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1.

0 WATER RESOURCES AND QUALITY


1.1 the sources of water supply
the importance of water usage
the sources of water supply
a. surface water resources : rivers, lakes, reservoirs / dams
b. ground water resources : well/boring

1.2 water quality characteristics


physical characteristics: Turbidity, taste and odor, color, temperature
chemical characteristics: pH, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, chlorides,
sulphates, iron, solids and nitrates
biological characteristics: coliform, virus, bacteria and protozoa

1.3 the causes of water contaminant


human impact results in a fresh water reduction and water quality degradation.

1.4 legislative framework


legislative framework, regulatory bodies and company policies that
control abstraction licensing, recreation, farming and use of catchment area.
TOPIC 1 : WATER RESOURCES AND QUALITY

1.1 Sources Of Water Supply

a) water as part of important resource in the environment.


Water distribution
Water resource Raw water treatment system

Water disposal to Sewage water Sanitation /


river/stream treatment sewarage system

b ) the importance of water management in water supply system.


i. Health and diseases control (from water borne diseases)
ii. To achieve balance between demand and supply
iii. Safe, cheap, quality, efficient through technologies and
management
iv. Sustainable for future generation
c) Water usage classification

i. basic uses: drinking, cooking, cleaning and washing

ii. general uses: Plantation and Agriculture, livestock. industries,


hydroelectric, domestic, commercial, public, Non Revenue Water

iii. Factors affecting domestic water use


1) climatic conditions
2) Socio-economic
3) Type of industry and commerce carried out
4) water quality and pressure in the pipe system
5) Cost of water meter installation and policy
6) The use of flushing toilets and sewerage systems
7) Public Awareness residents on waste
1.2 WATER CHARACTERISTIC

Why Important to know?

i. Raw water supply need to be treated before it can be


considered safe to be supplied to consumers.

ii. Produce clean water in terms of physical, chemical and


bacteria and safe for any use.

iii. Water supplied must be aesthetically acceptable, free of


suspended materials, smell & taste

iv. Processed for the supply of water must meet standards


set of Ministry of Health Malaysia.
1.2 WATER : PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

i. Taste and odor


Smelly/putrid considered contaminated
H2S come from decay of dead organisms and plants
Bad taste come from inorganic material and other organism

ii. Color
Colorless considered clean
The colored water is considered dirty and harmful

iii. Turbidity
turbidity indicated the fine colloidal particulates that are
considered dangerous and there may be bacterial or viral

iv. Temperature
high temperature allows the existence of bacterial activity and can
affect water use

v. Conductivity
shows the existence of dissolved solid
can reduce the aesthetic value of water
1.2 WATER : BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

i. Bacteria/germ/microbe
can cause fatal diseases
3 types aerobic, anaerobic, facultative
Aerobic use oxygen and reduce DO in water (increase BOD)

ii. Algae
Very fine aquatic plants
Cause bad taste and odor to water
Reduce transparency of sun light
Too much alga indicates to many Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus

iii. Virus
Parasite lives in the body
diseases polio, high fever, diarrhea, hepatitis
turbidity indicated the fine colloidal particulates that are considered
dangerous and there may be bacterial or viral (yes, they are hiding)

iv. Protozoa
Much bigger than bacteria and eat bacteria
Thus, reduce organic load
Too much, problems and too little, not efficient treatment
1.2 WATER : CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

i. pH
Affecting chemical process like chlorination
Affecting biological life like effectiveness of bacteria

ii. Dissolved Oxygen


Bacteria need, to eat organic compound
Indicator low oxygen, high contamination

iii. Hardness
Because of ion Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn
Problem like carbonate precipitate then clogging the pipe
Two types temporary and permanent
Temporary CO3-2 and HCO3-1, boiling and soda
Permanent SO4-2, Cl-1, NO3-2, soda

iv. Organic Compound


Organism, plant, waste, sewage, dead, problems
Domestic, housing, feces,
Pesticides farm, health problems
THM chlorine + (humic + fulvic),

v. Nutrient
C,N,P industrial sewage, farm, detergent
NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY

No. Parameters Unit Treated Water Raw Water


Quality Guideline
GROUP I
1 Total Coliform MPN Absent 5000
2 E.Coli - Absent -
3 Turbidity NTU 5 1000
4 Colour TCU 15 300
5 pH unit 6.5 - 9.0 5.5 - 9.0
6 Residue Chlorine mg/L 0.2 - 5.0 -
7 Total Chlorine mg/L 1 -
NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY
No. Parameters Unit Treated Water Raw Water
Quality Guideline
GROUP II
8 Total Dissolved Solids mg/L 1000 1500
9 Biological Oxygen Demand mg/L - 6
10 Chemical Oxygen Demand mg/L - 10
11 Total Organic Carbon mg/L - -
12 Chloride mg/L 250 250
13 Anionic Detergent mg/L - 1
14 Ammonia mg/L 1.5 1.5
15 Nitrate mg/L 10 10
16 Iron mg/L 0.3 1
17 Fluoride mg/L 0.4 - 0.6 1.5
18 Hardness mg/L 500 500
19 Aluminium mg/L 0.2 -
NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY
No. Parameters Unit Treated Water Raw Water
Quality Guideline
GROUP III
21 Mercury mg/L 0.001 0.001
22 Cadmium mg/L 0.003 0.003
23 Arsenic mg/L 0.01 0.01
24 Cyanide mg/L 0.07 0.07
25 Lead mg/L 0.01 0.05
26 Chromium mg/L 0.05 0.05
27 Copper mg/L 1 1
28 Zinc mg/L 3 3
29 Sodium mg/L 200 200
30 Sulphate mg/L 250 250
NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY
No. Parameters Unit Treated Water Raw Water
Quality
Guideline
TRIHALOMETHANE
31 Chloroform mg/L 0.2 -
32 Bromoform mg/L 0.1 -
33 Dibromochloromethane mg/L 0.1 -
34 Bromodichloromethane mg/L 0.06 -
35 Selenium mg/L 0.01 0.01
36 Silver mg/L 0.05 0.05
37 Magnesium mg/L 150 150
38 Boron mg/L 0.5 -
39 Nickel mg/L 0.02 -
40 Mineral Oil mg/L 0.3 0.3
NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY

No. Parameters Unit Treated Water Raw Water


Quality Guideline
GROUP IV
42 Aldrin/Dieldrin mg/L 0.00003 0.00003
43 DDT mg/L 0.002 0.002
44 Heptachlor & Heptachlor mg/L 0.00003 0.00003
Epoxide
45 Methoxychlor mg/L 0.02 0.02
46 Lindane (BHC) mg/L 0.002 0.002
47 Chlordane mg/L 0.0002 0.0002
48 Hexachlorobenzene mg/L 0.001 0.001
NATIONAL STANDARD FOR WATER QUALITY
1.3 The Causes Of Water Contaminant

Point Sources

the source of pollution can be detected.

It is easy to control.

For example, the discharge of sewage, effluent and


toxic waste into the water from residential, industrial
and farm animals.
1.3 The Causes Of Water Contaminant
Non Point Sources
the sources of pollution cannot be determined.

For example, pollution resulting from the opening of new


cities, agriculture, logging, construction and road building,
mining and disposal of solid and liquid waste.

Common sources of pollution are:


Surface runoff.
The transfer process of pollutants caused by rain.
Pollutants are carried from the natural state (decaying
plants), from farming activity (especially fertilizers which
contain phosphate) and livestock feces.
1.4 LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK
In Malaysia, there is a need to enhance understanding on the concept of water
governance.

This includes finding best practice in water management to achieve


sustainable water management.

The Federal agencies are responsible for the planning, research and
development of water resources

State agencies are responsible for water supply infrastructure development


including financing, operation and maintenance.

The National Water Services Industry Commission (SPAN) was established


to enforce the Water Services Industry Act, 2006 to regulate the national
water services industry in terms of licensing, supervision and monitoring.
Offences Enforcement Authority

Land use violation Land Administrator / Local


Authority
Littering / Local Authority
Unauthorized Solid waste
Disposal
Unlicensed blockages and Land Administrator / Local
diversions Authority
Effluent discharge violations Department of Environment /
Local Authority
Unauthorized discharge and Land Administrator
abstraction
The Importance In Predicting The Future Demand
i. Efficient use and allocation of water
economic, ratio of output to input, meet demand

ii. Water provider benefits of demand reduction


a. energy saving for distribution, collection, treatment, expenditures
b. increase the availability of water for stream, wetlands, river
c. Save money both providers and users

iii. Legislative framework


a. Water conservation is a good policy for water resource management
b. Water agencies must have some water conservation responsibilities
c. However, it depend on an understanding of the national water resource
situation