased during the term for
which he was elected. Under art. IX-B, Sec. 8 no elective officer or employee shall
receive additional, double, or indirect compensation unless specifically authorized by
law, nor accept without the consent of the Congress any present emolument, office or
title of any kind from foreign government.

42. Sessions of Congress Art. VI, Sec. 15 reads: The Congress shall convene once
every year on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless a different date is
fixed by law, and shall continue to be in session for such number of days as it may
determine until 30 days before the opening of its next regular session, exclusive of
Saturdays, Sundays and legal holidays. The President may call a special session at any

43. 1.Regular Session The Congress shall meet or convene once in every year
beginning on the fourth Monday of July for its regular session, unless law fixes a
different date. Once the Congress has convened, the session continues for such
duration until thirty (30) days before the opening of the next regular session, exclusive
of Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays.

44. 2. Special Session The Congress may be called upon by the President anytime to
consider some urgent and national concern. Some peculiar characteristics include:
a.Special session has no definite or fixed date. It may be called anytime; b.Special
session considers only one subject matter/agendum when Congress is convened for the
purpose; c.Special session may also be called or convened by the Congress; and
d.Special session normally is brief and attends only to the agenda being called for.
45. 3. Executive Session In some rare cases, the Congress or the President may call for
a secret or close door session when matters concerning national interest are to be

46. Quorum and Business Quorum is the required number of members of each House
to be present in order to legally transact a business. Each House shall determine its
own quorum. The Constitution requires that the majority of each Houses may adjourn
from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner,
and other such penalties as each House may provide. Both Houses shall elect their
political leaders at the pleasure of their members. The Senate shall determine its
speaker by majority votes of all its respective members.

47. Disciplinary Behavior Under the Constitution, each House of Congress may
determine acts constituting disorderly behavior, and whether a Member should be
suspended or expelled. Each House is authorized under its Rules to punish its member
for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of two-thirds vote of all kits members,
suspend or expel an erring legislator. The Constitution, however, limits the suspension
to sixty days.

48. Internal Discipline Internal Discipline is an inherent legislative power. The Court
once said: If the power did not exist, it would be utterly impractible to transact the
business of the nation, either at all, or at least with decency, deliberation, and order. The
humblest assembly of men to understood to posses this power, and would absurd to
deprive the councils of the nations of a like authority.

49. Journal and Enrolled Bill A journal is an official report of the legislative. It is written
business, which arises from all the legislative proceedings. Art. VI, Sec. 16 (4) each
House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same,
expecting such parts as may in its judgment, affect national security, and the years and
nays on any question shall, at the request of one-fifth of the member present be entered
in the journal. Each house shall also keep a record of its proceedings.

50. An enrolled bill refers to a bill which has been duly introduced, finally enacted by
both House, signed by the proper officers of each House, and approved by the
President. An enrolled copy bill is conclusive not only of its provisions, but also of its due
enactment. In case of conflict between the journal and an enrolled bill, the latter prevails
over the former, save as to matter required by the Constitution to be enacted in the

51. Adjournment Art. VI, Sec. 16 (5) adds, neither the House during the session of the
Congress shall without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three (3) days,
nor to any other place than in which the two Houses shall be sitting.
52. The Organization of Electoral Tribunal Each House shall have and Electoral
Tribunal, in which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns,
and qualifications of their respective members. The characteristics and composition are:

53. 1. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine members, three whom shall be
justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice, and the remaining
six shall be members of the Senate or the House of Representatives, as the case may

54. 2. Membership shall be chosen on the basis of the proportional representation from
the political parties, and the parties or organizations registered under the party list
system represented therein; 3. The Senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its
Chairman (Sec. 17); 4. Members enjoy security of tenure. It is co-terminus with their
legislative term of service;

55. 5. The decision arrived at by the Electoral Tribunal shall be final. It may be appealed
though to the Supreme Court on the cases or instances of certiorari, grave abuse of
discretion; 6. The Electoral Tribunal shall have jurisdiction over election contests by the
members of the Senate and the House of Representatives as the case may be. Pre-
proclamation concerns or issues are, however, the jurisdiction under COMELEC.

56. Organization of the Commission on Appointments The Congressional and

Commission of Appointments (CA) shall approve all appointments made by the Chief
Executive to various government positions. All appointments by the President can only
be pursued upon the consent of the Commission on Appointments. The characteristics
of the Commission are as follow:

57. 1. The Commission shall consist of the President of the Senate, as ex-officio
chairman, 12 Senators, and 12 members of the House of Representatives, elected by
each House on the basis of proportional representation; 2. The Chairman of the
Commission shall not vote, except in case of tie;

58. 3. The Commission shall act on all appointments submitted to it within 30 sessions
days of Congress from their submission; and 4. The Commission shall rule by a majority
vote of all members (Sec. 18)

59. Inquiries in aid of Legislation The Senate or the House of Representatives or any of
its respective Committee, may conduct inquiries in aid of legislation in accordance with
its duly published rules of procedure. The right of person appearing in or affected by
such inquiries shall be respected (Sec. 21). The Senate Blue Ribbon committee is an
example. The power of inquiry and investigation exists not only to enable Congress to
discharge effectively its primarily legislative and law-making functions.
60. Limitations of the Investigative Power of Congress: 1. Inquiry shall be conducted
only in aid of legislation; 2. The Constitutional right against self-incrimination to the
person being investigated shall not be violated; 3. The right to counsel shall be
respected to the persons being investigated in Congress; 4. Each House conducting the
inquiry shall publish the rules of procedure governing the investigation and shall be
made known to the person concerned; and 5. Such congressional inquiry shall not
serve a members personal aggrandizement.

61. Question Hour The question hour is a parliamentary feature adopted under our
presidential system. The power of Congress to call any head of a department, as its
House Rules shall provide, to appear before and be heard by the requesting.

62. Declaration of Existence of the State of War Section 23 writes: The Congress by a
vote of two thirds of both Houses in joint session assembled voting separately, shall
have the sole power to declare the existence of a state of war. In times of war or other
national emergency, the Congress may, by the law, authorize the President, on a limited
period and subject to such restrictions as it may prescribe, to exercise powers
necessary and proper to carry out a declared national policy. Unless sooner withdrawn,
by resolution of Congress, such powers shall cease upon the next adjournment thereof

63. Appropriation Powers The Administrative Code of 1987 defined appropriation as an

organized made by law or other legislative enactment, directing payment out of
government funds under specified conditions and/or for special programs. Thus, an
appropriation bill aims to authorize the release of public funds from treasury.

64. The following bills shall originate exclusively in the House of Representatives, but
the Senate may propose or concur with amendments: 1.Appropriation bills 2.Revenue
or tariff bills 3.Bills authorizing increase of public debt 4.Bill of local application 5.Private

65. A General Appropriation is an annual budget, which the Congress set aside to
appropriate the expenses for the general operation of the government. A Special
Appropriation is a supplemental appropriation not contained in the budget. A Specific
Appropriation is an appropriation sets aside a fixed amount of money for the payment of
a certain program. A Continuing Appropriation refers to the named amount of money
which, when not appropriated at the end of the fiscal year, shall automatically be
accrued for the next calendar year.

66. Other Kinds of Appropriation 1. Tariff bill - is one that imposes revenues or customs
duties for specific purposes. But, a bill imposing high tariff rates in particular foreign
goods with the purpose to protect local goods on industries against competition is not a
revenue bill. 2. Bill authorizing income of the public debt - essentially, a bill, which
facilitates the government to issue bonds and other forms of indebtedness, which will be
chargeable from future public funds. 3. Bill of local application - a bill that directly allots
to local or municipal appropriation.

67. 4. Private bill - a bill that affects purely private interests, like indemnification to a
person who suffered damages from the negligence of the government or its agency or
instrumentality or any part thereof.

68. General Rules of Appropriation (See Art. VI, Sec. 25) 1. The Congress may not
increase the appropriations recommended by the President for the operation of the
government as specified in the budget; 2. No provision or enactment shall be embraced
in the general appropriation bill, unless it relates specifically to some parts/particular of
the appropriation therein; 3. The procedures in approving appropriations for the
Congress shall strictly follow the procedure for approving appropriations for other
departments and agencies;

69. 4. A special appropriation bill shall specify the purpose for which it is intended, and
shall be supported by funds actually available; 5. No law shall be passed authorizing
any transfer of appropriation, except otherwise provided by law (Sec. 25{5}) 6.
Discretionary funds appropriated for particular offices or officers shall be disbursed only
for public use; and 7. if, at the end of any fiscal year, the Congress shall have failed to
pass the general appropriations bill for the ensuring fiscal year, the general
appropriation laws for the preceding fiscal year shall be deemed re-enacted.

70. Budget -refers to the financial statement or record of the central government for an
incoming fiscal year, including the statements of the projected receipts from revenue
collections and expenditures for the year. Rider -is prohibited under the Constitution. A
rider is a loose provision or enactment being inserted in the general appropriations bill,
which does not form integral part of certain appropriation contained therein.

71. Passage of a Bill

72. A bill is essentially a proposed law by the legislative department. Each house may
propose a bill, when the House of Representatives proposes one, it shall be called a
House Bill, and when the Senate initiates a proposal, it shall be called a Senate Bill.

73. The Hodge-podged legislation refers to any proposed measure consisting of general
or more unrelated subjects, but are integrated in the proposal in order to guarantee
support from members of the Congress. The avoidance of logrolling legislation is to
ensure enough consideration and support from the members in regard to the passage
of a bill into law.

74. The passage of a bill into law follows strictly the procedures: 1.First Reading
2.Second Reading 3.Floor Debates 4.Printing and Distributions 5.Third Reading
6.Transmitted to the Other House 7.Submission to Joint Bicameral Committee
8.Approval of Consolidated Bill by Both Houses 9.Submission to the President 10.Veto
Power of the President

75. 10. Veto Power of the President Particularly: a.Every bill must be presented and
approved by the President; b.In case, the President disapproves a bill, he exercises
veto power and returns it, with his objection, to the House where it originated; c.In case
the House, after such deliberation, considered the bill as proposed, a 2/3 vote may carry
its power to override the veto.

76. Component Parts of a Law 1.Title refers to the subject matter of the law, or the Act
carried by the legislative department, and the executive as well. 2.Preamble
introduces the objectives for the enactment of the Act and explains the general reasons
for such legislation. 3.Enacting Clause refers to the collective and distinct will of both
Houses to enact an act or a bill. Enacting clause specifically states the reason for the
legislation Act. 4.Body pertains to the total substance or content of the proposed bill.

77. 5. Effectively Clause indicates the time at which the law shall take effect. Usually,
a law will be enforced next following the next 15-day publication requirement in a
newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines or in the Official Gazette, not unless
a date is fixed as to its effectivity.

78. Taxation is a means of raising funds for the operation of the government, especially
its public services. The distribution of the tax burden should be equitable or fair. This
means a person has to pay taxes based on his ability to pay. Taxes should serve as
tools in facilitating economic stability and growth.

79. Basis of Taxation Under the Constitution, the rule of taxation (See Sec. 28) shall
include the following: 1.The rule shall be uniform and equitable; 2.The taxation should
be based on progressive income system; 3.The Congress may authorize the President
to fix tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other
duties and imports, subject to the limitation of the Congress; and

80. 4. Charitable institutions, churches and parsonages or convents appurtenant

thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries and all lands, buildings, and improvements
actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes
shall be exempt from taxation.

81. Who are exempted from paying taxes? Charitable institutions, churches and
parsonages, or convents appurtenant thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries, and all
other facilities used for religious and educational purposes.
82. Limitations of the Power of Congress 1.Under Art. III based on the Bill of Rights:
a.That the Congress cannot pass laws impairing the obligations of contrast (Sec. 10)
b.That no law shall impair the freedom of speech, of press, and of expression (Sec. 10)
c.That no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the
free exercise thereof (Sec. 5) d.No person shall be held liable to answer for a criminal
offense without due process of law (Sec. 14)

83. e. No person shall be imprisoned for debts or non-payment of a poll tax (Sec. 20);
and f. No ex-post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted (Sec. 22)

84. 2. Under Art. VI, Sec. 29 a. Money shall be paid out the treasury, except in the
punishment of an appropriation made by law; and b. No public money or property shall
be appropriated, applied or paid, or employed, directly or indirectly, for the use, benefit,
or support of any sect, church, denomination, sectarian institution, or system of religion,
or any priest, preacher, minister or other preacher, minister or dignitary assigned to the
armed forces, or to any penal institution, or government orphanage or leprosarium.

85. 3. Art. VI, Sec. 30 states: no law shall be passed increasing the appellate
jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as provided in this Constitution without its advice and
concurrence. 4. Art. VI, Sec. 31 declares: no law granting a royalty or nobility shall be
enacted. 5. The Congress cannot pass law granting tax exemption in the absence of
the concurrence of the majority of all members of the House.

86. Legislative Power of the People The legislative department is no longer the sole
body or institution, which enact laws and pass resolutions. Under the 1987 Constitution,
the people have the power to participate directly in legislating laws through initiative and

87. Art. VI, Sec. 32 declares: The Congress shall, as early as possible, provides for a
system of initiative and referendum, and exemption therefrom, whereby the people can
directly propose and enact laws or approve or reject any act or part thereof passed by
the Congress or local legislative body after the registration of a petition thereof signed
by at least ten per centum of the total number of registered voters, of which every
legislative district must be represented by at least 3 per centum of the registered voters