Anda di halaman 1dari 176

Ilmu Logam Fisik

(RTM 1211)
Dr. Ir. M. Sabri, MT
MENGENAL MATERIAL TEKNIK

Dr. Ir. M. Sabri, MT


sabrimesin@gmail.com

CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Material
Tujuan Pembelajaran:
Untuk menentukan maksud bahan baku
Untuk meracik dan merekayasa bahan

Untuk mengelompokkan bahan rekayasa kedalam berbagai grup.

Untuk menguraikan produk setengah jadi

Untuk menguraikan pengaruh pemmesinan dalam membuat


produk akhir
Untuk menguraikan aliran proses material menjadi produk akhir

Untuk menguraikan pentingnya komponen standard.


Introduction to Material
Bahan baku
Produk material alami yang belum di proses untuk
digunakan dalam pembuatan.
Barang yang belum selesai digunakan dalam
pembuatan sebuah produk.
Contoh:
Bijih
besi
Kayu
Minyak mentah
Batu bara
Introduction to Material

Bahan baku

Engineering Auxiliary
Material Material

Logam Bukan
logam

Ferrous/besi
Non-Ferrous/bukan besi
Introduction to Material
Engineering Materials
Bahan baku yang telah diolah menjadi produk
setengah selesai.
Contoh:
Suku cadang/spare parts
Besi tuang
dll
Introduction to Material
Logam/metals
Ferrous/besi (mewakili elemen besi dalam bahan)
Baja/Steel
Besi tuang/Cast iron
Non-ferrous/bukan besi
Copper/tembaga
Zinc/seng
Tin/timah
Introduction to Material
Bukan logam/Non-metals
Ada secara alami atau buatan yang dihasilkan
(diproduksi)
Kayu/Wood
Karet/Rubber
Resin
Polymer
Kapas/Cotton
Lembaran aspal/Asphalt sheets
Introduction to Material

Bahan
Flow of Raw Material to Final Product

Bahan baku

Proses menjadi
AUXILIARY
MATERIAL Produk
setengah jadi

Dimesin menjadi

Produk jadi

Dipasang jadi

Produk akhir
Ilmu material berkaitan dengan pengetahuan
dasar tentang struktur internal, sifat dan
pengolahan bahan.

Rekayasa Material berkaitan dengan penerapan


pengetahuan yang diperoleh berdasarkan ilmu
material untuk mengubah bahan-bahan untuk
produk.
Materials Science and
Materials Science Engineering Materials Engineering
Basic Resultant Applied
Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge
of of Structure and of Materials
Materials Properties

1-4
Jenis jenis Material
Bahan Logam/Metallic
Terdiri dari satu atau lebih elemen logam.
Contoh:- Besi, Tembaga, Aluminium.
Unsur logam dapat digabungkan dengan
unsur-unsur non logam.
Example:- Silicon Carbide, Besi Oksida.
Anorganik dan memiliki struktur kristal.
Konduktor panas dan listrik yang baik .

Metals and Alloys

Ferrous Nonferrous
Eg: Steel, Eg:Copper
Cast Iron Aluminum
1-5
Jenis jenis Material
Material Polymeric (Plastic)
Molekul organik raksasa dan sebagian besar
bentuk non-kristalin.
Beberapa adalah campuran dari daerah
kristalin dan nonkristalin.
Konduktor listrik yang buruk dan karenanya
digunakan sebagai isolator.
Kekuatan dan keuletan/ke-liat-an sangat
bervariasi.
Rendah densitas dan suhu penguraian.

Contoh :- Poly vinyl Chloride (PVC), Polyester.


Aplikasi: - Tangga, DVD, Kain dll.

1-6
Jenis jenis Material
Material Keramik
Unsur logam dan bukan logam secara kimiawi terikat
bersama.
Anorganik tetapi dapat berupa kristal, nonkristalin atau
campuran keduanya.
Kekerasan tinggi, kuat dan tahan aus.
Insulator yang sangat baik. Oleh karena itu digunakan
untuk tungku lapisan untuk perlakuan panas dan
pencairan logam.
Juga digunakan dalam pesawat ulang-alik untuk
melindungi selama keluar dan masuk kembali ke atmosfir.
Aplikasi lain: Abrasives, bahan bangunan, peralatan dll.

Contoh:- Porcelain, Glass, Silicon nitride.


1-7
Jenis jenis Material
Material Komposit

Campuran dari dua atau lebih bahan.


Terdiri dari bahan pengisi dan bahan pengikat.
Bahan hanya ikatan, tidak akan larut dalam satu sama lain.
Utamanya dua jenis:-
o Fibrous: Serat dalam matriks
o Partikulat: Partikel dalam matriks
o Matrix bisa logam, keramik atau polimer
Contoh :-
Fiber Glass (Memperkuat materi dalam matriks polyester
atau epoxy)
Beton (Kerikil atau batang baja yang diperkuat semen dan
pasir)
Aplikasi: - sayap pesawat dan mesin, konstruksi.
1-8
Jenis jenis Material
Material Elektronik

Tidak Besar menurut volumenya tapi sangat penting.


Silikon merupakan bahan elektronik umum.
Karakteristik listriknya berubah dengan penambahan
ketidakmurnian (impurities).

Contoh:- chip Silicon, transistors


Applikasi :- Komputer, Sirkuit Terpadu, Satelit dll.

1-9
Trend/Kecenderungan masa Depan
Material Logam

Paduan (alloy) dapat ditingkatkan dengan


campuran kimia yang lebih baik dan proses
kontrol.
Paduan kedirgantaraan baru yang diteliti terus-
menerus.
o Tujuan: Untuk meningkatkan ketahanan suhu dan korosi.
o Contoh : Paduan yang super berbasis nikel suhu tinggi.
diselidikiTeknik pengolahan baru.
o Tujuan: Untuk meningkatkan umur produk dan sifat lelah.
o Contoh: tempa (forging) isotermal, metalurgi Powder.
Logam untuk aplikasi biomedis

1-11
Future Trends
Polymeric (Plastic Materials)
Pertumbuhan tercepat bahan dasar (9%
per tahun).
Setelah 1995 tingkat pertumbuhan
menurun karena kejenuhan.
Bahan polimer yang berbeda dapat
dicampur bersama untuk menghasilkan
paduan plastik baru.
Pencarian plastik baru terus berlanjut.

1-12
Future Trends
Material Keramik
Keluarga baru dari rekayasa keramik diproduksi
sepuluh tahun terakhir
Bahan baru dan aplikasi terus ditemukan.
Sekarang digunakan dalam aplikasi Mobil dan
Biomedis.
Pengolahan keramik mahal.
Mudah rusak karena sangat rapuh.
Teknik pengolahan yang lebih baik dan keramik
yang berdampak tinggi harus ditemukan.

1-13
Future Trends
Material Komposit
Plastik yang diperkuat serat adalah Produk
utama.
pertumbuhan tahunan rata-rata 3% Pada 1981-
1987.
Tingkat pertumbuhan tahunan sebesar 5%
diperkirakan untuk komposit baru seperti
kombinasi Fiberglass-Epoxy dan Graphite-
Epoxy.
Pesawat komersial diharapkan menggunakan
material semakin banyak komposit.

1-14
Future Trends
Material Electronik
Penggunaan bahan elektronik seperti silikon
meningkat pesat dari tahun 1970.
Bahan elektronik diharapkan dapat memainkan
peran penting dalam "Pabrik Masa Depan.
Penggunaan komputer dan robot akan meningkat
sehingga pertumbuhan luas dalam penggunaan
bahan elektronik.
Aluminium untuk interkoneksi di sirkuit terpadu
dapat diganti dengan tembaga menghasilkan
konduktivitas yang lebih baik.

1-15
Future Trends
Bahan Smart: Mengubah sifat mereka dengan
penginderaan perangsang luar.
Paduan bentuk memori: Bahan yang tegang beralih
kembali ke bentuk aslinya di atas suhu kritis.
Digunakan dalam katup jantung dan untuk memperluas
arteri.

Bahan piezoelektrik: Menghasilkan medan listrik


ketika terkena paksa/gaya dan sebaliknya.
Digunakan dalam aktuator dan pengecil getaran.
MEMS and materialNano
MEMS: Microelectromechanical systems.

perangkat miniatur
pompa Micro, sensor

Material Nano: panjang Karakteristik <100 nm

Contoh: keramik powder dan ukuran butir <100 nm


Material Nano lebih keras dan lebih kuat dari bahan
curah.
Memiliki karakteristik biokompatibel (seperti dalam
Zirconia)
Transistor dan dioda yang dikembangkan pada
sebuah kawat/kabel nano.
RINGKASAN: BONDING/Pengikat
Jenis Energy Pengikat Komentar
Ionic Besar! Tak ter arah (keramik)

Variabel Ter arah


Covalent Besar-Diamond semiconductors, keramik
kecil-Bismuth Rantai polymer)

Variable
Metallic besar-Tungsten Tak ter arah (metals)
kecil-Mercury
Ter arah
Secondary Paling kecil inter-chain (polymer)
inter-molecular

14
Material Test
Mechanical Testing and Properties

Tensile Strength Tensile Test

Flexural Strength Bend Test for brittle materials

Hardness Hardness Test

Toughness Impact Test

Fatigue Life Fatigue Test

Creep rate Creep Test


F
Tensile Test Engineerin g stress
A0
l l0
Engineerin g strain
l0
Mechanical Testing and Properties
Tensile Test & the properties obtained from the Tensile Test
F
Engineerin g stress
A0
l l0
Engineerin g strain
l0

Note: in Metals, Yield stress is usually the stress required for dislocations to slip.
Tensile Test & the properties obtained from the Tensile Test

Note: Youngs modulus is a measure of the stiffness of the material.


Tensile Test & the properties obtained from the Tensile Test

lateral
Er=1/2(yield strength)(strain at yielding) Poisson ' s ratio :
longitudinal
Tensile Test & the properties obtained from the Tensile Test

Er=1/2(yield strength)(strain at yielding)

lateral
Poisson ' s ratio :
longitudinal
Tensile Test & the properties obtained from the Tensile Test

Effect of Temperature
The Bend Test for Brittle Material

Due to the presence of flaw at the surface,


in many brittle materials, the normal tensile
test cannot easily be performed.
The Bend Test for Brittle Material

3FL
Flexural strength 2
, where F is fracture Load.
2wh
The Bend Test for Brittle Material

where is deflection
True Stress-True Strain

F F
Engineerin g stress True stress t '
A0 A
l l0 l'
'
l
dl A
Engineerin g strain True strain t ln( ) ln( 0' )
l0 0l l l0 A
The Hardness Test

F
Brinell Hardness : HB
( / 2) D( D D 2 Di2 )
The Hardness Test
6.7 The Impact Test impact strength

To evaluate the brittleness of a material subjected to a sudden blow.


6.7 The Impact Test impact strength

Impact strength vs. Temperature

Note: BCC metals have transition temperature, but most FCC metals do not.
6.7 The Impact Test impact strength

Yield Strength: A > B Impact Strength: B > A


The Fatigue Test Fatigue Life, Fatigue Strength
The Fatigue Test

S-N curve
The Creep Test:

Apply stress to a material at an elevated temperature

Creep: Plastic deformation


at high temperature

a typical creep curve showing the strain produced as


a function of time for a constant stress and temperature.
The Creep Test:
Metal / Metallic materials
Classifications & Specifications of Metallic Materials
Major characteristics of metallic materials are
crystallinity, conductivity to heat and electricity and
relatively high strength & toughness.
Classification: systematic arrangement or division of
materials into group on the basis of some common
characteristic
Generally classified as ferrous and nonferrous
Ferrous materials-iron as the base metal,
range from plain carbon (>98% Fe) to high
alloy steel (<50% alloying elements)
Nonferrous materials consist of the rest of the
metals and alloys 46

Eg. Aluminum, magnesium, titanium & their


alloys
Within each group of alloy, classification can be
made according
(a) chemical composition, e.g. carbon content or
alloys content in steels;
(b) finished method, e.g. hot rolled or cold
rolled;
(c) product form, e.g. bar, plate, sheet, tubing,
structural shape;
(d) method of production, e.g. cast, wrought
alloys.

47
Designation: identification of each class by a
number, letter, symbol, name or a combination.
Normally based on chemical composition or
mechanical properties.
Example : Table 2.1 designation systems for steel
System used by AISI & SAE: 4, or 5 digits which
designate the alloy composition.
1st two digits indicate Alloy system
Last two or three digits nominal carbon content
in hundredths of a percent

48
49
In most eng. application, selection of metallic is usually
based on the following considerations:
1) Product shape: a) sheet, strip, plate, (b) bar, rod, wire,
(c) tubes, (d) forging (e) casting
2) Mechanical properties-tensile, fatigue, hardness,
creep,impact test
3) Physical & chemical properties-specific gravity, thermal
& electrical conductivity, thermal expansion
4) Metallurgical consideration-anisotrophy of properties,
hardenability of steel, grain size & consistency of
properties
5) Processing castability-castability, formability,
machinability
6) Sales appeal-color, luster
7) Cost & availability
50
Design and selection for metals
One of the major issues for structural components
is deflection under service load.
A function of the applied forces and geometry,
and also stiffness of material.
Stiffness of material is difficult to change,
either shape or the material has to be changed if
order to achieve a large change in the stiffness
of a component.

51
Load carrying capacity of component can be related
to the yield strength, fatigue strength or creep
strength depending on loading & service condition.
All are structure sensitive.
Changed by changing chemical composition of the
alloy, method and condition of manufacturing, as
well as heat treatment
Increasing the strength cause metal ductility &
toughness to decrease which affects the
performance of component.

52
Electrical & thermal conductivities
Thermal conductivity, K
Is measure of the rate at which heat is
transferred through a material
Al & Cu- Manufacture of component where
electrical conductivity is primary
requirement
Corrosion resistance & specific gravity limits
the materials.

53
Manufacturing consideration
Majority of metallic components are wrought or cast
Wrought m/str:
usually stronger and more ductile than cast.
Available in many shapes & size tolerance
Hot worked products:
Tolerance are wider thus difficult for automatic
machining
Poor surface quality, esp. in sheet/wire drawing
Cold worked product:
Narrow tolerance
Residual stress cause unpredictable size change during
machining 54
Weldability a function of material composition. So
structure involve welding of the components need to
consider. Also for other joining means.
Machinability:
Important if large amounts of material have to be
removed
improvement by heat treatment or alloying
elements
Economic aspects:
material able to perform function at lowest cost
Plain carbon steel & cast iron are the least
expensive
55
Design for polymer
Classifications of Polymers
Polymer low density, good thermal & electrical
insulation, high resistance to most chemicals and
ability to take colours and opacities.
But unreinforced bulk polymer are mechanically
weaker, lower elastic moduli & high thermal
expansion coefficients.
Improvement Reinforced variety of fibrous
materials Composites (PMC).

56
Advantages : ease of manufacturing & versatility.
Can manufacture into complicated shapes in one
step with little need for further processing or
surface treatment.
Versatility : ability to produce accurate
component, with excellent surface finish and
attractive color, at low cost and high speed
Application: automotive, electrical & electronic
products, household appliance, toys, container,
packaging, textiles
Basic manufacturing processes for polymer parts
are extrusion, molding, casting and forming of
sheet. 57
Thermoset & thermoplastic
Differ in the degree of their inter-molecular
bonding
Thermoplastic-litle cross bonding between
polymer, soften when heated & harden when
cooled
Thermoset-strong intermolecular bonding which
prevents fully cured materials from softening
when heated
Rubber are similar to plastic in structure and the
difference is largely based on the degree of
extensibility or stretching.
58
Design consideration for polymer
Structural part/When the parts is to carry load
Should remember the strength and stiffness
of plastics vary with temperature.
Troom data cannot be used in design calculation
if the part will be used at other temp.
Long term properties cannot be predicted from
short term prop. Eg. Creep behavior
Engineering plastics are britle (notched impact
strength < 5.4 J/cm)
Avoid stress raiser
59
Design for ceramics
Classification of Ceramic Materials
Ceramics inorganic compounds of one or more metals
with a nonmetallic element. Eg Al2O3, SiC, Si2N3.
Crystal structure of ceramic are complex
They accommodate more than one element of
widely different atomic size.
The interatomic forces generally alternate
between ionic & covalent which leave few free
electrons
usually heat & electrical insulators.
Strong ionic & covalent bonds give high hardness,
stiffness & stability (thermal & hostile env.).
60
Structure:
(1) Amorphous or glass-short range order, (2)
crystalline (long range order) & (3) crystalline
material bonded by glassy matrix.
Clasiification:
Whitewares, glass, refractories, structural clay
products & enamels.
Characteristics:
Hard & brittleness,
low mechanical & thermal shock
High melting points
Thermal conductivities between metal & polymer
61
Design consideration for ceramics
Britle, low mechanical & thermal shock-need special
consideration
Ratio between tensile strength, modulus of rupture &
compressive strength ~ 1:2:10. In design, load ceramic
parts in compression & avoid tensile loading
Sensitive to stress concentration
Avoid stress raiser during design.
Dimensional change take place during drying and firing,
should be consider
Large flat surface can cause wrapping
Large changes in thickness of product can lead to
nonuniform drying and cracking.
Dimensional tolerances should be generous to avoid
machining 62
Design for composite

Introduction
A composite material can be broadly defined as an
assembly two or more chemically distinct
material, having distinct interface between them
and acting to produce desired set of properties
Composites MMC, PMC & CMC.
The composite constituent divided into two
Matrix
Structural constituent / reinforcement

63
Properties / behavior depends on properties, size
& distribution, volume fraction & shape of the
constituents, & the nature and strength of bond
between constituents.
Mostly developed to improve mechanical
properties i.e strength, stiffness, creep
resistance & toughness.
Three type of composite
(1) Dispersion-strengthened,
(2) Reinforcement continuous & discontinuous
(3) Laminated (consist more than 2 layers
bonded together). 64
65
Designing with composite
A composite materials usually are more expensive on
a cost.
Used when weight saving is possible when the
relevant specific property (property/density) of the
composite is better than conventional material
E.g. specific strength (strength/density), specific
elastic modulus ( elastic modulus/density)
Efficient use of composite can be achieved by
tailoring the material for the application
E.g., to achieve max. strength in one direction in a
fibrous composite, the fibers should be well
aligned in that direction 66
If composite is subjected to tensile loading,
important design criterion is the tensile
strength in the loading direction
Under compression loading, failure by buckling
become important
Fatigue behavior:
Steel- show an endurance limit or a stress
below which fatigue does not occur
Composite-fatigue at low stress level because
fibrous composites may have many crack, which
can be growing simultaneously and propagate
through the matrix
67
1 STEEL
1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
1.2 Microstructure of steels
1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
1.4 Mechanical properties
1.5 Steels for different applications
1.6 Joints in steel
Definitions
Iron A chemical element (Fe)
Ion A charged particle, e.g. Cl- or Fe++

Iron is an element with the chemical symbol Fe. Steel and cast
iron are described as "ferrous" metals and are made from iron
with different carbon contents.
Carbon contents
Carbon Content Material
0.02% Wrought Iron - no longer
generally available in the UK
0.15% Low carbon steel
0.15-0.25% Mild and high yield steels
0.5-1.5% High carbon and tool steels
3-4% Cast irons
Ironbridge
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH

CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE


Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying
Face centred cubic and Body centred cubic
FACE CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (FCC)

Close packed directions are face diagonals.


--Note: All atoms are identical; the face-centered atoms are shaded
differently only for ease of viewing.

Coordination # = 12

Adapted from Fig. 3.1(a),


Callister 6e.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson)


6
BODY CENTERED CUBIC STRUCTURE (BCC)

Close packed directions are cube diagonals.


--Note: All atoms are identical; the center atom is shaded
differently only for ease of viewing.

Coordination # = 8

Adapted from Fig. 3.2,


Callister 6e.

(Courtesy P.M. Anderson) 8


HEXAGONAL CLOSE-PACKED STRUCTURE
(HCP)

ABAB... Stacking Sequence


3D Projection 2D Projection

A sites

B sites

A sites
Adapted from Fig. 3.3,
Callister 6e.

Coordination # = 12
APF = 0.74

10
Perubahan Volume pada baja panas
The nomenclature is:
FERRITE or Fe: This is the bcc iron which is
formed on slow cooling and may contain up to
0.08% Carbon. Soft, ductile and not particularly
strong.
CEMENTITE: This is iron carbide which contains
about 6.67% Carbon.
PEARLITE: This in the laminar mixture of ferrite
and cementite and has an average carbon content
of about 0.78%. Hard, brittle and strong
AUSTENITE or Fe: This is the fcc iron which is
formed at high temperatures and may contain up
to 2%C
Phase
diagram for
steel
(iron/carbon
)
Strengths and
carbon
contents of
steels
High
carbon
content.
Low
elongation
value.
Low impact
resistance.
Brittle
failure.
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH

CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE


Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying
Movement of dislocation 1

Grain
Boundary
Movement of dislocation 2

Grain
Boundary
Movement of dislocation 3

Grain
Boundary
Effect of ferrite grain size on the ductile/brittle
transition temperature for mild steel
Pore fluid expression die after tensile failure. The
inner core has fractured but the outer shell is a less
brittle steel so there was no explosive failure.
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH

CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE


Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying
Cooling Steel from High
Temperatures
Slow Cooling (annealing) gives large grain size ductile steel
Cooling in air (normalising) gives smaller grains
Rapid cooling in water (quenching) gives hard brittle steel
Part of iron/carbon phase
diagram
Cooling Steel from High
Temperatures
Slow Cooling (annealing) gives large grain size ductile steel
Cooling in air (normalising) gives smaller grains
Rapid cooling in water (quenching) gives hard brittle steel
Effect of
carbon
content on
hardness
for products
of rapid
cooling
(martensite
and bainite)
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH

CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE


Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying
Early cold worked steel
MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECTS
ON STRENGTH

CARBON CONTENT

CONTROL OF GRAIN SIZE


Control by Heating
Control by Working
Control by Alloying
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
Rolling sequence
for steel angle
Rolled steel
sections
RSC Rolled Steel Column
UB Universal Beam

RSA Rolled Steel Angle

RST Rolled steel T

RHS Rolled Hollow Section


The RSJ
The UB has parallel flanges. A limited number of traditional RSJs
(Rolled Steel Joists) with tapered flanges are produced in
smaller section sizes.

RSJ Flange UB

Web

Flange
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
Stress-Strain curves
Stress-Strain curve for steel

Yield Plastic

0.2%
proof Failure
stress

Stress Elastic

0.2% Strain
Embrittlement at cold temperatures
S-N curves for fatigue
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
The properties required of
structural steels are:
Strength. This is traditionally specified as a characteristic value
for the 0.2% proof stress
Ductility to give impact resistance. Ductility increases with
reducing carbon content.
Weldability. (see below).
Steel
frame (1)
Steel frame (2)
Steel frame (3)
Steel
structure
Light
weight
steel
Steel Framed
housing
Housing
Details
Steel in
masonry
structure
Steel Bridge
Reinforcing Steels
Reinforcing steels are tested for strength and must also
comply with the requirements of a "rebend" test to ensure
that they retain their strength when bent to shape. This limits
the carbon content. High yield bars are cold worked.
Bending Reinforcement
Prestressing steels
Prestressing steels (high tensile steels) are not bent so they
can have higher carbon contents that normal reinforcement
and have higher strengths. This limits the ductility but is
necessary to avoid loss of prestress due to creep
Prestresse
d slabs
Pre-
stressin
g
systems
3.1 STEEL
3.1.1 Iron-carbon compounds
3.1.2 Microstructure of steels
3.1.3 Manufacturing and forming processes
3.1.4 Mechanical properties
3.1.5 Steels for different applications
3.1.6 Joints in steel
The main methods of welding are:

Gas welding. In order to produce a hot enough


flame a combustible gas (e.g. acetylene) is burnt
with oxygen. This method is not used for major
welding jobs but has the advantage that the torch
will also cut the metal.
Arc welding. In this method a high electric current
is passed from the electrode (the new metal for
the weld) to the parent metal. The electrode is
coated with a "flux" which helps the weld
formation and prevents contact with air which
would cause oxide and nitride formation.
Inert gas shielded arc welding. This method uses
a supply of inert gas (often argon) to keep the air
off the weld so no flux is needed.
Gas and Arc welding
General points about welding.
Do not look directly at a welding process (especially
electric arc). It may damage your eyes.
Always allow for the effect of heating and
uncontrolled cooling of the parent metal. e.g. if high
yield reinforcing bar is welded the effect of the cold
working will be lost - and with it much of the
strength. This heating will also often cause distortion.
Check the welding rods. If they have become damp
the flux will be damaged. Use the correct rods for the
steel (e.g. stainless).
Remember that the welding process cuts into the
parent metal and, if done incorrectly, may cause
substantial loss of section.
OTHER JOINTING SYSTEMS
Bolted Joints
Rivets
Rivets and bolts
Riveting the Empire State Building
Metal Alloys: Structure and
Strengthening by Heat Treatment

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Gear Teeth Cross-section

Figure 4.1 Cross-section of gear teeth showing induction-hardened


surfaces. Source: Courtesy of TOCCO Div., Park-Ohio Industries, Inc.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Chapter 4 Topics

Figure 4.2 Outline of topics described in Chapter 4.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Two Phase Systems

Figure 4.3 (a) Schematic illustration of grains, grain boundaries, and particles dispersed
throughout the structure of a two-phase system, such as a lead-copper alloy. The grains
represent lead in solid solution in copper, and the particles are lead as a second phase.
(b) Schematic illustration of a two-phase system consisting of two sets of grains: dark
and light. The dark and the light grains have separate compositions and properties.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Cooling of Metals

Figure 4.4 (a) Cooling curve for the solidification of pure metals. Note that freezing
takes place at a constant temperature; during freezing, the latent heat of
solidification is given off. (b) Change in density during the cooling of pure metals.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Phase Diagram for Nickel-copper Alloy System

Figure 4.5 Phase diagram for nickel-copper alloy system obtained at a slow rate of
solidification. Note that pure nickel and pure copper each has one freezing or
melting temperature. The top circle on the right depicts the nucleation of crystals.
The second circle shows the formation of dendrites (see Section 10.2). The bottom
circle shows the solidified alloy with grain boundaries.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Mechanical Properties of Copper Alloys

Figure 4.6 Mechanical properties of copper-nickel and copper-zinc


alloys as a function of their composition. The curves for zinc are short,
because zinc has a maximum solid solubility of 40% in copper.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Lead-tin Phase Diagram

Figure 4.7 The lead-tin phase diagram. Note that the composition of eutectic
point for this alloy is 61.9% Sn 38.1% Pb. A composition either lower or
higher than this ratio will have a higher liquidus temperature.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Iron-iron Carbide Phase Diagram

Figure 4.8 The iron-iron carbide phase diagram. Because of


the importance of steel as an engineering material, this
diagram is one of the most important of all phase diagrams.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Unit Cells

Figure 4.9 The unit cells for (a) austenite, (b) ferrite, and (c) martensite. The effect
of percentage of carbon (by weight) on the lattice dimensions for martensite is
shown in (d). Note the interstitial position of the carbon atoms (see Fig. 1.9). Also
note, the increase in dimension c with increasing carbon content: this effect causes
the unit cell of martensite to be in the shape of a rectangular prism.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructures for an Iron-Carbon Alloy

Figure 4.10 Schematic illustration of


the microstructures for an iron-
carbon alloy of eutectoid
composition (0.77% carbon) above
and below the eutectoid temperature
of 727C (1341F).

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructure of Steel Formed from Eutectoid Composition

Figure 4.11 Microstructure of pearlite in 1080 steel formed from austenite


of a eutectoid composition. In this lamellar structure, the lighter regions
are ferrite, and the darker regions are carbide. Magnification: 2500x.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram with Graphite

Figure 4.12 Phase diagram for the iron-carbon system with graphite (instead of
cementite) as the stable phase. Note that this figure is an extended version of Fig. 4.8.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructure for Cast Irons

Figure 4.13 Microstructure for cast irons. Magnification: 100x. (a) Ferritic gray iron
with graphite flakes. (b) Ferritic ductile iron (nodular iron) with graphite in nodular
form. (c) Ferritic malleable iron. This cast iron solidified as white cast iron with the
carbon present as cementite and was heat treated to graphitize the carbon.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Microstructure of Eutectoid Steel

Figure 4.14
Microstructure of eutectoid
steel. Spheroidite is
formed by tempering the
steel at 700C (1292F).
Magnification: 1000x.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Martensite

Figure 4.15 (a) Hardness of martensite as a function of carbon content. (b)


Micrograph of martensite containing 0.8% carbon. The gray plate-like regions are
martensite; they have the same composition as the original austenite (white
regions). Magnification: 1000x.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Hardness of Tempered Martensite

Figure 4.16 Hardness of tempered martensite as a function of


tempering time for the 1080 steel quenched to 65 HRC. Hardness
decreases because the carbide particles coalesce and grow in size,
thereby increasing the interparticle distance of the softer ferrite.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Time-
temperature-
transformation
diagrams

Figure 4.17 (a) Austenite-


to-pearlite transformation
of iron-carbon alloy as a
function of time and
temperature. (b)
Isothermal transformation
diagram obtained from (a)
for a transformation
temperature of 675C
(1274F). (c)
Microstructures obtained
for a eutectoid iron-carbon
alloy as a function of
cooling rate.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Hardness and Toughness in Steel as a Function of Carbide Shape

Figure 4.18 (a) and (b) Hardness and (c) toughness for annealed plain-carbon steel as a
function of a carbide shape. Carbides in the pearlite are lamellar. Fine pearlite is obtained
by increasing the cooling rate. The spheroidite structure has sphere-like carbide particles.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Mechanical Properties of Steel as a Function of
Composition and Microstructure

Figure 4.19 Mechanical properties of annealed steels as a function of composition and


microstructure. Note in (a) the increase in hardness and strength and in (b) the decrease
in ductility and toughness with increasing amounts of pearlite and iron carbide.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
End-Quench
Hardenability
Test

Figure 4.20 (a) End-


quench test and cooling
rate. (b) Hardenability
curves for five different
steels, as obtained from the
end-quench test. Small
variations in composition
can change the shape of
these curves. Each curve is
actually a band, and its
exact determination is
important in the heat
treatment of metals for
better control of properties.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Phase Diagram for Aluminum-copper Alloy
and Obtained Microstructures

Figure 4.21 (a) Phase diagram for the aluminum-copper alloy system.
(b) Various microstructures obtained during the age-hardening process.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Effect of Time and Temperature on Yield Stress

Figure 4.22 The effect of again time and temperature on the yield
stress of 2014-T4 aluminum alloy. Note that, for each
temperature, there is an optimal aging time for maximum strength.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Outline of Heat Treatment Processes for Surface Hardening

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Outline of Heat Treatment Processes for Surface Hardening, cont.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Heat-treating Temperature Ranges for Plain-Carbon Steels

Figure 4.23 Heat-treating temperature ranges for plain-carbon


steels, as indicated on the iron-iron carbide phase diagram.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Hardness of Steel as a Function of Carbon Content

Figure 4.24 Hardness of steels in the quenched and


normalized conditions as a function of carbon content.
Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Mechanical Properties of Steel as a Function of
Tempering Temperature

Figure 4.25 Mechanical


properties of oil-
quenched 4340 steel as
a function of tempering
temperature.

Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid.
ISBN 0-13-148965-8. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
CAST IRONS
Fe-C Phase Diagram

Stable

Metastable
White CI
Malleabilize
Grey CI
CAST IRONS Stress concentration
Ductile CI at flake tips avoided

Good castability C > 2.4% Malleable CI

Alloy CI
White Cast Iron

All C as Fe3C (Cementite)


Microstructure Pearlite + Ledeburite + Cementite
Grey Cast Iron [2.4% (for good castability), 3.8 (for OK mechanical propeties)]

< 1.25% Inhibits graphitization

< 0.1% retards graphitization; size of Graphite flakes

Fe-C-Si + (Mn, P, S)
Invariant lines become invariant regions in phase diagram
Si (1.2, 3.5) C as Graphite flakes in microstructure (Ferrite matrix)
volume during solidification better castability

L ( Fe3C ) Fe3C ( Fe3C ) Si Ceutectoid


Ledeburite Pearlite

Si decreases Eutectivity
Si promotes graphitization ~ effect as cooling rate
Solidification over a range of temperatures permits the nucleation and growth of Graphite
flakes
Change in interfacial energy between /L & Graphite/L brought about by Si
Growth of Graphite along a axis
Ductile/Spheroidal Cast Iron

Graphite nodules instead of flakes (in 2D section)


Mg, Ce, Ca (or other spheroidizing) elements are added
The elements added to promote spheroidization react with the solute in
the liquid to form heterogenous nucleation sites
The alloying elements are injected into mould before pouring (George-
Fischer container)
It is thought that by the modification of the interfacial energy the c and
a growth direction are made comparable leading to spheroidal graphite
morphology
The graphite phase usually nucleates in the liquid pocket created by the
proeutectic
Ductile Iron/Nodular Iron
Ferrite Graphite nodules

10 m
With Ferritic Matrix With (Ferrite + Pearlite) Matrix

With Pearlitic matrix


Ductile Iron/Nodular Iron

Ferrite (White)
Graphite (black)

Bulls Eye

Ferrite

5 m

Pearlite (grey)
Malleable Cast Iron

White Cast Iron Malleable Cast Iron


Malleabilize
To Increase Ductility

48 hrs
Fe3C (WCI)
2 stage heat treatment
Graphite Temper Nodules (Malleable Iron)
(940-960)C (Above eutectoid temperature)
Stage I
Competed when all Cementite Graphite

A: Low T structure (Ferrite + Pearlite + Martensite) ( + Cementite)

B: Graphite nucleation at /Cementite interface


(rate of nucleation increased by C, Si)
(Si solubility of C in driving force
for growth of Graphite)

C: Cementite dissolves C joining growing Graphite plates

Spacing between Cementite and Graphite


spacing time (obtained by faster cooling of liquid)
Time for
Addition of Alloying elements
Graphitization
which increase the nucleation rate of Graphite temper nodules
in Stage I
Si t
(720-730)C (Below eutectoid temperature)
Stage II
After complete graphitization in Stage I Further Graphitization

Slow cool to the lower temperature such that does not form Cementite
C diffuses through to Graphite temper nodules
(called Ferritizing Anneal)
Full Anneal in Ferrite + Graphite two phase region
Partial Anneal (Insufficient time in Stage II Graphitization)
Ferrite is partial and the remaining transforms to Pearlite
Pearlite + Ferrite + Graphite
If quench after Stage I Martensite (+ Retained Austenite(RA))
(Graphite temper nodules are present in a matrix of Martensite and RA)
Malleable Iron
Pearlitic Matrix Ferrite (White)

Graphite (black)

Pearlite (grey)

Partially Malleabilized Iron Ferritic Matrix


Incomplete Ferritizing Anneal

Ferrite (White)

Graphite (black)

10 m
Fully Malleabilized Iron
Complete Ferritizing Anneal
Growth of Graphite

Hillert and Lidblom


Growth of Graphite from Screw dislocations

Growth of Graphite Hunter and Chadwick

Double and Hellawell


Alloy Cast Irons
Cr, Mn, Si, Ni, Al
the range of microstructures
Beneficial effect on many properties
high temperature oxidation resistance
corrosion resistance in acidic environments
wear/abaration resistance

Graphite free

Alloy Cast Irons

Graphite bearing
Cr addition (12- 35 wt %)

Excellent resistance to oxidation at high temperatures


High Cr Cast Irons are of 3 types:
12-28 % Cr matrix of Martensite + dispersed carbide
29-34 % Cr matrix of Ferrite + dispersion of alloy carbides
[(Cr,Fe)23C6, (Cr,Fe)7C3]
15-30 % Cr + 10-15 % Ni stable + carbides [(Cr,Fe)23C6, (Cr,Fe)7C3]
Ni stabilizes Austenite structure
High Cr

29.3% Cr, 2.95% C


Ni:
Stabilizes Austenitic structure
Graphitization (suppresses the formation of carbides)
(Cr counteracts this tendency of Ni for graphitization)
Carbon content in Eutectic
Moves nose of TTT diagram to higher times easy formation of
Martensite
Carbide formation in presence of Cr increases the hardness of the eutectic
structure Ni Hard Cast Irons (4%Ni, 2-8% Cr, 2.8% C)

Ni-Hard Good abrasion resistance

Needles of Martensite

Transformation sequence
Crystallization of primary
Eutectic liquid + alloy carbide
4%Ni, 2-8% Cr, 2.8% C Martensite
Ni Resist Iron: 15-30% Ni + small amount of Cr:
Austenitic Dendrites + Graphite plates/flakes + interdendritic carbides
due to presence of Cr
Resistant to oxidation (used in chemical processing plants, sea water, oil
handling operations)

Graphite plates Dendrites of


Ni-resist
Silal Iron (trade name): Alloy CI with 5% Si
Si allows solidification to occur over larger temperature range
promotes graphitization
Forms surface film of iron silicate resistant to acid corrosion

CI with 5 % Si
Fe-Ni Phase Diagram
Alloy Cast Irons

Bulls
Eye

Anda mungkin juga menyukai