Anda di halaman 1dari 20

1

Types of food and exercise equipment in the home related to


BMI status of adults in New York and New Jersey
By: Amanda Smith
NUFD 509 Final Paper
Dr. Wunderlich
Montclair State University
November 28, 2016
2

Table of Contents

Abstract....3

Introduction...3-6

Methodology.....6-8

Results..8-11

Conclusion and Discussion.....11-12

Recommendations and Applications..12-13

References...14-15
3

Appendices..16-19Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine associations between food and exercise habits

inside the home and the corresponding body mass index (BMI) status of individuals. This study

consisted of a cross-sectional quantitative online survey of 105 individuals (mean BMI = 25.31,

s.d. = 3.98) living in the New York and New Jersey area who were over the age of 18 years old

(mean age range=26-40, s.d. = .961; age range = 1866+ years). The online survey was posted

on the online social media website, Facebook and participants were explained the purpose of

the survey. SPSS statistics was used to analyze the data collected to compare BMI with the types

of foods eaten in the home as well as if exercise equipment was utilized in the home.

Demographics, including gender, age range, ethnicity, and BMI were used in the analysis of the

data. The results of this study conclude that 48% of the individuals in this study have a BMI

considered to be overweight or obese and 51% of the individuals have a normal BMI status.

There is no significant difference found (t(92) = -1.018, p>.05) between the mean of normal

BMI individuals and frequency of use of exercise equipment in the home. A weak correlation

that was not significant was found between BMI and foods eaten in the home (r (92) = .488,

p>.05. In conclusion, it was found that types of foods eaten in the home and exercise equipment

usage in the home are not related to the BMI status of this population. It is clear that more

research needs to be conducted on reasons for overweight and obesity in the New York and New

Jersey area. These findings are inconclusive and indicate that there is no correlation due to the

types of foods or exercise equipment usage in the home.

Introduction:
The obesity epidemic has been growing in the United States and much of this is attributed

to overconsumption of energy dense foods with low nutritional value. Not only can
4

overconsumption of food cause weight gain but associated with this dramatic weight gain comes

the risk of diseases like diabetes, some types of cancers, osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease

(Lindvall, et al., 2015). Americans are in general, consuming too many calories, not only from

meals eaten outside of the home but this could be from the foods being bought in grocery stores

and cooked at home as well. The Western diet that Americans have adapted, which consists of

high fat, high sugar, red meat, and refined grains may play a larger part in contributing to the

obesity epidemic than fast food consumption itself (Poti, Duffey & Popkin, 2014, p. 164).

Supermarkets not only provide unhealthy food options, but they more importantly provide many

healthy food options as well. They provide a plethora of fruits and vegetables as well as many

other healthy options (Poti, Duffey & Popkin, 2014). However, just because they are providing

these healthy options, does not mean that people are going to utilize them. There have been

many studies done comparing the frequency of meals eaten outside of the home and body mass

index (BMI). Frequent Foods away from home consumption is associated with higher body

mass index (BMI) and percent body fat as well as increased risk for overweight/obesity, cardio

metabolic risk factors, and type 2 diabetes (Seguin, Aggarwal, Vermeylen, & Drewnowski,

2015, p. 2). It is clearly known that foods purchased outside of the home are generally more

calorie and energy dense and contain more saturated fat, sodium and sugar (Seguin, et al., 2015).

However, foods purchased to be brought in the home can be equal and sometimes even worse.

The research becomes very limited when looking at BMI status and foods eaten inside the home

along with the utilization of in home exercise equipment.

According to Emery, et al., 2015, when controlling for physical activity in the home, it

was self-reported that both obese and non-obese individuals reported similar physical activity

status. However, obese individuals reported in engaging less very hard physical activity (for
5

example, jogging, swimming, and tennis) (Emery, et al., 2015, p. 1406). This presents an

interesting point with comparing the food intake and importance of exercise between these two

groups. There have been studies done that relate the availability of foods consumed in the home

compared to dietary intake among adults (Gorin, et al., 2011). Results show that increasing

healthy foods in the home as well as the opportunity to engage in physical activity may help with

improving weight control in adults (Gorin, et al., 2011). A growing problem seen with many

obese individuals is the access to healthy foods and their choices to purchase and consume them.

There have been studies revealing that obese individuals say they rely more on fast foods and

convenience foods for a greater proportion of their meals (Emery, et al., 2015). This could be

impacting the types of foods that these adults keep in their house because they may feel that the

only foods that are affordable and accessible to them are the prepackaged, high sodium,

calorically dense foods which may not be the case. Emery et al. (2015) also emphasizes the

importance of self-esteem and the positive correlation to the obesity rate that needs to be taken

into consideration when trying to find out why this rate continues to rise.

There becomes a gap in the literature because it is not clearly known how BMI status is

affected with a randomized group of individuals. Studies that have been conducted on this were

solely focusing on the homes of normal weight adults vs. the homes of overweight adults. The

overweight and obese participants in this study population were presenting for a weight-loss

intervention and would not be representative of overweight and obese adults in general (Gorin,

et al., 2015, p. 624). More research needs to be conducted with participants who are not seeking

any specific types of treatment and that is where the researcher intends to fill this gap, by

focusing on the population as a whole.


6

The purpose of this study is to assess if the types of foods kept at home as well as the

utilization of exercise equipment in the home will have an effect on the BMI status of adults in

the New York and New Jersey areas. Adults who keep and consume healthy foods in the house

as well as utilize exercise equipment in the house will have a lower BMI than adults who do not.

There may be complete access to exercise equipment and healthy foods in the home but whether

or not adults are utilizing this equipment will be studied. As for the foods available inside the

home, many could have healthy and unhealthy options but may choose one over the other based

on convenience, food preference or something else.

Methodology:

The methodology used for this research consisted of a cross-sectional online survey

design of adults in the New York and New Jersey area of the age of 18 years old. This was a

quantitative survey as the quality responses will be examined but also needed the sample size to

be quite large in order to obtain any significant results. The sample population consisted of 105

volunteers that took an online survey that asked questions regarding eating habits, physical

activity inside the home, the importance of eating healthy and the importance of exercise. The

last section of the survey consisted of demographic information, which included age range,

gender, height, weight and ethnicity. There was also a question on the state the survey

participant lived in as New York and New Jersey were the only data that was going to be

analyzed. To collect the survey data, the researcher posted the survey link on the social media

site, Facebook and requested that the volunteers respond as truthfully as they can. The

researcher also sent emails to friends and family members requesting that they assist if they

could be sending the surveys along to any friends or family members living in the requested area.
7

The researcher was able to collect 105 survey responses but excluded 11 (n=94). The

exclusion criteria consisted of geographic information not being New York or New Jersey and

participants not filling out either height or weight for BMI calculations. All the participants

were eligible, at the end of the survey to enter their names into a drawing to win a $20 gift card

to a health food store of their choice as an incentive to complete the survey.

Survey question sections

The sections of the survey consisted of simple demographic questions like age range,

gender, ethnicity, height, weight and educational status. Another section included questions

pertaining to food group most often eaten in the home, (e.g. pasta/bread/refined grains,

fruits/vegetables, beverage types, processed meats, red meat, etc.), next was exercise equipment

usage in the home, importance of healthy eating, importance of exercise, barriers to healthy

eating, and where the exercise was done the most. SPSS analyses were run and consisted of

independent t-tests to determine if there were any significant differences in the mean BMI and

frequency usage of exercise equipment as well as frequency of food groups consumed and mean

BMI. Correlations were also generated by SPSS statistics to see correlations between BMI and

gender as well as BMI and frequency of types of foods eaten in the home.

BMI Status and Types of Food Eaten

To measure if adults who have and consume healthier foods in the house has an effect on

BMI, the researcher calculated the body mass index (BMI) of all survey participants. To

calculate BMI, the researcher used the formula ([weight in pounds/(height in inches)]x703).

Normal weight was a BMI status was 18.5-24.9 and overweight status was a BMI between 25.0-

29.9. Obese status was considered to be 30. The researchers asked questions on the survey

regarding the most frequent food groups eaten in the home, for example, fruits/vegetables,
8

grains, protein, deli meats, and sweets/cookies. There were also questions regarding barriers to

eating healthfully.

BMI Status and Exercise Equipment Usage

To measure the relationship between BMI and exercise equipment usage in the house, the

researchers asked questions on the survey that consisted of how frequently participants use the

exercise equipment in the home, if they had exercise equipment in the home, where they

preferred to exercise (whether it be home, recreational gym, fitness center, outside, etc.), what

types of exercise equipment they had in the home, and what type of exercise they enjoyed doing

the most (ex: swimming, weight lifting, running, cycling, walking, etc.). The researchers also

gathered information on how important exercise was to the participants. BMI status was then

calculated based on the frequency of exercise equipment use within the home and BMI.

Results

Table 1. Descriptive Statistics of Participants collected from Online Survey

Variable % or Mean
SD
BMI, lbs/ht(in) 25.31 3.98
Gender, % (n=94)
Male 23.4
Female 76.6
Age Range, %
18-25 41.5
26-40 14.9
41-65 41.5
66+ 2.1
Ethnicity, %
Caucasian 93.6
Asian 2.1
Hispanic/Latino 3.2
African American 0
Other 1.1
Education Level, %
Some high school 1.1
9

Associate Degree 3.2


Some College 16.1
Bachelor Degree 45.2
Master Degree or higher 34.4

The average BMI of this sample group of participants was 25.31 3.98. 51.1% were

considered to be normal weight, 38.3% of the participants were considered to be overweight, and

10.5% were obese, BMI 30. No BMI score was below 18.5. The results of this study

concluded that there were no significant differences between BMI status of adults living in the

New York and New Jersey area and frequency of exercise equipment use in the home. Results

also indicated that there was no significant difference in the types of foods frequently consumed

in the home and BMI status. An independent samples t test was calculated comparing the mean

exercise use frequency of the participants to the mean of normal weight individuals and

overweight individuals. No significant difference was found (t(92) = -1.018, p>.05). The mean

of the normal BMI people (m=3.94, sd = 1.75) was not significantly different from the mean of

the overweight BMI people (m=4.48 sd=1.515). An independent samples t test was calculated

comparing the mean types of food groups eaten in the home to the mean of normal weight and

overweight individuals. No significant difference was found (t(92) = -.288, p >.05). The mean

of the normal weight people (m= 2.38, sd=1.393) was not significantly different from the mean

of the overweight people m= 2.46, sd= 1.345). A weak correlation that was not significant was

found between BMI and foods eaten in the home (r (92) = .488, p>.05. Foods eaten in the home

is not related to BMI status. The most common barriers to unhealthy eating habits were time

(43.5%), stress (26.1%) and money (8.7%) (Table in Appendix).


10

Table 2.

Correlation between BMI and gender and Foods eaten often in the
home
BMI Foods_eaten_often gender
BMI Pearson Correlation 1 .072 .120
Sig. (2-tailed) .488 .251
N 94 94 94
Foods_eaten_often Pearson Correlation .072 1 .008
Sig. (2-tailed) .488 .936
N 94 94 94
gender Pearson Correlation .120 .008 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .251 .936
N 94 94 94

Note. There is a weak correlation between Foods eaten in the home and BMI. (r (92) = .
488, p>.05. There is also a weak correlation between gender and foods eaten in the home (r (92)
= .251, p>.05.

Table 3.

Correlation of Importance of exercise and age


Importance_of_
exercise age
Importance_of_exercise Pearson Correlation 1 -.086
Sig. (2-tailed) .410
N 94 94
age Pearson Correlation -.086 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .410
11

N 94 94

Note. There is a weak correlation between age range and importance of exercise. (r(92)= -.086
p>.05.

Table 4.
Importance of Exercise Overall Percentages
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Very important 49 51.6 52.1 52.1
Moderately import 24 25.3 25.5 77.7
Slightly important 17 17.9 18.1 95.7
Not important 4 4.2 4.3 100.0
Total 94 98.9 100.0
Total 95 100.0

Note. 52.1% of participants considered exercise to be very important to them, 25.5 considered it
to be moderately important, 18.1 considered it to be slightly important, and 4.3% considered it to
be not important at all.

Conclusion and Discussion

The findings from this study conclude that there needs to be more research done in this

area to obtain concrete results. The study participants in this study have presented with no

comparison between BMI status and consumption of foods in the home as well as exercise

equipment usage inside the home. Unlike other literature findings that have suggested

individuals within a normal BMI exercise more or do more vigorous exercise, this was not the

case in this study. Also, unlike other findings that suggest keeping healthier foods in the house

will result in a lower BMI, this was not consistent either. Reasons for this are that the

researchers sample size was small, which limited the results obtained (n=94). A large

percentage of the individuals in the survey were females, aged 41-55 years of age and 18-26

years of age. This could have skewed the results as these age groups may be more health
12

conscious about what they are putting in their bodies. It was clear that there was a mix of BMIs,

with almost half being overweight or obese and half being normal weight distribution BMIs.

Although, half of the participants did present with overweight or obese BMIs, there could be

other factors that are contributing to a person being overweight that perhaps the researcher did

not touch upon. The foods consumed in the home may not have as much of an impact on this

populations weight as food consumed outside of the home do. No significant differences were

found with types of foods eaten in the home so this leads the researcher to believe that it is the

foods and activities being done outside of the home that could be contributing to the obesity

epidemic. There were no significant differences between the rating of importance of exercise

and the age range of participants. Most participants felt that exercise was very important to

them. Also, most of the participants in this study indicated that they did not have exercise

equipment in their home and the ones that did, did not utilize it much. However, this did not

have an impact on the BMI of the individual.

Limitations to this study include, but are not limited to a small sample size, a cross-

sectional survey which participants filled out by themselves, which could have led to bias of the

individuals. The researchers had to exclude some participants because they did not provide their

height or weight so BMI calculations could not be done. The researchers also had to exclude

some participants because they were not from New York or New Jersey.

Recommendations and application

Further research needs to be conducted on foods that are being consumed outside of the

home. There have been studies done that look at foods eaten outside of the home and results

show that the foods eaten outside the home are generally more calorically dense and less

nutritionally dense. However, a study that combines the two together might present with more
13

logical and clear results. Exercising in the home does not seem to be as prevalent as it may have

once been as more and more people are exercising outside of the home, in local gyms and

recreational areas. Studies on gym attendance and foods found in the home is another novel

study that can lead to results that can give more insight into the eating habits of adults. Gym

goers may be very committed to their workout routines but may keep unhealthy foods in their

home which could still contribute to them becoming overweight. There are so many factors that

can lead to weight gain that unfortunately this study could not pinpoint. Overall, this concept of

consistent weight gain throughout the years in the United States needs to be researched more and

more programs promoting healthy eating behaviors as well as maintaining these behaviors would

be a great way to educate more people on the dangers of obesity.


14

References

About Adult BMI. (2015). Retrieved October 03, 2016, from


https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/

Cronk, B. C. (2012). How to use SPSS- A Step by Step Guide to Analysis and Interpretation.

Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.

Emery, C. F., Olson, K. L., Lee, V. S., Habash, D. L., Nasar, J. L., & Bodine, A. (2015). Home

environment and psychosocial predictors of obesity status among community-residing

men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord International Journal of Obesity, 39(9),

1401-1407. doi:10.1038/ijo.2015.70

Gorin, A., Phelan, S., Raynor, H., & Wing, R. R. (2011). Home Food and Exercise Environments

of Normal-weight and Overweight Adults. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(5),

618-626. doi:10.5993/ajhb.35.5.10

Jacobsen, K. H. (2017). Introduction to health research methods: A practical guide. Burlington,

MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Lindvall, K., Jenkins, P., Scribani, M., Emmelin, M., Larsson, C., Norberg, M., & Weinehall, L.

(2015). Comparisons of weight change, eating habits and physical activity between

women in Northern Sweden and Rural New York State- results from a longitudinal study.

Nutrition Journal, 14(88), 1-11. doi:10.1186/s12937-015-0078-0


15

Seguin, R. A., Aggarwal, A., Vermeylen, F., & Drewnowski, A. (2016). Consumption Frequency

of Foods Away from Home Linked with Higher Body Mass Index and Lower Fruit and

Vegetable Intake among Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Environmental and

Public Health, 2016, 1-12. doi:10.1155/2016/3074241

Poti, J. M., Duffey, K. J., & Popkin, B. M. (2014). The association of fast food consumption with

poor dietary outcomes and obesity among children: Is it the fast food or the remainder of

the diet? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99, 162-171.

doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.071928
16

Group Statistics
Group N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Exercise_Equipment_use Normal Weight 48 3.94 1.755 .253
Independent Samples Test
Over weight 46 4.28 1.515 .223

95% Appendix
Confidence
Table 5.
Sig. Interval of the
Exercise
(2- Mean Std. Error Difference equipment
F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper use vs. BMI
Exercise_Equipment_us Equal 1.792 .184 - 92 .311 -.345 .339 - .328 = no
e variance 1.018 1.018 significant
difference.
s
p>.05
assumed

Note. Exercise frequency use= 1=Always, 2=Most of the time, 3=Sometimes, 4=Rarely,
5=Never, 6= No exercise equipment in the home*
17

Table 6.

Food groups eaten vs. BMI

Group Statistics
Group N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Foods_eaten_often Normal Weight 48 2.38 1.393 .201
Over weight 46 2.46 1.345 .198
18

Independent Samples Test


Levene's
Test for
Equality
of
Variance
s t-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence
Sig. Interval of the
(2- Mean Std. Error Difference
Sig tailed Differenc Differenc Lowe
F . t df ) e e r Upper
Foods_eaten_oft Equal . . -.28 9 . -.082 .283 -.643 .480
en variance 116 734 8 2 774
s
assume
d

Note. 1= Protein, 2=Fruits/Vegetables, 3= Dairy, 4=Grains, 5=Deli Meats, 6=Chips/Cookies


No significant difference between food groups eaten and BMI. p>.05.

Table 7.
19

Note. 52.13% rank


exercise as very important, 25.53% rank as Moderately important, 18.09% rank as slightly
important and 4.26% rank as not important.

Table 8.

Note. Most common barriers to unhealthy eating habits are time, stress and money.
20

Table 9. Importance of Exercise between Genders = not significant p>.05


Group Statistics
gender N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
Importance_of_exercise Female 71 1.70 .901 .107
Male 23 1.87 .920 .192

Independent Samples Test


Levene's
Test for
Equality of
Variances t-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Sig. (2- Mean Std. Error Difference
F Sig. t df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper
Importance_of_exercise Equal .025 .875 -.76 92 .448 -.165 .217 -.597 .266
variances 1
assumed

Note. No significant difference between importance of exercise and genders, male and female.
p>.05.