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Section 2 Guide to Listening 97

Vocabulary Exercise 17 choice A, The only trees here are needle-leaf


1. (C) warp 9. (A) wake treesyou know, evergreen trees, what we call
2. (B) wholesome 10. (B) whiff coniferous trees. These trees tend to be small and
3. (B) yields 11. (C) wrinkles far apart.
4. (C) wary 12. (A) widespread 9. B, D, The professor mentions the trees dark green color
5. (A) wares 13. (C) zone E (which absorbs the suns heat), their conical shape
6. (C) witty 14. (B) well-to-do (which prevents too much snow from accumulat-
7. (A) wage 15. (A) woes ing on their branches), and the fact that they are
8. (C) wisely evergreen trees (which allows them to start pho-
tosynthesizing right away in the spring) as adapta-
tions to the cold. There is no mention of their bark
Section 2: Guide to Listening or of their root systems.
(The TOEFL iBT does not use the letters A, B, C, and D for the 10. B According to the professor, Theres one thing all
multiple-choice items. However, in these answer keys, A cor- these predators have in common, the ones that
responds to the first answer choice, B to the second, C to the live there all year round . . . they all have thick,
third, and D to the fourth.) warm fur coats . . .
11. C The professor says, . . . only young moose are at
Preview Test risk of being attacked. The adult moose is the
Answer Explanation biggest, strongest animal found in the taiga, so a

ANSWER KEY
1. B The student gets some basic information from the predator would have to be feeling pretty desperate
professor about the research paper that she must to take on one of these.
write for her geology class. The student then dis- 12. C, D, According to Professor Speed, Professor Longdell,
cusses a possible topic for that paper (predicting B, A who invented the case study method, insisted
earthquakes through animal behavior) with the that it was based on a system used by Chinese
professor. philosophers thousands of years ago. Professor
2. C The student says, Professor Dixon? Im Brenda Longdell first began using the case study method
Pierce. From your Geology 210 class . . . ? Her at Harvard School of Law in the 1870s. It was first
questioning tone of voice indicates that she is not used at Columbia University Law School a couple
sure if Professor Dixon recognizes her. (Professor of years after that. It was not used at Harvard
Dixon says that it is a large class.) School of Business until probably about 1910,
3. A The professor asks, Did you oversleep? Thats one 1912, something like that.
of the problems with an eight oclock class. I 13. D Professor Speed explains exhibits this way:
almost overslept myself a couple of times. This Exhibits . . . those are documents, statistical docu-
indicates that the professor assumes (believes) ments, that explain the situation. They might be,
that the student missed class because she got up oh, spreadsheets, sales reports, umm, marketing
too late. projections, anything like that.
4. D The student says, I saw this show on television 14. B The best answer is B; the professor is not exactly
about earthquakes, and it said that in uh, China, I sure when case study was first used at Harvard
think it was, they did predict an earthquake Business School. Thats why he says, . . . When
because of the way animals were acting. was it? Uh, probably about 1910, 1912, something
5. B The student worries that the professor thinks her like that . . . Notice that choice A is not correct
topic is not a good one. However, the professor because, although he does ask a question (When
says, . . . just because this theory hasnt been was it?), he does not ask the class, he asks
proven doesnt mean you couldnt write a perfectly himself.
good paper about this topic . . . on the notion that 15. A Professor Speed says that the case study method is
animals can predict earthquakes. Why not? It used in many fields of study. For example, my
could be pretty interesting. But to do a good job, wife . . . she teaches over at the School of
you . . . youll need to look at some serious studies Education . . . she uses cases to train teachers.
in the scientific journals . . .
6. D The professor says that the taiga is . . . also called 16. Yes No
the boreal forest. Analyze the business situation and
7. B The professor says, This sub-zonewell, if you exhibits
like variety, youre not going to feel happy here.
You can travel for miles and see only half a dozen Role-play
species of trees. In a few days, well be talking Run a computer simulation
about the tropical rain forest; now thats where
Give a presentation and write a
youll see variety. The professor is emphasizing
report
that there are very few species of trees in the
closed forest by comparing it with tropical rain Visit a real business and attend a
forests, where there are many species. meeting
8. B, C, The professor says that the closed forest, choice B,
A has bigger needle-leaf trees growing closer The first phrase should be marked Yes because it is
together. In the mixed forest, choice C, The trees part of the process of case study. Professor Speed
are bigger still here, and youll start seeing some says that . . . you have to analyze the situation, the
broad-leafed trees, deciduous trees. Youll see data . . . Then you have to make decisions about
larch, aspen, especially along rivers and creeks, in how to solve these problems. The second phrase
addition to needle-leaf trees. In the open forest, should also be marked Yes because the professor
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98 Section 2 Guide to Listening

says, . . . solving the problem usually involves 21. B Choice A is true, so it is not the right answer. On
role-playing, taking on the roles of decision- Earth, a day lasts 24 hours, but a day on Venus
makers at the firm. The third phrase should be lasts 243 Earth days. Choice B is not true and is the
marked No. Computer simulation is another best answer. A year on Venus lasts 225 Earth days,
method of studying business; it is not part of the but an Earth year last 365 Earth days. Choice C is
case study method. The fourth phrase should be true. A year on Venus lasts 225 Earth days, but a
marked Yes. When Professor Speed is asked by a day on Venus lasts 243 Earth days. Choice D is also
student how grades are calculated, Professor true. According to the speaker, a day on Venus is
Speed tells him, You give a presentation, an oral longer than a day on any planet in the solar sys-
presentation . . . and then you write a report as tem, including giant gas planets such as Jupiter.
well. You get a grade, a group grade, on the presen- 22. A, D, The presenter says that The first one to go there,
tation and the report. The last phrase should be C, B the first probe to go there successfully was Mariner
marked No. Professor Speed does not mention that 2 in, uh, 1962, so choice A should be listed first.
students will be visiting real businesses or attend- Choice D should be placed in the second box.
ing meetings as part of the case study process. According to the presenter, the Soviet probe
17. A, D Choice A is correct because Professor Speed says, Venera 4 was sent to Venus in 1967. The presenter
Thats the beauty of this method. It teaches team- says Choice C, Venus Pioneer, was launched in
work and cooperation. Choice D is also a correct 1978. Choice B, Magellan, should be placed in the
answer because a student asks the professor, So last box because this probe went to Venus in 1990.
thats why we study cases? I mean, because man- However, although Magellan should be listed last,
agers need to be able to make decisions . . . and it is mentioned first in the presentation.
solve problems? and the professor responds, 23. C The presenter says, Well, Caroline will be giving
Exactly . . . well, thats a big part of it, anyway. the next report, which is about the third planet,
18. B The presenter introduces the topic of Venus by and since we all live here, that should be pretty
saying, Okay, to start off, Im going to tell you interesting. Since Carolines presentation is about
what people, what they used to think about the planet where we all live, it must be about the
Venus. He goes on to explain several old beliefs Earth.
about the planet.
19. A, D Choice A is correct. The presenter explains that, in
the distant past, people thought that the object we Lesson 9: Main-Topic and Main-Purpose Questions
now know as Venus was once thought to be two Exercise 9.1
stars, Phosphorus, the morning star, and 1. C 3. C 4. A 5. A
Hesperus, the evening star. Choice D is also cor- 2. B
rect. The speaker says, a lot of people believed, for
some reason, that there were these creatures on Exercise 9.2
Venus who were superior to us, almost perfect 1. D 4. D 6. A 8. B
beings, like angels or something. 2. B 5. C 7. C 9. D
3. A
20. Similarity Difference
Their ages
Lesson 10: Factual, Negative Factual,
The directions in which and Inference Questions
they spin around their axes
Exercise 10.1
Their atmospheric 1. A 7. A 13. A 19. A
pressures 2. D 8. B, C 14. B 20. C
The presence of volcanoes 3. C 9. D 15. B, D 21. A, B
Their sizes 4. B 10. B 16. D 22. D
5. C 11. C 17. D
The first phrase is a similarity. The presenter says, 6. D 12. A, D 18. D
Venus is about the same size as Earth. The sec- Exercise 10.2
ond phrase should be considered a difference 1. A, C 12. D 23. D 34. B
between the two planets. The presenter says, All 2. B 13. A 24. A, D 35. B
the planets of the solar system turn on their axis in 3. C 14. A 25. B 36. A
the same direction as they orbit the Sun. All except 4. B 15. B 26. A 37. B
Venus, of course! The third phrase is also a differ- 5. A, D 16. B 27. B 38. D
ence. According to the presenter, the atmosphere 6. D 17. A, C 28. D 39. B, C
on Venus is really thick . . . so thick, its like being 7. A 18. C 29. C, D 40. A
at the bottom of an ocean on Earth. The fourth 8. C 19. D 30. A 41. D
phrase should be considered a similarity. The pre- 9. A 20. B 31. C 42. C
senter says that the space probe Magellan found 10. A, D, E 21. B, D 32. D
out that there are all these volcanoes on Venus, 11. B 22. C 33. C
just like there are on Earth. The last phrase should
likewise be considered a similarity because the
presenter says that Venus is about the same size
as Earth.
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Section 2 Guide to Listening 99

Lesson 11: Purpose, Method, 2. Yes No


and Attitude Questions Housing is less expensive in New
Exercise 11.1 Urban communities than in typical
1. D 3. B 5. C 6. A suburbs.
2. A 4. A There is less crime in New Urban
communities.
Exercise 11.2
1. C 5. D 8. A 11. B Most New Urban communities are
2. C 6. B 9. C 12. D conveniently located close to large
3. D 7. C 10. A 13. B suburban shopping malls.
4. A Residents of New Urban
communities get more exercise.
Lesson 12: Replay Questions Most houses in New Urban
communities feature garages that
Exercise 12.1
1. T 4. T 7. T 10. F allow direct access to the house.
2. F 5. F 8. F 11. T There is less air pollution in New
3. T 6. T 9. T 12. F Urban communities.

ANSWER KEY
Exercise 12.2
1. A 5. D 8. C 11. D 3. Myth Reality
2. A 6. A 9. A 12. C It created the first democratic
3. B 7. D 10. C 13. B society in England.
4. B
It confirmed the rights of the
Exercise 12.3 English barons.
1. D 5. C 9. A 13. B
2. B 6. B 10. B 14. B It established the first British
3. D 7. D 11. A 15. C Parliament.
4. A 8. C 12. D It established courts in which
citizens were tried by their peers.
Lesson 13: Ordering and Matching Questions It was signed by King John
himself.
Exercise 13.1
1. C, D, A, B 6. A, D, B, C 11. B, C, A
2. B, A, C 7. A, C, B 12. A, B, C 4. Yes No
3. C, A, B 8. B, A, C 13. C, A, D, B Tend to be found in horizontal
4. B, D, C, A 9. D, B, A, C caves with small entrances
5. C, B, A 10. D, C, A, B
Contain only herbivore fossils
Lesson 14: Completing Charts May have had both herbivores and
carnivores living in them
Exercise 14.1
Usually have a greater variety of
1. Yes No fossils than natural traps
Plentiful parking is provided in large Generally contain well-preserved
parking lots. fossils
Residents can walk easily to work or
shopping areas. 5. Yes No
Residences, shops, and offices are This cave was discovered by
all found on the same block. professional palaeontologists.
Communities are located only in Animals that fell in here died from
large urban centers. the impact of the fall.
Streets are generally laid out in a Its entrance was covered by plants.
grid pattern.
This cave features the fossil bones
of a previously unknown giant cat.
This cave contains a greater variety
of fossils than most natural traps.
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100 Section 2 Guide to Listening

6. Ptolemaic Copernican Listening Review Test


System System Answer Explanation
This system is also 1. B Scott tells Professor Calhoun, Ive decided, uh, Im
known as the going to drop your biochemistry class.
heliocentric system. 2. D Scott says that Professor Delaney has advised him
to drop one class. Professor Calhoun says, With
Epicycles were used all due respect to Doctor Delaney, I couldnt agree
to help explain with him less. This means that she respects
this system. Professor Delaney but completely disagrees with
This system became his advice.
part of the medieval 3. A Professor Calhoun agrees that the unit on atomic
system of belief. structure, etc., was difficult, but she says, . . .
heres the good news! Thats as hard as it gets! Its
This system was
all downhill from there! She means that the rest of
disproved by the
the course will be easier.
discovery of the
4. D Professor Calhoun suggests that Scott get tutoring
phases of Venus.
(private instruction) from her teaching assistant,
This system provided Peter Kim.
a good picture of the 5. C Professor Calhoun encourages Scott to stay in the
solar system but not class. She tells him that she thinks he can pass the
of the universe. class if he gets a little help. She says, Youre going
According to this to do just fine!
system, music was 6. A Stanley asks Martha why she has come to the
generated by the library, and she tells him that she has been using
movement of the Encyclopedia of Art, looking up some terms for
crystal spheres. my art history class.
7. C Stanley has lost some index cards with his research
notes written on them.
7. Component 8. B In a surprised tone of voice, Martha asks Stanley,
You really like to get a jump on things, dont you?
A B C
To get a jump on things means to get an early
A consumer visits an Internet start.
site to get more information 9. C Stanley says, The, uh, book stacks . . . thats what
about tires. they call the main part of the library, where most
A man feels a bicycle will make of the books are shelved.
his daughter happy. 10. A Stanley thinks that his note cards are probably in
the periodicals room (where journals and maga-
A customer buys groceries at zines are kept), and he says, Let me run up to the
the store. periodicals room and check. After he finds his
An investor studies the market for notes, he and Martha will probably go to a coffee
art before buying a painting. shop on Williams Street.
11. B, C, Choice B is correct because the professor says one
A woman orders a sandwich and
E sign of writing readiness is making random marks
a drink at a fast-food restaurant.
on the page, sometimes accompanied by draw-
ings. Choice C is also correct. The professor says,
8. Value- Ego-
Another sign of writing readiness . . . they ask
expressive defensive
adults to help them write something by guiding
function function
their hands. Choice E is correct because the pro-
May involve a product fessor says, Some kids produce symbols that look
that protects a consumer more like printing, but with invented letters.
from some threat Choice A is NOT correct. The professor suggests
May involve a product that children build up their hand muscles by using
that consumers believe scissors and modeling clay, but this is not given as
will make them more a sign of writing readiness. Choice D is not correct
popular because this is a sign of the symbolic stage, not of
writing readiness.
May involve a product 12. C According to the professor, Many experts divide
that consumers believe the process into more stages.
will make people 13. B, A, The professor says, In this system, the first stage
dislike them D, C is the symbolic stage. Later she says, The next
May involve a product stage of writing is called the phonemic stage.
that is harmful to the Then she says, After this comes the transitional
consumer who buys it stage. Finally she says, Okay, the fourth stage is
called the conventional stage.
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Section 2 Guide to Listening 101

14. B The professor says, Its easier for kids to learn to 27. Yes No
write in, say, Finnish, or Spanish, which are more
or less phonetic languages. Increase market share in an SBU
15. C Choice A would likely be produced by a child in and turn a cash cow into a star
the writing readiness phase. Choice B includes Reduce investment in an SBU and
only the most dominant sounds but does not collect short-term profits
involve separate words. This was probably written Buy a well-performing SBU from
by a child at the phonemic stage. Choice D another company, creating a
involves only some minor spelling mistakes and new star
represents a child at the conventional stage.
Choice C, the best answer, is a transition between Sell a poorly performing SBU and
phonemic and conventional. It involves separate get rid of a dog
words, and the writer makes an effort to record all Raise prices on an SBUs product
the sounds in the words. and change a problem child to a
16. B, C The professor emphasizes two points about teach- cash cow
ing writing skills: that writing activities should be
fun and that communication should be the main The first choice should be marked Yes. This is the
focus for writing. strategy Langfield-Smith calls building. The sec-
17. D This lecture provides a basic description of double

ANSWER KEY
ond choice should also be marked Yes. This is the
stars. strategy Langfield-Smith calls harvesting. The pro-
18. C According to the professor, Most astronomers fessor doesnt list buying a star as one of Langfield-
think about a quarter of all stars are binary stars. Smiths strategies, so you should mark the third
She also says that some astronomers estimate as choice No. The fourth choice, which Langfield
many as 75% of all stars will turn out to be binary Smith calls divesting, should be marked Yes.
stars. However, the professor does not give raising prices
19. A A comes is the dimmer star in a double star. It is on an SBU as one of Langfield-Smiths strategies,
the Latin word for companion. (The brighter star so the last choice should be marked No.
is called the primary. ) 28. A He says that, In my opinion, though, dogs may
20. C Mizar-Alcor is a double-double star, according to have a place in a portfolio.
the professor, because both Mizar and Alcor are 29. B, C We know that humans became aware of the
binary stars. humpback whale song in 1968, so choice A is not
21. B The professor compares a double star having stars correct, and we know that Roger Payne discovered
of contrasting colors to two jewels of different col- that humpbacks sang, so choice D is not correct.
ors lying on a piece of black velvet. The professor says, We still arent exactly sure how
22. C, B, Albireo is given as an example of a double star in they produce the sounds, so B is a good choice.
A which the two stars appear to be of two different Choice C is also a good choice. A student says, Id
colors. Algol is given as an example of an eclipsing like to know what these songs mean and the pro-
binary, in which one star sometimes blocks the fessor responds, Well, youre not the only one who
light from the other star. The professor says that would like to know that! There are some theories,
Mizar-Alcor is one of those optical pairs I was but apparently no one definitely knows the mean-
talking about. ing of the whales songs.
23. C The professor says that the method he uses to clas-
sify SBUs is called the BCG method because it was 30. Low- High-
developed by the Boston Consulting Group. It is frequency frequency
also called the Boston Box and the Growth- sound sound
Share Matrix. It is NOT called the General Travels a long distance
Electric/Shell method, which is another system for
analyzing a product portfolio. Probably carries a lot of
24. C The professor says that SBU #3s shoes arent information
selling all that well. This SBU is called a problem Has a simple structure
child. Is generally considered
25. D The professor implies that the term cash cow is the song of the
used because this type of SBU provides a depend- humpback whale
able flow of milk (meaning profit) for a
company. The low-frequency sounds can be heard from at
26. B A marketing manager would be most pleased by a least 100 kilometers away, so you should check
move from a dog to a cash cow because a dog low-frequency for the first choice. The high-
is both low-growth and low-market-share whereas frequency sounds seem to contain a lot of infor-
a cash cow is low-growth but high-market-share, mation, so you should check high-frequency for
and a cash cow brings in substantial profits. the second choice. The low-frequency sound has
a relatively simple structure, so you should check
low-frequency for the third choice. The high-
frequency sounds are what we generally think of
when we think of humpbacks songs, so you
should check high-frequency for the fourth
choice.
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102 Section 2 Guide to Listening

31. C, D, The professor says that The most basic unit of 7. Howev, d-to-d ops of corp perfd by exec offcrs + corp
A, B humpback music is a single sound, or element. brcracy
Elements are arranged into patterns called 8. BTW, CEO often chrmn of brd + top exec offcr
phrases, consisting of three or four elements. A 9. LLC = hyb org combines best of ptshp + best of corp
collection of phrases is called a theme. There are
seven or eight themes in a song. Note-taking Exercise 4
32. C The professor says that a song lasts from ten to (Answers will vary. It is not necessary to reconstruct the sen-
twenty minutes. tences word for word.)
33. D The professor says that the whales generally only 1. Today were going to talk about the most common forms
sing during their winter breeding season, which is of business structures, the most common forms of busi-
spent in warm waters, and that they sing more at ness organizations.
night than during the day. 2. So first, lets discuss the sole proprietorship . . . did you
34. B The professor indicates that no one knows for sure know its the most common form of business organiza-
what the songs of the whales mean. Therefore, she tion? Also the simplest.
says that the students theory (that whale songs are 3. Basically, theres not much difference between a sole pro-
a form of oral history) might be correct. prietorship and a partnership except that a partnership is
owned by more than one person.
Listening Tutorial: Note Taking 4. In some partnerships, there are silent partners, partners
who invest money in the company but have nothing to
Note-taking Exercise 1 do with management decisions.
(Answers will vary. Any understandable abbreviation is a 5. Corporations are (this is an important concept) distinct
good answer.) legal entities. Theyre even called artificial persons.
1. bus orgs 6. Most shareholders dont bother to attend, and often give
2. sole prop s. prop s pshp their votes, assign their votes, to the top corporate offi-
3. ptship ptnershp cers. This is called voting by proxy.
4. corp 7. The day-to-day operations of the corporation are per-
5. lmtd lia co, l.l.c. formed by the executive officers and by the corporate
6. advant. bureaucracy.
7. corp tx 8. By the way, the CEO is often the chairman of the board as
8. s. agnt well as being the top executive officer.
9. responty respon resp 9. An L.L.C., as its called, is a hybrid organization that com-
10. leg docs lgl docus bines some of the best features of a partnership and
11. dist. leg. ent. those of a corporation.
12. artif pers. Note-taking Exercise 5
13. sthlders stkhldrs (Yes/No answers will vary.)
14. prof prft Sample Notes
15. invstmnts invests Topic: most comm forms of bus structs (bus orgs)
16. dble txtion In past, 3 forms:
17. exec 1. S. pship
18. brd of drctrs brd of direcs bd. dirs b.o.d. 2. ptship
19. pop 3. corp.
20. hyb Now, 4. lmtd lia co.
Note-taking Exercise 2 1. S. Pship
1. business organizations 11. distinct legal entities most common & simplest
2. sole proprietorship 12. artificial persons 1 owner: boss
3. partnership 13. stockholders start up @ moment of decision to start business
4. corporation 14. profit (Pl Samuelsons example of tthpaste)
5. limited liability company 15. investments Advantage: Txed @ pers inc. rate (< corp rate)
6. advantage 16. double taxation 2. Ptsthip
7. corporate tax 17. executive ptshp S. pship excpt ptshp owned by > 1 pers
8. sole agent 18. board of directors Tx advant of ptship = that of s. pship
9. responsibility 19. popular Liability: Ea part. can be sole agnt for ptship
10. legal documents 20. hybrid (e.g. prob of 2 partners both buyng widgets)
1 prtnr liab not only for self but for all prtnrs
Note-taking Exercise 3 Usu, parts. share mgmt but . . . Some ptships: silent
(Answers will vary. Any understandable notes are good prtnrs who inv $ in co but not invlvd w/ mgment
answers.) 3. Corp
1. Topic: most comm forms of bus structs (bus orgs) Most complex most expensive (artic of
2. 1st : sole pship most comm & simplest incorption) but most big cos corps
3. Not much diff sole pship & ptshp excpt ptshp owned by Limited liability: Corps: distinc lgl enties artif. pers
> 1 pers Corp does bus under its own name owners
4. Some ptships: silent parts who inv $ in co but not invlvd (stholders) can only lose invest, not pers prop
w/ mgment decis. Txation: Corps have to pay txs & so do stckhldrs on
5. Corps are distinc lgl enties artif. pers divdends: dble txation
6. Most shrholders dont attnd, give votes top corp offcrs = Structure: 3 elmts
voting by proxy 1. stckhlders: ultim. contrl mtgs. 1ce a yr.
BUT usu. only biggest stckhldrs
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Section 3 Guide to Speaking 103

Most stckhldrs dont attnd, give votes top corp 2. Answers will vary. The speaker should state whether he or
offcrs = voting by proxy she favors a Pass/Fail system or a letter-grade system and
2. Brd of drctrs elec. by stckhldrs makes maj decis give reasons why.
appt CEO sets policy
3. Howev, D-to-d ops of corp done by perfd by exec Lesson 15: Personal Preference Task
offcrs + corp brcracy
BTW, CEO often chrmn of brd + top exec offcr Exercise 15.1
4. LLC increly pop for smaller bus. Answers will vary. The following are given as examples.
LLC = hyb org combines best of ptshp + best 2. I think the most interesting discussion Ive ever heard
of corp elims dble txation was a university panel discussion about the future of my
country.
Note-taking Exercise 6 3. I believe that the finest restaurant Ive ever eaten at is a
1. T restaurant at the Blue House Hotel in Istanbul called the
2. Limited liability company Garden Restaurant.
3. F 4. In my opinion, the most important leader in history was
4. there is no separate tax on the sole proprietorship (or it is Simon Bolivar.
taxed at personal income rates, which are lower) 5. The best known monument in my country, Thailand, is
5. the owner is liable for all the companys debts probably Wat Arun, the Temple of the Dawn.
6. a partnership is owned by more than one person 7. The best idea I have ever heard is the use of hydrogen in

ANSWER KEY
7. F place of gasoline as fuel.
8. F 8. The most important invention, in my opinion, is the
9. T invention of the printing press.
10. artificial persons 9. The most difficult problem in my country, I think, is a
11. T lack of good roads.
12. F 11. On a nice day, my favorite place to study is under a tree
13. F in the area outside the main library.
14. T 12. My favorite kind of food is pizza.
15. partnership corporation 13. My favorite singer is the Malaysian singer Jasmine Leong.
15. I like to go to the Web site How Stuff Works. One rea-
Section 3: Guide to Speaking sons I enjoy it is that it explains a lot of things that I dont
understand very well, so it is a good place to do research.
The Independent Speaking Task Another reason is that the English on this Web site is
fairly easy to understand.
Exercise: Scoring the Response 16. When I was a child, traditional dancing was my favorite
Response 1 Score: __4___ activity. There were several reasons for this. One is that
Comments: The speaker gives an automatic response using dancing is good exercise. Another is that I enjoyed learn-
clear pronunciation and intonation. The response includes ing about the culture of my country.
important details about the event, and a listener has little 17. The most interesting class I ever took was a general sci-
problem understanding her response. Although there are ence course that I took in high school because the teacher
some hesitations, the speaker generally uses grammar and was excellent and I learned a lot about the basics of sci-
vocabulary appropriately. ence. Also, it got me interested in science and technology,
Response 2 Score: __2___ and later I decided to become a chemical engineer.
Comments: The intonation and pronunciation is unclear Exercise 15.2
especially the pronunciation of word endingsand this Answers will vary. The following are given as examples.
requires very close listening to understand the response. 2. This question asks me to name a traditional or popular
There are a number of repetitions and some grammatical food in my country and to explain why it is symbolic of my
problems. The focus changes from I to you to we, for example. country. I should choose some food that is unique to my
The response is hesitant and choppy and there are a couple country and is usually eaten on special occasions.
of long pauses. While this response mentions that the test is 3. This question is asking me to name some special skill (or
important, the speaker doesnt clearly state whether taking talent) I have. I could, for example, mention my talent for
the test or passing the test was the most important to him or organization and explain how it has helped me in school,
if he passed and was accepted to the university. The ideas and at work, and in other situations.
the connection between details are not clear.
Response 3 Score: __3__ Exercise 15.3
Comments: While some of the ideas are not fully developed, 2. Answers will vary, but a good outline could include the
this is a clear, fluid response. The speaker provides some sup- following:
port for her answer, and the connections between the ideas Topic (name of food)
are generally clear. There are minor problems with intonation Descrip: how taste, wht look like, whn served
and pronunciation, and there are some needless repetitions. Reasons why symbolic
(unique to my country, e.g.)
Independent Speaking Preview Test (served on natl holidays. e.g.)
1. Answers will vary, but successful answers should provide a 3. Answers will vary, but a good outline for this prompt could
description of an influential person and reasons why that include the following:
person has had an influence on the speakers life. Topic (name of skill)
Descript of skill
Reasons why useful