Anda di halaman 1dari 37

Mineral Processing

SYMPOSIUM: 02 MINERAL PROCESSING

COD AUTHOR TITLE ABSTRACT


MP01 Lorenzo Reyes USE OF BIOSOLIDS AND ITS MAIN COMPONENTS AS
FROTH FLOTATION REAGENTS FOR THE CONCENTRATION
OFF COPPER SULPHIDE ORE
MP02 Winston Rocher THE EVOLUTION OF MILL RELINING TECHNOLOGY
MP03 Luis Vinnett GAS DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL
FLOTATION EQUIPMENT
MP04 Carlos Rabanal EMPIRICAL CORRELATION FOR ESTIMATING GRINDING
MEDIA CONSUMPTION
MP05 Ursula Kelm CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER CLAYS AND
GEOMETALLURGICAL IMPLICATIONS
MP07 R. Fuentes PROGRESS MADE IN PILOT AND LABORATORY
THICKENING STUDY
MP08 N. Rojas EFFECT OF FINES CONTENT ON YIELD STRESS OF COPPER
TAILINGS
MP09 Shigeto Kuroiwa STUDY ON SEPARATION OF ARSENIC FROM COPPER
CONCENTRATE
MP11 Sergio Arellano TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE REPLACEMENT OF
CONVENTIONAL FLOTATION CELLS BY FLOTATION
CELLS PNEUMATIC IN THE BENEFIT OF COPPER ORES
MP13 T. Wisdom NEXT GENERATION PRESSURE FILTERS FOR HARD ROCK
TAILINGS
MP16 Francisco Abbott SEAWATER USE IN ANTOFAGASTA MINING GROUP
MP17 D. Garcia ANTAPACCAY - TINTAYA EXPANSION
MP18 E.Visariev GRINDING CYCLE OPTIMIZATION FOR PROCESSING OF
COPPER SLAG AT AURUBIS BULGARIA
MP19 V. Murariu IMPROVED DEM MODEL FOR PREDICTING CONE
CRUSHERS' PERFORMANCE
MP22 S. Castro THE EFFECT OF FLOCCULANTS AND THEIR
DEGRADATION PRODUCTS ON MOLYBDENITE
FLOTATION
MP24 Fernando Pino ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BROWNFIELD
PROJECTS
MP26 C.O. Gomez FROTHER ROLES CHARACTERIZATION IN A LABORATORY
FLOTATION CELL
MP28 David Meadows SAG MILL DISCHARGE SECTION OPTIMIZATION STUDIES
AND REDESIGN
MP29 Felipe Henriquez INSTALLATION OF INTERNAL LAUNDERS ON 130 M
FLOTATION CELLS AT MINERA LOS PELAMBRES
MP30 H. Nematollahi CONCENTRATION OF COPPER OXIDE MINERAL WITH
HYDROXAMATE
MP31 Christopher J Greet GRINDING CHEMISTRY - THE APPLICATION OF GRINDING
MEDIA TO IMPROVE METALLURGICAL RESPONSE OF
COPPER ORES
MP32 Zanin Massimiliano AMIRA P260 SILVER JUBILEE - 25 YEARS OF BENEFITS TO
MINERALS FLOTATION
MP33 Jose Davila NASH IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER FLOTATION
CONCENTRATOR CUAJONE
Mineral Processing

MP35 O. Angulo PREVENTING COPPER LOSS PRODUCTION AND FLOW


PROBLEMS BY MEASURING THE MATERIALS FLOW
PROPERTIES
MP36 Mira Bissengaliyeva THERMODYNAMIC CONSTANTS OF MINERALS OF THE
OXIDATION ZONE OF COPPER - ANTLERITE AND
PSEUDOMALACHITE
MP38 Rene Del Villar RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FLOTATION COLUMN
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL
MP39 Raul Jara Iturre OPTIMIZACIN METALRGICA DE UN MINERAL DE
COBRE CON ALTA DISEMINACIN Y DUREZA
MP40 David Gwyther MARINE TAILINGS PLACEMENT: EXPERIENCES AND
LESSONS FROM THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION
MP41 C.O. Gomez MODELLING BUBBLE HYDRODYNAMICS IN FLOTATION
MP42 G. Debernardi PRIMARY CRITERIA FOR PRESSURE COPPER LEACHING
PROCESS SELECTION
MP43 Rodrigo STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF RECLAIM TUNNELS
Huenchulln G. ADDRESSED AS A MINGA
MP44 Lorin Redden IMPROVED COPPER AND GOLD RECOVERY AT KGHM
INTERNATIONALS ROBINSON MINE
MP45 Jorge M. Menacho MODELLING BUBBLES GOING THROUGH FLOTATION
and Juan Rodrguez CELLS
MP47 S.E. Snchez-Pino, PNEUMATIC FLOTATION IMHOFLOT
S.A. Snchez- PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN CHILEAN MINING
Baquedano,
R.M.Imhof, H.
Sprenger
MP48 Jorge M. Menacho REMOTE SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE PROCESS RESULTS AT
CONCENTRATOR PLANTS
Mineral Processing

MP01

USE OF BIOSOLIDS AND ITS MAIN COMPONENTS AS FROTH FLOTATION


REAGENTS FOR THE CONCENTRATION OF COPPER SULPHIDE ORE

Lorenzo Reyes-Bozo
Departamento de Ciencias de la Ingeniera, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad Andres
Bello.

Alex Godoy-Fandez
Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.

Jose Luis Salazar, Hctor Valds-Gonzlez, Eduardo Vyhmeister


Escuela de Industrias, Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad Andres Bello.

Ronaldo Herrera-Urbina
Departamento de Ingeniera Qumica y Metalurgia, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo,
Sonora, Mxico.

ABSTRACT

According to achieve a sustainable development, Chilean mining industry needs to


embrace the best practices to its sustainable growth as engine developments. Relationships
between mining industry and society have been historically complex due to its
environmental impacts. Whereas the ore grade has declined continuously, this has involved
an intensive energy and water consumption correlated to operational costs at different
stages of process. Indeed, the amount of organic chemical reagents used in froth flotation of
copper sulphide ores has a big impact on production costs as well as a huge effect on the
environment. In this research was evaluated, via standard methodologies at laboratory
scale, the use of biosolids and its main components (i.e., humic substances) as froth
flotation reagents for sulphide ore concentration. These substances interact through
physical and chemical ways due to differential affinities to mineralogical species such as
chalcopyrite and pyrite. Aqueous solutions prepared with biosolids show good frothing
characteristics whereas humic acid was found to act as collector for the concentration of a
copper sulphide ore. Therefore, biosolids and its main components may open an
opportunity to be used in copper sulphide flotation plants to partially replace conventional
reagents, which are more hazardous and less environment-friendly.
Mineral Processing

MP02

THE EVOLUTION OF MILL RELINING TECHNOLOGY

Winston Rocher

ABSTRACT

Over the past fifty years, technology has advanced quicker than in any other time
and this has impacted greatly on peoples lives, on the equipment and at work.

The small grinding mills had an entry in the mill feed end for the spout feeder that
didn't allow the entry of a person. The discharge of many of them had grates and the only
way for people, liners and tools to get into them was via the manhole. The liners were
installed manually with brute force, using tools like chain blocks, rope and chains,
extending mills shutdown for many hours and increasing the risk of accidents.

The increased size of mills and the high prices for metals means equipment
designers and mining companies need to work constantly to surpass their mechanised
technology, the quality of the materials and their components, increasing their capacity, by
making them faster, more accurate and safer. In addition, the operators are working more
strategically. The result has been a significant decrease of relining time and an increase in
operator's safety.
Mineral Processing

MP03

GAS DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL FLOTATION


EQUIPMENT

Luis Vinnett, Juan Yianatos

ABSTRACT

An extensive database of Sauter mean bubble diameters, D32, and superficial gas
rates, JG, measured in different industrial flotation plants, is presented. Results involved
mechanical flotation cells of 10 300 m3 from Rougher, Cleaner and Scavenger circuits
and columns from Cleaner circuits. A significant effect of superficial gas rate on bubble
diameter was observed in mechanical cells with different bubble generation mechanisms,
cell design (self-aerated or forced air) and under different operating conditions (frother
dosage, impeller speed). This result implies a dominant effect of the superficial gas rate on
the gas dispersion. Also, higher D32 values were observed in flotation columns because of
the bubble sparger system and mainly due to lack of maintenance. From the D32 and JG
values, the bubble surface area flux, SB, was evaluated in order to determine normal
operating conditions. The gas dispersion database is useful to select proper operating
conditions and to define control criteria in flotation circuits.
Mineral Processing

MP04

EMPIRICAL CORRELATION FOR ESTIMATING GRINDING MEDIA


CONSUMPTION

Carlos Rabanal
Moly-Cop Adesur S.A.
crabanal@adesur.com.pe

ABSTRACT
The concern regarding grinding media wear is as old as the invention of the
tumbling mills. Over the years many materials and grinding media shapes have been tested,
through all this, steel grinding balls have proved to be the most effective media for
comminution in tumbling mills.
In the same way, no accurate technique for estimating the wear of the ball charge
has been developed. The mining industry still utilizes the Bond Abrasion test that was
developed in the 60s, this test is based in the ore properties having an error higher than
60%.
Lately in 2007, Radziszewski proposed a decouple total grinding media wear model,
this model is based in decoupling the effect of abrasion, corrosion and impact wear
mechanism, this new decoupled model gets an error of +/- 17% which is an improvement in
comparison to Bond model, but still shows high degree of error.
Also In 2007, Benavente from Moly-Cop Group presented an empiric model based
in operational conditions that affect wear mechanism. This new model shows an average
error of +/- 10% which represent a higher improvement in comparison with other models.
This paper present the research developed by Moly-Cop in order to improve the
capability of the empiric model developed by Benavente to estimated grinding media wear.
The work performed includes extensive determination of Bond Abrasion Index for different
kind of ores, operational information from concentrators and statistical analysis to
determine the more significant variables over the wear.
The result of the research let us to build a more robust and confident model to
estimate grinding media wear rate. The average error of this new model was in order of +/-
5.0% which means a higher improvement over the models previously described.
Mineral Processing

MP05

CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER CLAYS AND GEOMETALLURGICAL


IMPLICATIONS

Ursula Kelm, Oscar Jerez, Sonia Helle, Marcos Pincheira


Instituto de Geologa Econmica Aplicada, Universidad de Concepcin, Chile

ABSTRACT

Copper clays are a common mapping term to describe parts of argillic and advanced
argillic alterations associated with Andean type copper deposits. They are very fine grained
materials with a bluish hue, which may or not expand when humidified. These copper
clays accompany chrysocolla, atacamite and secondary sulphide mineralization. Copper
clays have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Qemscan, Transmission Electron
Microscopy and complemented by determination of cation exchange capacity.
Observations are contrasted with literature data on (1) the attempts of synthesis of Cu-
phyllosilicates, (2) the modification of phyllosilicates with Cu bearing molecules for
catalysis and (3) larger than clay-size phyllosilicates incorporating Cu phases between
individual sheets. For the studied copper clays, discrete copper phases were found to be
intercalated between individual phyllosilicate layers on a nanometric scale. For acid
extraction of Cu from these combined clay and Cu phase aggregates, rock texture and acid
stability of the phyllosilicate species are of fundamental importance.
Mineral Processing

MP07

PROGRESS MADE IN PILOT AND LABORATORY THICKENING STUDY

R. Fuentes, P. Garrido, T. Watt

Centro de Investigacin JRI S.A., Santiago, Chile

ABSTRACT

When designing thickeners, it is necessary to take into account the variety of


geological units of different lithologies and alterations that may appear during the useful
life of the mine, especially during the first five years. Ignoring these aspects leads to
different operational problems in industrial thickeners of copper tailings and concentrate,
which are unable to comply with the overflow quality or the percentage of solids required
in the output. On the other hand, precision in determining the thickener unit area has great
impact on the thickener CAPEX.

Centro de Investigacin JRI S.A. (CdI-JRI) is developing a research line (I+D)


oriented to studying thickening processes and whose main objective is focused on design.
Standard measuring of geological attribute variability conducted in a laboratory is being
contrasted with measuring carried out in batch and continuous pilot tests.

CdI-JRI has designed and built two pilot columns for this purpose, 1 and 4 meters
high respectively, equipped with a rake and different feedwells. Both implemented columns
allowed Cdl-JRI to develop its own methodology for characterizing the thickening of
mining slurries in batch and continuous tests.

This paper presents the main results obtained: thickener unit area, concentrations of
solids in underflow and overflow, the effect of the feedwell on the quality of the overflow,
and the effect of the rake on the concentration of solids in the discharge.
Mineral Processing

MP08

EFFECT OF FINES CONTENT ON YIELD STRESS OF COPPER TAILINGS

N. Rojas.

Instituto de Minerales CIMEX, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medelln, Colombia.

P. Garrido.

Centro de Investigacin JRI S.A., Santiago, Chile

ABSTRACT

Thickening calculation and design, hydraulic transport of mine slurries, and final
disposition of tailings are some of the areas in which a rheological characterization
containing at least viscosity and yield stress is indispensable.

These rheological parameters depend on a number of variables. Among others,


concentration of solids, pH, particle size distribution, Zeta potential, and the reagents
eventually added. On the other hand, this rheology is intrinsic to each treated slurry, and
varies throughout the life of a mining operation mainly due to changes in the geological
units and/or modifications in operating conditions.

This paper studies the influence of particle- size distribution on the rheological
characteristics of tailings. Three sizes known as fines are considered: material under mesh
200 (74 micron), material under mesh 400 (37 micron), under mesh 500 (25 micron). Each
of these is incorporated into the original tailings at different percentages, generating tailings
with a new particle-size distribution, which are then rheologically characterized.

With these results we are able to conclude that the three sizes of fines that were
studied, especially the 37-micron size (under Tyler mesh 400), generate an increase in yield
stress, shifting the yield stress curves versus the percentage of solids towards the left. This
may have a decisive impact on the thickening, transport and disposition of slurries.
Mineral Processing

MP09

STUDY ON SEPARATION OF ARSENIC FROM COPPER CONCENTRATE

Shigeto Kuroiwa, Daisuke Sato, Tatsuya lto, Misturu Sawada

Metallurgist, Niihama Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., LTD

Tsuyoshi Hlrajima

Professor, Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Faculty of engineering,

Kyushu University

ABSTRACT

Sumitomo Metal Mining Co.LTD, Niihama Research Laboratories (NRL) has been
developing Cu/As separation technology from chemical approach (investigating and
optimizing solid-liquid interfaces) and physical approach (studying the effect of flotation
equipment).

lnfluence of oxidization on the contact angle of tennantite, chalcopyrite, bornite and


pyrite was investigated. When the surface was not oxidized, tennantite indicated similar
contact angle to non-arsenical copper minerals, chalcopyrite and bornite. The contact angle
of tennantite became smaller than that of the non-arsenical copper minerals when weak
oxidization was applied.

Effect of physical parameters of flotation equipment on separability of arsenic was


also investigated. Results agreed with proposed flotation models, however above mentioned
effect was small.
Mineral Processing

MP11

TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE REPLACEMENT OF CONVENTIONAL


FLOTATION CELLS BY FLOTATION CELLS PNEUMATIC IN THE BENEFIT
OF COPPER ORES

Sergio Arellano G., Gonzalo Reyes M., Vctor Conejeros T.

Universidad Catlica del Norte

ABSTRACT

A company of the mining medium, located in the II Region of our country, requires
to increase the treatment capacity of the current plant. Long enough to make the
modifications, settled into place 2 G-Cell 18 type pneumatic cells that replace 100% to the
primary circuit. The implementation of this type of cells relies mainly to the reduced space
that they occupy and almost no structural alteration of what already exists, in addition,
update the process to a technology that most recent flotation that could result in
improvements mainly metallurgic.

The general objective of this work, is to evaluate technically and economically the
use of pneumatic cells, type G-Cell in a primary circuit of copper concentration.

The methodology of work considered historical results of conventional circuit, a


physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of minerals to evaluate, samplings of
workflows to obtain data that will assist in the preparation of comparative balances of
technical results and the economic assessment that will affect the final decision of what
mineral is that will benefit. Two types of sulfide minerals were evaluated: Sulfurado 1 and
Sulfurado 2.

The main conclusion, derived from the results, both technical and economic, is
achieved by processing ore from the Sulfurado 2.
Mineral Processing

MP13

NEXT GENERATION PRESSURE FILTERS FOR HARD ROCK TAILINGS

T. Wisdom

ABSTRACT

The use of slurry impoundments have traditionally been the primary method of
disposal of waste slurry resulting from the recovery of metals and minerals. However,
current difficulties in obtaining permits to build new impoundments for grass-roots plants,
or as the existing ones near the end of their projected life, has made it necessary to explore
other alternatives for tailings disposal. Fresh water resources are becoming more precious,
and environmental pressures are increasing leading to the elimination of slurry tailings
impoundments.

It is becoming more prudent to consider filtration and dry stacking as a reasonable


and sustainable alternative. There are several obstacles to filtration as a way to treat these
tailings. Many tailings slurries are difficult to filter and higher plant throughputs have in
the past made filtration operations both costly to buy and to operate.

But as with the equipment used to mine and move the harder lower grade ores,
equipment to process the resulting tailings slurries have increased in size, efficiency, and
capacity to meet the demand, as well as to reduce the number of people needed to operate
them. This paper discusses the technical and financial considerations, OPEX and CAPEX,
that influence equipment selection and optimization of the filter pressing system to produce
a satisfactory, transportable and stackable tailings product. Multiple tailings samples have
been investigated incorporating lab and pilot scale testing. The impact of different
minerologies and grain size will be discussed.
Mineral Processing

MP16

SEAWATER USE IN ANTOFAGASTA MINING GROUP

Francisco Abbott
Minera Esperanza

Gustavo Tapia
Antofagasta Minerals S.A.

ABSTRACT

The Antofagasta plc mining group has been pioneer in the use of raw sea water in
metallurgical process at big scale. In the 90 decade, Minera Michilla began successfully the
use of sea water in the process of leaching copper oxide and secondary sulfide ore followed
by SX-EW. At the end of 2010, Minera Esperanza commissioned a grinding and flotation
plant processing 97 ktpd of sulfide ore, using raw sea water and applied an alternative
depressant for pyrite in the cleaning stage.
Mineral Processing

MP17

ANTAPACCAY TINTAYA EXPANSION

D. Garca and J. Villanueva


Concentradora Antapaccay, Xstrata, Peru

ABSTRACT

Xstrata recently completed construction of a new 70,000 tonne per day copper
concentrator near Cusco, Peru. Plant start-up was accomplished during the last quarter of
2012. Comminution will be accomplished by primary crushing, SAG milling and pebble
crushing followed by ball milling. The Concentrator is a single line configuration,
comprising of one 40 ft. diameter x 22 ft. long (EGL) SAG mill driven by a 24,000 kW
gearless drive. The SAG mill feeds two ball mills each 26 ft. in diameter x 40 ft. long
(EGL), each driven by a 16,400 kW through gearless drive. This represents the higher
power of SAG in the world and the first 40 ft. SAG in Peru. This paper reviews the
projects technology.

This represents the first Xstratas Standard Concentrator, the higher power of SAG
in the world and the first 40 ft. SAG in Peru, an overland conveyor of 6.5 km with gearless
drive, the use of an old pit as tailings dam in big mining and the higher torque of tailings
thickener. This paper reviews the history, the background, the grinding circuit design and
the operations start-up considering focus in safety, start-up strategies, main issues,
improvement opportunities.

1
Mineral Processing

MP18

GRINDING CYCLE OPTIMIZATION FOR PROCESSING OF COPPER SLAG AT


AURUBIS BULGARIA

E.Visariev
D. Kirilov; V. Stoilov; E. Djurova; I. Bonchev; V. Stoyanova;
aurubis bulgaria
Industrial zone
Pirdop, Bulgaria 2070

ABSTRACT

At Copper smelter Aurubis Bulgaria, the slag from Flash furnace and Converters is
processed by flotation. The scheme of slag processing comprise: crushing, two stage
grinding and flotation.

Till 2010 the first grinding stage was AG Mill 7023 worked with classifier and the
second stage - ball mill 3.6/5.5 with hydrocyclone. In 2010, a new AG Mill 65x78 with
hydrocyclone was commissioned in order to increase the plant throughput. The second
stage of grinding cycle was not changed.

The Old AG mill processed 55-60 t/h slag with 75% content of size - 0.071 mm or
over 75 t/h with 35-40% content of size -0.071 mm.

The new AG Mill was designed for throughput of 105 t/h with over 70 % content of size -
0.071 mm. After start-up some problems with the equipment occurred block-up of AG
Mills grate and pumps for cyclone feeding. One of the main problems was a fast wearing
of new AG mill hydrocyclone sand nozzles. Different nozzles materials (rubber, ceramic
and metallic) were tested.

This paper presents:


Comparison of optimal working parameters of old and new working scheme;
Change of technological parameters with different sands nozzles and its effect on
circulating load;
Mineral Processing

MP19

IMPROVED DEM MODEL FOR PREDICTING CONE CRUSHERS PERFORMANCE

Dr. V. Murariu and Dusty Jacobson

Metso Minerals Industries, Inc.

ABSTRACT

Cone crushers have been applied in mineral processing or comminution circuits for more
than five decades. In that period of time, the principle of machine selection and optimization
have evolved from purely empirical methods (capacity tables and product size curves based on
best practice) to include newer simulation based approaches.

These simulation techniques combine the strength of theory with traditional population
balance techniques. Metsos crusher simulation employs DEM with a proprietary fast breakage
technique using the concept of incremental damage. This paper provides an overview of the
Metso cone crusher simulation technology, and highlights the value of the virtual machine for
equipment design and optimization.
Mineral Processing

MP22

THE EFFECT OF FLOCCULANTS AND THEIR DEGRADATION PRODUCTS


ON MOLYBDENITE FLOTATION

S. Castro
Department of Metallurgical Enginering, University of Concepcion,Chile

J.S. Laskowski
NB Keevil Institute of Mining Engineering, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver,Canada

ABSTRACT

Modern ore processing plants must have closed circuits in which process water is
recycled back after removal of fine particles in the solid/liquid separation unit operations.
Flotation of Cu-Mo ores includes two steps: a bulk flotation where molybdenite is
recovered together with Cu and Fe sulfides; and a subsequent selective flotation step where
molybdenite is separated from depressed copper sulfides. Flocculants are usually employed
in Cu-Mo concentrate thickeners preceding the selective molybdenite flotation plant.
However, the floatability of molybdenite, similarly to other naturally hydrophobic minerals,
is highly sensitive to the effect of both natural and synthetic polymers. In this work
flotation testing demostrate that conventional flocculants of the polyacrilamide type (PAM)
are strong depressants for molybdenite flotation. Additionally, shear degraded
polyacrylamides, in spite of loosing flocculation ability, are still able to depress
molybdenite flotation.

Also polyethylene oxide (PEO) have been studied in this project. The results show
that its ability to flocculate is pH dependent. In slightly acidic pH PEO and PAM showed
similar flocculation efficiencies on molybdenite suspensions. In alkaline pH, the
flocculating and depressing effects of PEO increased. In the case of PAM, a simultaneous
loss of flocculating and depressing efficiency was observed in alkaline pH. The proper use
and selection of flocculants for better molybdenite recovery is discussed.
Mineral Processing

MP24

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF BROWNFIELD PROJECTS

Fernando Pino
Senior Process and Commissioning Engineer
Jacobs Engineering, Chile

ABSTRACT

Projects are classified as Greenfield or Brownfield, the latter corresponding to those


dealing with expansion, modification and/or optimization of existing operations. Usual
thinking is that Brownfield Projects are easier to define and develop than Greenfield or new
Projects; however, evidence shows that rather the opposite is true.

Advantages of Brownfield Projects are the available improved knowledge of ore


characteristics, metallurgical processing, unit operations, equipment performance and
personnel know how. However, there are serious hurdles to overcome, such as:
coordination between the EPCM Company, the Owner Project Manager and the Operations
Manager; building additional facilities within a running operation under acceptable safety
conditions; need to maintain production level during construction; connections or tie-ins
of new facilities to the existing ones; possible modifications required due to technological
evolution or changes in the ore nature; in this paper, some general recommendations are
drawn from the analysis of selected typical cases, comprising tie-in identification, design,
engineering, coordination and implementation; and planning the execution of modifications
during normal and extraordinary plant detentions. Additionally, cases are analyzed for
which innovations can have important effects on commissioning and start up schedule for
both project types.
Mineral Processing

MP26

FROTHER ROLES CHARACTERIZATION IN A LABORATORY


FLOTATION CELL

C.O. Gomez, P. and J. Alvarez


Universidad of Concepcin
Departamento de Ingeniera Metalrgica
Edmundo Larenas
Concepcin, Chile

ABSTRACT

Frothers play two major roles in flotation: preservation of the formation bubble size
and stabilization of the froth. Many tests have been proposed to characterize one of these
two functions and to classify frother strength based on the results obtained. A technique to
characterize these two roles simultaneously, using a laboratory flotation column, was
developed and successfully used to screen and select a replacement candidate for a
particular concentrator.

The test requires column steady state operation maintaining a constant froth height,
which entails large volumes of plant water. A technique based on batch testing around a
laboratory mechanical cell not only would demand less water, but also would make
possible on-site testing. This communication presents the development results of a batch
test to characterize frother roles in a laboratory mechanical cell, which is done through the
determination of the critical coalescence concentration and the water overflow curve.
Frothers tested follows the same classification sequence previously obtained in the column
tests.
Mineral Processing

MP28

SAG MILL DISCHARGE SECTION OPTIMIZATION STUDIES AND REDESIGN

DG Meadows, Luis Vergara, Thomas McQuillan, Horacio Marin

ABSTRACT

The SAG mill is the primary work horse on the majority of comminution circuits
throughout the globe. With declining head grades the need for higher throughput circuits
has become prevalent particularly in Latin America. This paper describes the recent design
knowledge and practical experience gained in both the areas of pulp lifters and integrated
trommel design. The importance of system efficiency in terms of pulp removal is described
together with the need for enhanced slurry distribution onto the trommel screen itself.

Redesign starts with the replacement of the original OEM discharge mill linings,
generally made of Cr-Mo steel alloy castings, by liners made from a steel-rubber-ceramic
composite that acts by using each material property for specific work and application. Thus,
very hard ceramic takes care of wear resistance, the rubber matrix underneath helps absorb
impact loads and steel gives structural support, offering a more efficient solution for the
service required workloads in terms of resistance/weight ratio and endurance.

The unique and complete discharge process from the mill grates to the pebble
collection chute at the end of the trommel was studied in depth. The flow of pulp through
the SAG mill, discharge trunnion and trommel was modeled in detail using modern
techniques such as SPH/CFD and DEM. This enabled the integral design of the pulp lifters,
trunnion section, trommel and trommel panels to be optimized and then finely tuned for
maximum throughput of fresh ore.

The final result with an optimized discharge performance allows a more efficient
energy usage and or a better ore processing mill capability that enhances its performance
and so may pay back significant investment costs. Practical data relating to the influence on
circuit operating times and availability are also described.
Mineral Processing

MP29

INSTALLATION OF INTERNAL LAUNDERS ON 130 m FLOTATION CELLS


AT MINERA LOS PELAMBRES

F.D. Henrquez and L. Maldonado


Minera Los Pelambres
Santiago, Chile

ABSTRACT

In the last decades flotation equipment has shown a significant increase in size. At the
present moment, most of the concentrators plants operating in Chile have been fully
equipped with 130250 m mechanical cells and the new projects are considering the 300
m cell on its flotation circuits. This dramatic increase in size poses new challenges in terms
to develop better approaches to optimize the operations.

Originally, Minera Los Pelambres rougher Cu Mo flotation stage was equipped


with 130 m in volume WEMCO cells with no internal launders on it. This paper describes
the metallurgical comparison between two parallel flotation lines, one of them with recently
internal launders installed on the three first cells. For this purpose, a six month sampling
campaign was developed in order to obtain the metallurgical parameters of concentrate
grade and recovery.

The analyzed data demonstrated an improvement in the Cu and Mo recovery of about


0,11% due the effects of internal launders on cells stabilization and increase on the
available concentrate discharge perimeter. This result led to extend the installation of these
devises on the other three lines remaining on the three firs cells.
Mineral Processing

MP30

CONCENTRATION OF COPPER OXIDE MINERAL WITH HYDROXAMATE

H. Nematollahi, F. Kiani and M. Asgari-Mehrabadi


kian mine pars co.

ABSTRACT

Takhate-Gonbad porphyry copper mine is located at the 80 km northeast of Sirjan,


Kerman Province, south-east of Iran. The main mineralization zones of Takhate-Gonbad
mine include: leached, oxide, mixed and hypogene. The main purpose of this study is
beneficiation of oxide zone minerals by flotation. The flotation tests are carried out on
samples obtained from 4 boreholes.

The average grade of these samples are from 0.33 to 0.86% Total Cu. The host rock
of these boreholes are different. They are: micro-granodiorite, silicified rocks, tuff and
metamorphic rocks and calcite tuff. Regarding presence of both sulphide (i.e. chalcopyrite,
covellite) and oxide (i.e. cuprite, malachite) minerals, flotation tests are carried out in
different conditions, using different reagents.

Based on these tests, the best results are obtained at pH=10.2 with 25 g/t of PAX
and 500 g/t of octyl-hydroxamate. Under this circumstance, the grano-diorite sample is
concentrated with 83.8 % of recovery (the highest one) and the silicified sample is
concentrated with 35.0 % of recovery (the lowest one). Base on obtained results, all 4
boreholes was mixed together and flotation tests were done. The results show that it is
possible to reach concentrate with copper contents15.51% in cleaner stages and 62.9%
copper recovery in rougher stage.
Mineral Processing

MP31

GRINDING CHEMISTRY THE APPLICATION OF GRINDING MEDIA TO


IMPROVE METALLURGICAL RESPONSE OF COPPER ORES

Christopher J Greet and Jessica Kinal

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies completed by academia and at industrial scale have consistently


demonstrated that grinding with an electrochemically inert grinding media has significant
benefits when processing copper ores.

This paper provides a summary of pulp chemical and flotation response data for a
variety of copper ores classified by geological type prepared using forged steel and high
chrome grinding media.

The results intend to show that the mineralogical character of the ore has a
profound impact on the pulp chemistry and this effects the flotation behaviour of the
sulphide minerals. Further, the choice of high chrome grinding media, to better control
the chemical environment during grinding, is driven by the mineralogy of the system
under consideration.
Mineral Processing

MP33

NASH IN THE OPTIMIZATION OF COPPER FLOTATION


CONCENTRATOR CUAJONE

J. Dvila, R. Llerena, N. Benavides and C. Curo.


SOUTHERN COPPER SOUTHERN PER
Cuajone Mining Camp
Moquegua, Per

ABSTRACT

Since early 2011, the type of rock ore that reached Cuajone Concentrator Plant
showed high contents of basaltic andesite, andesite Intrusive (% IA +% BA) and surface
oxide ores.

This type of mineral affected the low recovery of Cu, low tonnage of treatment, and
high consumption of sparkling lime. In addition to operating flotation problems, low
stability in the area of foaming Rougher flotation stage.

To improve the recovery of copper, sulphidation was considered, which involves the
addition of reagents to provide ionS2- and SH-. The role of these ions is to modify
completely the phisycal chemical nature of its surface structure, allowing the adsorption of
collectors on it, and its subsequent flotation. In our case we use the sodium hydrosulphide
(NaSH) as an agent to enable the affected species in the flotation of copper sulphides,
andesites and oxidized surface.

Cuajone Concentrator Plant started its trial period in 2011. With no technical
background in the industry on the conditions, dosages and addition points of NaSH, it was
experimented in different parts of the flotation. And, from September 2011, it has been
determined that the dosage of 15% concentration in the head Rougher flotation at pH 10,
improved copper recovery, reducing the consumption of frother and milk of lime, is also
achievement stabilize flotation.

The average copper recovery improved 2.3%, consumption of Cal and frother
declined by 21% and 28% respectively.
Mineral Processing

MP35

PREVENTING COPPER LOSS PRODUCTION AND FLOW PROBLEMS


BY MEASURING THE MATERIALS FLOW PROPERTIES

O. Angulo and F. Cabrejos


Jenike and Johanson Chile S.A.

ABSTRACT

Hundreds of millions of tons of copper-containing products in particulate forms


(such as ROM, crushed, agglomerated or leached ore, concentrate, or tailings), having
different characteristics (like particle size distribution, shape and density, moisture content,
chemical, mineralogical and lithological composition), are daily handled, stored and
conveyed in the world through different equipment at the different stages of the copper
minerallurgical processes. In these processes, operators commonly face problems such as
loss of production, flow blockages in the equipment, segregation, equipment wear,
uncontrolled discharge and occasionally unexpected plant shutdowns. Due to the huge
investments involved in world class projects, the mining industry is particularly sensitive to
them.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a cost effective solution to flow problems in
the mining industry, by highlighting a well proven and scientific method used to ensure
controlled and reliable flow of bulk solids, based on Jenikes flow of solids technology and
laboratory testing [1]. Knowledge of the material flow properties allows designing new
installations or modifying existing defective equipment, and preventing production
stoppages due to the formation of chute pluggages, cohesive arches and/or ratholes in
silos, which are the most common causes of flow problems in the copper mining industry.
Mineral Processing
Mineral Processing

MP36

THERMODYNAMIC CONSTANTS OF MINERALS OF THE OXIDATION ZONE


OF COPPER ANTLERITE AND PSEUDOMALACHITE

N.S. Bekturganov
SC National scientific-technological holding Parasat
18 Republic Ave.
Astana, Kazakhstan 010000

M.R. Bissengaliyeva, D.B. Gogol and Sh.T. Taimassova


The Institute of problems of complex development of mineral resources
5 Ippodromnaya Street
Karaganda, Kazakhstan 100019

ABSTRACT

Minerals of the oxidation zone of copper deposits belong to the most difficult for
enrichment. To transfer them into the easily floatable sulfide components it is necessary to
have new technologies and methods of enrichment associated with solving of a number of
theoretical issues to which the chemical enrichment refers. Optimization and intensification
of the technology process for the purpose of more complete and complex utilization of raw
materials require certain knowledge of thermodynamic properties of the oxidized minerals
since the thermodynamic analysis and a preliminary simulation of the process are necessary
for creation and choice of ore processing schemes. A basic sulfate of copper antlerite and a
basic phosphate of copper pseudomalachite relate to these minerals along with malachite,
azurite, atacamite, chrysocolla, brochantite, etc.

This paper generalizes the results of experimental studies of thermodynamic


properties of antlerite and pseudomalachite obtained by a number of the calorimetric
methods (low-temperature adiabatic calorimetry, the Tian-Calvet high-temperature melt
solution calorimetry). This resulted in obtaining such fundamental thermodynamic
constants as the heat capacity, entropy, the change of enthalpy, the enthalpy of formation
and the Gibbs energy of formation used in simulation of technological processes of
processing of the oxidized and mixed copper ores.
Mineral Processing

MP38

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN FLOTATION COLUMN


INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL

R. del Villar, J. Bouchard


Department of Mining, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

A. Desbiens, . Poulin
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
LOOP (Laboratoire dobservation et doptimisation des procds)
Universit Laval
Qubec (QC), Canada

ABSTRACT

For over two decades, the Process Observation and Optimisation Laboratory
(LOOP) has been working in developing and/or improving specific sensors for flotation
columns and their use for process control. Numerous papers have already been published
for the Mineral Processing industrial and scientific community in peer-reviewed journals
and conference proceedings, e.g. for the Copper Conference series. This paper summarizes
the latest completed milestones by the group, since the last Copper conference held in Chile
in 2003, emphasizing on results presented in North America and Europe since Copper
2010.

On the instrumentation side, developments encompass a more accurate method for


measuring electrical conductivity for flotation column sensors, a device for estimating the
bias rate, a better procedure for evaluating bubble size from images taken by bubble
viewers, and a method for on line estimation of frother concentration. In terms of process
control advances, the discussion will focus on results for bubble size control in a two-phase
system, and the application of a 3x3 multivariable predictive control to a pilot flotation
column running in parallel to industrial columns in a Qubec concentrator. Current
investigations on bubble size distribution modeling and control, as well as matching bubble
size to particle size will be discussed.
Mineral Processing

MP39

METALLURGICAL OPTIMIZATION OF A HIGH DISSEMINATION


AND HIGH HARDNESS COPPER ORE

Ral Jara Iturre


Empresa Minera Altos de Punitaqui
Miguel Aguirre 280 - Oficinas 47-48. Ovalle

Luis Tello Muoz, Cristian Gonzalez Bravo, Hector Guinel Figueroa


Empresa Minera Altos de Punitaqui
Miguel Aguirre 280 - Oficinas 47-48. Ovalle

ABSTRACT

Minera Altos de Punitaqui owns a concentrator plant near Punitaqui City, 12 km


south from Ovalle City located in northern Chiles Fourth Region. This Concentrator plant
processes about 3,500 DMT/day and produces 43,000 DMT/year of concentrate with 28%
copper content and some silver content.
In early 2012, the plants copper recovery was approximately 77%. According to
mining standards, this is a low recovery rate, although earlier mineralogical and
metallurgical studies indicated that the maximum possible recovery wouldnt be higher
than 80% due to the high value dissemination in the feed ore.
The plant superintendence and its technical team developed a work plan resulting in
systematic enhancements to the flotation process; the operational variability decreased and
relevant conditions were modified, including the flotation circuit and process variables; to
end up that year with a steady state recovery of 80 82% with a quality of more than 27%
copper, 2% higher than the 2011 average.
In 2013 without any investment in flotation cells the flotation capacity has been
increased from 3,100 DMT/day to 3,500 DMT/day with higher copper recovery. This
comes with the bonus alternative of using the idle capacity to process other third party
minerals adding further profitability to the Altos de Punitaqui site.
This paper describes both the optimization strategy applied and the improvement
results, underlining the virtuous triangle made up by a well-organized operation, the
metallurgical laboratory support and the support received from the industrial process
analysis, modelling and simulation.
Mineral Processing

MP40

MARINE TAILINGS PLACEMENT: EXPERIENCES AND LESSONS FROM THE


ASIA PACIFIC REGION

D. Gwyther
Picton Group Pty Ltd
30 Malpas Drive
Wallington Vic3222, Australia
dg@pictongroup.com.au

J. Waworuntu
P.T. Newmont Nusa Tenggara,
Jalan Sriwijaya 258 Mataram, Indonesia
Jorina.waworuntu@nnt.co.id

ABSTRACT

This presentation looks at some of the advancements in operating and monitoring


that have accompanied the implementation of deep sea tailings placement (DSTP) in the
Asia Pacific region over the past 20 years. It describes the guidelines and criteria that have
been developed to ensure that DSTP systems are properly assessed and located prior to
approval and throughout operation and closure.

In considering the potential applicability of these experiences to countries such as


Chile, substantial research will clearly be required to establish equivalent criteria to achieve
the same objectives and environmental safeguards in the Chilean socio-political context.
However, just as important for gaining acceptability will be the acknowledgement by
governments and all sectors of the community of the existence of the dilemma now or at
some time into the future that if the currently accepted land storage methods reach their
physical or safety limits, alternative storage methods will need to be considered. DSTP
cannot be a solution without broad community acknowledgement that a dilemma about
future mine tailings management needs to be faced. It is the role of governments, informed
by scientific study, to evaluate the best solution for future tailings management for the
country in each case.
Mineral Processing

MP41

MODELLING BUBBLE HYDRODYNAMICS IN FLOTATION

C.O. Gomez and J.A. Finch


McGill University
3610 University Street
Montreal, Canada H3A 2B2
cesar.gomez@mcgill.ca

M. Maldonado
Departamento de Ingeniera Metalrgica
Universidad de Santiago de Chile
Avenida Libertador Bernardo OHiggins 3363
Santiago, Chile

ABSTRACT

Three parameters are generally used to describe gas dispersion in a flotation


machine: superficial gas (air) velocity, gas holdup and bubble size. Techniques and sensors
to measure local values of these parameters, including industrial flotation units, have been
developed.

A model relating these variables, which was developed based on a drift-flux


analysis of bubble hydrodynamics, has been available for many years. The model has been
mainly used to predict one variable (typically bubble size) from measurements of the other
two. Gas dispersion measurements in laboratory and industrial units have demonstrated
that in many cases significant differences between measurement and model prediction exist.

A reliable model to predict properties of bubble populations would help in the


selection and operation of flotation equipment. This work takes laboratory air-water data
sets to establish the adequacy of the equations in the drift-flux model. The results
demonstrated that ignoring the effect of frother on bubble terminal and swarm velocities is
the reason for the poor model prediction.
Mineral Processing

MP42

PRIMARY CRITERIA FOR PRESSURE COPPER LEACHING PROCESS


SELECTION

G. Debernardi, R. Souyris and M. Gianetti


DESSAU CHILE INGENIERA
Ricardo Lyon 222, Piso 10, Providencia
Santiago, Chile
gianfranco.debernardi@dessau.cl
raul.souyris@dessau.cl

J. Menacho
De Re Metallica Ingeniera
Av. del Valle 601, oficina 31, Huechuraba
Santiago, Chile
jorgemenacho@drm.cl

ABSTRACT

Several hydrometallurgical processes for high and moderate pressure leaching of


copper sulfides have been developed in the past years, such as the Total Pressure Oxidation,
Sepon, Platsol, Mt. Gordon, AAC/UBC, Dynatec, CESL, Activox and MT-DEW-SX
processes. Nowadays, several are under industrial scale application, or well tested at pilot
scale level.
The basics and current status of these processes is briefly reviewed, with special
consideration on their applicability to the leaching of different copper ores, depending on
its sulfide mineralogy and occurrence of impurities such as arsenic and the presence of
other valuable metals. A comparison of the general conditions in the autoclave leaching for
each process is presented, and a decision tree is proposed for a simple choice of the best
technology for a given application from a process point of view, before proceeding to
perform feasibility study.
Mineral
Processing

MP43
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF RECLAIM TUNNELS
ADDRESSED AS A MINGA

Rodrigo Huenchulln G., Civil Structural Engineer, Sr.,

This work compiles the ideas contributed from both a number of structural engineers
and designers who have addressed the structural design of reclaim tunnels as well as
from people related to other engineering disciplines, as if it was a minga(*) in order to
tackle the topic in a more comprehensive way. While in the process, an attempt will be
done to shed more light on some concepts that in structural practice have been
addressed in many different ways, mainly as a result of the scarce reference material
on criteria and national and international codes to be applied on their design. Seismic
and mineral-associated loads are specially analyzed as well as important design
aspects.
Mineral Processing

MP44

IMPROVED COPPER AND GOLD RECOVERY AT KGHM


INTERNATIONALS ROBINSON MINE

Lorin Redden
FLSmidth Salt Lake City, Inc.
7158 South FLSmidth Drive
Midvale, Utah 84098
lorin.redden@flsmidth.com

Chase Stevens, Mark OBrien and Thomas Bender


KGHM International Ltd., Robinson Nevada Mining Company
4232 West White Pine County Road 44
P.O. Box 382
Ruth, Nevada

ABSTRACT

In an effort to recover additional copper and gold at KGHM Internationals


Robinson Mine located near Ruth, Nevada, an in-plant study was undertaken to quantify
potential flotation recoveries from the concentrators final tailings stream. Tests were
conducted by passing a small continuous sample of final tailings though a single 1.5 m 3
demonstration flotation machine. Two phases of testing were conducted on differing ore
types. Results indicated that up to 30% of the contained copper was recoverable along
with significant quantities of gold. Based on these results, the existing flotation circuit
was expanded by installing four (4) 160 m3 FLSmidth XCELL flotation machines to
treat the final tailings stream. This paper reviews the results obtained from the in-plant
testing with the single 1.5 m3 flotation cell and provides a comparison to the subsequent
operational performance of multiple 160 m3 flotation machines.
Mineral Processing

MP45

MODELLING BUBBLES GOING THROUGH FLOTATION CELLS

Jorge M. Menacho and Juan Rodrguez

De Re Metallica Consultant, Av. Del Valle 601, Oficina 31, Huechuraba, Santiago,
Chile, (562)-738-4493, drm@drm.cl

ABSTRACT

A new phenomenological approach is presented in this paper, in which bubble


dynamics is described from the bubble generator, going through the slurry phase, where
they move within a turbulent circulating field subjected to simultaneous rupture and
coalescence phenomena, both controlled by the frother HLB and dosage. Size growth
simultaneously occurs due to lower pressure as bubbles move up. After a time bubbles
arrive to a compaction zone where porosity is reduced becoming a continuous bed. Then
the bubble bed enter the froth phase moving upward in plug flow condition and
capillary drainage occurs getting bubbles even closer and promoting further
coalescence, such that in the final froth zone bubbles are nearly impervious to washing
water.

Equations representing the above-described physical model are presented and


several examples of performance are given.
Mineral Processing

MP47
PNEUMATIC FLOTATION IMHOFLOT
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN CHILEAN MINING

S.E. Snchez-Pino1, S.A. Snchez-Baquedano1, R.M.Imhof2, H. Sprenger2


1
Ingeniera de Minerales S A
2
Maelgwyn Mineral Services L.

Washington St. 2653 Of. 501, Antofagasta, Chile, sanchezpinosamuel@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Pneumatic flotation technology (Imhoflot) is already in the Chilean Copper Mining


Industry since 1992, Ingeniera de Minerales S.A. (IDM) together with the designer Dr.
Rainer Imhof from Germany through his Company Maelgwyn Mineral Service Limited
(MMS).

Successful industrial application are already working at Los Pelambres in Molybdenum


Plant, Codelco Andina as pre rougher to end concentrate, also Molybdenum Plant, Las
Luces Plant in Copper concentrator, as pre rougher to end concentrate using sea water,
Minera Valle Aconcagua processing a full automatic plant fed pre concentrate from
Codelco Andina fresh tailing. Also it was a positive copper application at Minera
Michilla, using sea water and Minera Tamaya for Copper Gold mineral.

Positive operational changes in flotation circuit designs have been installed in


production circuits using G cell and vertical cell, improving performance of flotation
circuits and quality of end products.

High concentration of bubbles and micro turbulence from aeration unit design, provide
high probability of collision and attachment, reducing dramatically the residence time,
self-sucking air, low maintenance, full automation process and small surface to montage
this kind of plants are some of the main the advantages.

Rotation phenomenon introduced in the vessel of the G Cell creates radial separation
forces which are the main key to separate faster the bubbles with concentrate from the
tailing and the high selectivity to get concentrate, introducing also a very short residence
time in the separation vessel.

As result of the industrial experience in Chile, the pneumatic flotation type G Cell can
be regarded as a technology which has to be considered to remove quickly fines and
ultra-fines liberated particles to end concentrate, reducing the recycling load in the
conventional flotation circuits and this could be consider as a pre rougher cell to
produce end concentrate directly.
Mineral Processing

MP48

REMOTE SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE PROCESS RESULTS AT


CONCENTRATOR PLANTS

Jorge M. Menacho

De Re Metallica Consultant, Av. Del Valle 601, Oficina 31, Huechuraba, Santiago,
Chile, (562)-738-4493, drm@drm.cl

ABSTRACT

A new approach to improve operational managing at concentrator plants is described in


this paper. It combines robust process models connected to intelligent algorithms
specially designed for specific goals, all settled into a powerful communication platform
which assure maximum usability through remote applications.

This approach combines expert knowledge and modern cloud computing technology to
produce efficient tools for monitoring, optimization and control of critical operational
issues.

Specific examples are given showing potentiality of these tools, directed toward
increasing of productivity and efficiency, reducing water and energy consumption and
improving communities and environment friendship.