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KONSEP DASAR EKOSISTEM


(smno.psdl.ppsub.2013)

Konsep Ekosistem

Suatu EKOSISTEM merupakan lingkungan biologis yang terdiri atas semua


organisme hidup dalam suatu area tertentu, serta komponen abiotik dan
komponen fisik dari lingkungan yang berinteraksi dengan organisme, seperti
udara, tanah, air dan radiasi matahari. Ekosistem ini meliputi semua organisme
dalam suatu area tertentu, berinteraksi dengan faktor-faktor abiotik ; merupakan
suatu komunitas biologis dengan lingkungan fisiknya.

Ekosistem adalah suatu sistem ekologi yang terbentuk oleh hubungan


timbal balik tak terpisahkan antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya.
Ekosistem bisa dikatakan juga suatu tatanan kesatuan secara utuh dan
menyeluruh antara segenap unsur lingkungan hidup yang saling
memengaruhi. Ekosistem merupakan penggabungan dari setiap unit
biosistem yang melibatkan interaksi timbal balik antara organisme dan
lingkungan fisik sehingga aliran energi menuju kepada suatu struktur
biotik tertentu dan terjadi suatu siklus materi antara organisme dan
anorganisme. Matahari sebagai sumber dari semua energi yang ada.
Dalam ekosistem, organisme dalam komunitas berkembang bersama-
sama dengan lingkungan fisik sebagai suatu sistem. Organisme akan
beradaptasi dengan lingkungan fisik, sebaliknya organisme juga
memengaruhi lingkungan fisik untuk keperluan hidup. Pengertian ini
didasarkan pada Hipotesis Gaia, yaitu: "organisme, khususnya
mikroorganisme, bersama-sama dengan lingkungan fisik menghasilkan
suatu sistem kontrol yang menjaga keadaan di bumi cocok untuk
kehidupan". Hal ini mengarah pada kenyataan bahwa kandungan kimia
atmosfer dan bumi sangat terkendali dan sangat berbeda dengan planet
lain dalam tata surya (SUMBER: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekosistem).

Ecosystem: Complex of living organisms, their physical environment, and


all their interrelationships in a particular unit of space. An ecosystem's
abiotic (nonbiological) constituents include minerals, climate, soil, water,
sunlight, and all other nonliving elements; its biotic constituents consist of
all its living members. Two major forces link these constituents: the flow of
energy and the cycling of nutrients. The fundamental source of energy in
almost all ecosystems is radiant energy from the sun; energy and organic
matter are passed along an ecosystem's food chain. The study of
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ecosystems became increasingly sophisticated in the later 20th century; it


is now instrumental in assessing and controlling the environmental effects
of agricultural development and industrialization.
(http://www.answers.com/topic/ecosystems-1#ixzz1f2hC3okb)

Definisi Ekosistem
Sistem ekologi dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu komunitas tumbuhan dan
binatang yang saling berinteraksi beserta lingkungan abiotik atau alamiahnya.
Ekosistem-ekosistem dapat dikelompokkan berdasarkan vegetasi dominannya,
topography, iklim atau beberapa criteria lainnya.

Hutan boreal, misalnya, dicirikan oleh dominasi pohon konifer, padang


rumput dicirikan oleh dominasi rumput, tundra Arktik ditentukan oleh zona
iklim yang keras. Di sebagian besar wilayah dunia, masyarakat manusia
merupakan komponen penting dan sering dominan dalam suatu
ekosistem. Ekosistem tidak hanya mencakup wilayah alam (misalnya,
hutan, danau, pesisir laut sistem), tetapi juga sistem binaan manusia
(misalnya, ekosistem perkotaan, agroekosistem, impoundments). Populasi
manusia semakin terkonsentrasi di ekosistem perkotaan, dan diperkirakan
bahwa, pada tahun 2010, 50 persen dari populasi dunia akan tinggal di
daerah perkotaan.

Suatu bentang-lahan terdiri atas mozaik ekosistem-ekosistem, termasuk


kota-kota, sungai, danau, system pertanian, dsb. Batas-batas yang tepat
di antara ekosistem-ekosistem tersebut seringkali sulit ditetapkan.

Suatu sistem fungsional yang meliputi komunitas ekologis organisme bersama


dengan lingkungan fisiknya, saling berinteraksi sebagai satu kesatuan. Ekosistem dicirikan
oleh aliran energi melalui jaring-jaring makanan, produksi dan degradasi bahan organik, dan
transformasi serta siklus unsur hara. Produksi molekul organik berfungsi sebagai basis
energi untuk semua aktivitas biologis di dalam ekosistem. Konsumsi tanaman oleh herbivora
(organisme yang mengkonsumsi tanaman hidup atau ganggang) dan detritivores
(organisme yang mengkonsumsi bahan organik mati) berfungsi untuk mentransfer energi
yang tersimpan dalam molekul organik yang diproduksi melalui proses fotosintesis untuk
organisme lain. Proses lain yang berhubungan dengan produksi bahan organik dan aliran
energi adalah siklus unsur hara.
Semua aktivitas biologis dalam ekosistem didukung oleh produksi bahan organik
oleh autotrof (organisme yang dapat menghasilkan molekul organik seperti glukosa dari
karbon dioksida). Lebih dari 99% produksi autotrophic di Bumi melalui proses fotosintesis
oleh tanaman, alga, dan beberapa jenis bakteri. Secara kolektif organisme ini disebut
photoautotrophs (autotrof yang menggunakan energi matahari untuk menghasilkan molekul
organik). Selain fotosintesis, beberapa produksi dilakukan oleh bakteri chemoautotrophic
(autotrof yang menggunakan energi yang tersimpan dalam ikatan kimia dari molekul
anorganik seperti hidrogen sulfida, untuk menghasilkan molekul organik). Molekul-molekul
organik yang dihasilkan oleh autotrophs digunakan untuk mendukung metabolisme
organisme dan reproduksi, serta membangun jaringan baru. Biomasa dalam Jaringan baru
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ini dikonsumsi oleh herbivora atau detritivores, yang pada akhirnya dikonsumsi oleh predator
atau detritivores lainnya.
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Skematik wilayah pesisir pantai yang terdiri atas beragam ekosistem

Sumber: http://www.eoearth.org/article/Ecosystems_and_Human_Well-
Being:_Volume_1:_Current_State_and_Trends:_Coastal_Systems

Model aliran energy melalui ekosistem.


http://www.answers.com/topic/ecosystems-1#ixzz1f2eXwrp3

Ekosistem darat (terrestrial ecosystems), yang meliputi 30% permukaan


bumi, menyumbangkan sekitar separuh dari total produksi global bahan organic
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fotosintetiksekitar 60 1015 gram karbon per tahun. Lautan, yang meliputi


70% permukaan bumi menghasilkan bahan organic sekitar 51 10 15 g C setiap
tahun.

Jaring-jaring Makanan
Organisme dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan banyaknya transfer energy melalui
jaring-jaring makanan. Produksi bahan organic secara foto-autotrofik mencerminkan
transfer energy yang pertama di dalam suatu ekosistem dan diklasifikasikan denagai
PRODUKSI PRIMER. Konsumsi suatu tumbuhan oleh by a herbivora merupakan transfer
energi ke dua , sehingga herbivore menempati tingkat trofik ke dua, juga dikenal sebagai
PRODUKSI SEKUNDER. Organiske konsumen yang merupakan transfer ke satu, dua atau
tiga dari foto-autotrof dikelompokkan sebagai konsumen primer, sekunder, dan tersier.
Bergerak melalui suatu jarring-jaring makanan, energy hilang selama proses transfer
sebagai panas, sebagaimana dijelaskan dengan Hukum Termodinamika ke dua. Oleh
karena itu, jumlah total transfer energy jarang yang melebihi empat atau lima; dengan
adanya kehilangan energy selama setiap proses transfer, maka sedikit sekali energy
yang tersedia untuk mendukung organism yang berada pada tingkat tertinggi dari suatu
jaring-jaring makanan.

Energy flow drives the ecosystem, determining limits of the food


supply and the production of all biological resources. Light energy
from the sun is captured by green plants and converted to
chemical energy. Energy is stored in plants as carbohydrates and
used by the plant to support all functions such as vegetative
growth, fruit maturation and respiration. Other organisms use
and convert this chemical energy to various forms through food
chains. A food chain is a succession of organisms in a community
that constitutes a feeding sequence in which food energy is
transferred from one organism to the next as each consumes a
lower number and in turn is preyed upon by a higher number. At
the bottom of the chain is a photosynthesizing plant, usually
followed by an herbivore, a successions of carnivores, and finally
decomposers. At each step, some of the chemical energy is
assimilated and used by the organism and the rest is released in
respiration and waste products.

Jaring-jaring makanan (Food web) merupakan rantai-rantai makanan


yang saling berkaitan secara rumit dalam suatu komunitas. Struktur trofik
(Trophic structure) merupakan serangkaian keterkaitan dalam suatu jaring-
jaring makanan yang mendeskripsikan transfer energy dari suatu tingkat
nutritional ke tingkat berikutnya. Sasaran produksi tanaman adalah
memaksimumkan energy ekosistem ke dalam hasil-panen; penggunaan energy
tanaman oleh hama tidak diperlukan karena hal ini berarti mengambil energy
dari produksi tanaman.
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Dalam suatu siklus biogeokimia, unsure-unsur hara anorganik yang diperlukan untuk pertumbuhan
dan perkembangan organism bersirkulasi dari komponen abiotik ke komponen biotic dan kembali
lagi ke komponen abiotik dari ekosistem (Source Flint, M.L and P. Gouveia, 2001)

Sumber: http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/ipm/index.php/ecosystem-ecology.. diunduh


29/6/2011
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Diagram jaring-jaring makanan dalam alfalfa. Setiap tanda panah mencerminkan transfer
makanan, atau energy dari satu organism ke organism lainnya. Jaring-jaring menjadi lebih
kompleks kalau semakin banyak spesies yang dimasukkan ke dalam system. (Flint, M.L. and P.
Gouveia. 2001).
Sumber: http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/ipm/index.php/ecosystem-ecology.. diunduh
29/6/2011

Organisme hidup membentuk jaring-jaring makanan


Organisme yang hidup di dalam suatu agroekosistem merupakan komponen biotik.
Organisme dapat dianalisis sebagai jaring makanan yang mencerminkan transfer material
dan energi dari satu kelompok organisme kepada kelompok organism yang lain . Untuk
analisis jaring makanan , organisme dikelompokkan menurut fungsinya dalam aliran energi
dan hara, dan bukan klasifikasi menurut genus dan spesiesnya. Semua tanaman dalam
suatu agro-ekosistem membentuk produsen primer dan menjadi dasar dari jarring-jaring
makanan. Tanaman menangkap energi matahari melalui daun dan dikombinasikan dengan
air dan hara dari tanah dan karbon dioksida dari udara menghasilkan bahan biomasa
tanaman . Organisme tingkat berikutnya adalah herbivora yang hidup dari hara dan energi
yang dihasilkan oleh tanaman atau produsen primer lainnya. Banyak jenis organisme dapat
bertindak sebagai herbivora, seperti burung , serangga , nematoda , jamur , bakteri dan
virus. Selanjutnya, energi dan hara dalam herbivora dieksploitasi untuk pertumbuhan dan
reproduksi oleh kelompok lain dari organisme yang disebut konsumen sekunder. Hewan
yang hidup dari energi dan hara dalam substansi konsumen sekunder disebut konsumen
tersier . Banyak jenis organisme juga dapat bersifat sebagai konsumen primer , konsumen
sekunder dan tersier .

Sumber: http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/ipm/index.php/ecosystem-ecology..
diunduh 29/6/2011
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Sumber: http://platforms.inibap.org/agro/concepts.html .. diunduh 29/6/2011

Jaring makanan dalam tanah memiliki banyak organisme yang memangsa biomasa
tumbuhan hidup dan mati. Dengan demikian, banyak organisme memperoleh energi
untuk tumbuh dan berkembang biak dan akhirnya hara yang diikat dalam biomasa
tumbuhan dan hewan dapat tersedia kembali untuk pertumbuhan tanaman.

Sumber: http://platforms.inibap.org/agro/concepts.html .. diunduh 29/6/2011

Burung merupakan salah satu organism (fauna) dalam jaring-jaring


makanan ekosistem pantai mempunyai peran yang sangat penting.
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Sumber: http://www.touregypt.net/parks/linked_coastal_ecosystems.htm

Siklus Biogeokimia
Berbeda dengan energi, yang hilang dari ekosistem sebagai panas, unsur hara (atau
nutrisi) yang membentuk molekul dalam organisme tidak berubah dan dapat berulang-ulang
ber-siklus di antara organisme dan lingkungan hidupnya. Sekitar 40 unsur menyusun tubuh
organisme, dimana karbon, oksigen, hidrogen, nitrogen, dan fosfor yang paling banyak. Jika
salah satu dari unsure tersebut dalam lingkungan tumbuh suplainya kurang, pertumbuhan
organisme dapat terhambat, meskipun tersedia cukup banyak energi. Secara khusus,
nitrogen dan fosfor adalah elemen yang paling sering membatasi pertumbuhan organisme.
Keterbatasan ini ditandai oleh meluasnya penggunaan pupuk, yang diterapkan pada bidang
pertanian untuk mengatasi kurangnya ketersediaan hara.
The movement of energy from one level of the food web to the next. The
proportion of energy at one level of the food web that makes it to the next
level is called ecological efficiency - this is usually less than 10%. In an
agroecosystem, we also care about how well the energy consumed by
organisms, usually either the crop plants (the producers, with energy from
the sun) or livestock (herbivores, with energy from feed or pasture), is
converted into body tissue - this is conversion efficiency.
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Sumber:
http://www.acad.carleton.edu/curricular/BIOL/classes/bio160/ClassResources/Case_Studies/Case3_E
nergy/Case3_Directions.htm .. diunduh 29/6/2011

Siklus karbon terjadi di antara atmosfer dan ekosistem darat dan laut. Siklus ini
terjadi ada kaitannya dnegan produksi primer dan dekomposisi bahan organik.
Tingkat produksi primer dan dekomposisi bahan organik, selanjutna dikendalikan
oleh pasokan nitrogen, fosfor, dan zat besi. Pembakaran bahan bakar fosil
merupakan perubahan terbaru siklus global yang melepaskan karbon yang telah
lama terkubur dalam kerak bumi ke dalam atmosfer. Karbon dioksida di atmosfer
menangkap panas pada permukaan bumi dan merupakan faktor utama yang
mengatur iklim. Perubahan siklus karbon global ini mengakibatkan dampak pada
iklim, isu-isu ini merupakan masalah besar yang sedang diselidiki oleh ahli ekologi
ekosistem.

Siklus Karbon

Organic chemicals are made from carbon more than any other atom, so
the Carbon Cycle is a very important one. Carbon between the biological
to the physical environment as it moves through the carbon cycle.

Earth's atmosphere contains 0.035% carbon dioxide, CO2, and the


biological environment depends upon plants to pull carbon into sugars,
proteins, and fats. Using photosynthesis, plants use sunlight to bind
carbon to glucose, releasing oxygen (O2)in the process. Through other
metabolic processes, plants may convert glucose to other sugars, proteins,
or fats. Animals obtain their carbon by eating and digesting plants, so
carbon moves through the biotic environment through the trophic system.
Herbivore eat plants, but are themselves eaten by carnivores.
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Karbon kembali ke lingkungan fisik melalui beberapa cara. Tanaman dan hewan
melakukan respirasi, sehingga mereka melepaskan CO2 selama respirasinya.
Tumbuhan dapat mengkonsumsi lebih banyak CO2 melalui fotosintesis daripada
yang dapat dihasilkannya melalui respirasi. Jalur lain kembalinya CO2 ke lingkungan
fisik terjadi melalui kematian tanaman dan hewan. Kalau organisme mati, bakteri
dekomposer mengkonsumsi biomasa. Dalam proses dekomposisinya, sejumlah
karbon dilepaskan kembali ke lingkungan fisik dengan cara fosilisasi. Sebagian
karbon tetap tinggal dalam lingkungan biologis kalau organisme lain memangsa
decomposer tersebut. Namun sejauh ini, sebagian besar karbon kembali ke
lingkungan fisik melalui proses respirasi CO2.

Sumber: http://www.starsandseas.com/SAS%20Ecology/SAS
%20chemcycles/cycle_carbon.htm ..... diunduh 29/6/2011
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Siklus Nitrogen
Protein, asam nukleat , dan bahan kimia organik lainnya mengandung nitrogen ,
sehingga nitrogen adalah unsur yang sangat penting dalam organisme biologis .
Nitrogen menyusun 79% dari atmosfer bumi , namun sebagian besar organisme
tidak dapat menggunakan gas nitrogen (N2). N2 memasuki sistem trofik melalui
proses fiksasi nitrogen . Bakteri yang ditemukan pada akar beberapa tanaman
legume dapat memfiksasi N2 menjadi molekul organik, membentuk protein.
Demikian juga, hewan mendapatkan nitrogen dengan jalan memakan biomasa
tanaman. Tetapi setelah titik ini , siklus nitrogen akan jauh lebih rumit daripada siklus
karbon. Hewan melepaskan nitrogen dalam urine-nya . Ikan melepaskan NH3 , tetapi
kalau konsnetrasi NH3 pekat, bersifat racun bagi organisme hidup . Jadi organisme
harus mengencerkan NH3 dengan banyak air . Kehidupan air , ikan tidak
menghadapi masalah dengan persyaratan ini, tetapi hewan darat memiliki masalah
serius. Mereka mengkonversi NH3 menjadi urine, atau senyawa kimia lainnya yang
tidak beracun seperti NH3 . Proses pelepasan NH3 disebut ammonification . Karena
NH3 bersifat racun , sebagian besar NH3 yang dilepaskan tidak tersentuh . Tetapi
bakteri tanah memiliki kemampuan untuk mengasimilasi NH3 menjadi protein .
Bakteri ini efektif memakan NH3 , dan membuat protein darinya. Proses ini disebut
asimilasi .

Some soil bacteria does not convert NH3 into proteins, but they make
nitrate NO3- instead. This process is called nitrification. Some plants can
use NO3-, consuming nitrate and making proteins. Some soil bacteria,
however, takes NO3-, and converts it into N2, returning nitrogen gas back
into the atmosphere. This last process is called denitrification, because it
breaks nitrate apart.
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Sumber: http://www.starsandseas.com/SAS%20Ecology/SAS
%20chemcycles/cycle_carbon.htm ..... diunduh 29/6/2011

Siklus Phosphorus

Fosfor adalah kunci untuk system energi dalam organisme, fosfor yang
menggerakkan energi dari ATP ke molekul lain , mengendalikan reaksi enzimatik,
atau transportasi seluler. Fosfor juga merupakan perekat yang memegang DNA
bersama-sama , mengikat gula deoksiribosa bersama-sama , membentuk tulang
punggung dari molekul DNA. Fosfor melakukan fugnsi yang sama di dalam RNA .
Faktor kunci untuk memasukkan fosfor ke dalam sistem tropik adalah tanaman.
Tanaman menyerap fosfor dari air dan tanah ke dalam tubuhnya, mensintesisnya
menjadi molekul P-organik . Setelah diambil oleh tanaman, fosfor yang tersedia bagi
hewan yang mengkonsumsi biomasa tanaman. Ketika tumbuhan dan hewan mati,
bakteri mendekomposisi biomasa, melepaskan sejunmlah fosfor anorganik kembali
ke tanah. Di dalam tanah , fosfor dapat bergerak sejauh 100 - 1.000 mil dari tempat
dimana P dilepaskan, melalui aliran air dan sungai. Dengan demikian siklus air
memainkan peran kunci dalam pergerakan fosfor dalam ekosistem . Dalam
beberapa kasus , fosfor diangkut memasuki danau , dan menetap di dalam sedimen
di bagian dasar danau. Di dasar danau ini, fosfor dapat berubah menjadi batuan
sedimen , batu kapur , yang akan dirilis jutaan tahun kemudian . Batuan sedimen
berfungsai sebagai cadangan, melestarikan banyak fosfor untuk digunakan di masa
depan .
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Sumber: http://www.starsandseas.com/SAS%20Ecology/SAS
%20chemcycles/cycle_carbon.htm ..... diunduh 29/6/2011

Siklus hara dalam suatu agroekosistem melibatkan tanaman, ikan dan


ternak. Salah satu jalur utama aliran hara adalah jalur tanaman-ternak-tanah.
KOlam ikan, jalur utamanya adalah tanaman dan ternak. Dalam beberapa kasus
dalam system pertanian tradisional di Asia, limbah manusia dan rumahtangga
menjadi input penting bagi tanaman dan kolam ikan, sedangkan limbah dapur
penting bagi ternak dan kolam ikan.

Sumber: Edwards (1993) (http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5098e/y5098e05.htm .....


diunduh 2/7/2011)
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Aliran hara di antara komponen dalam agroekosistem dan antara agroekosistem


dengan system eksternalnya adalah sebagai berikut.

Sumber: Le and Rambo (1993) (http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5098e/y5098e05.htm .....


diunduh 2/7/2011)

Fotosintesis
Organisme dan fungsi suatu sel hidup bergantung pada persediaan energi
yang tak henti-hentinya, sumber energi ini tersimpan dalam molekul-molekul
organik seperti karbohidrat. Organisme heterotrofik seperti ragi dan kita sendiri,
hidup dan tumbuh dengan memasukkan molekul-molekul organik ke dalam sel-
selnya. Untuk tujuan praktis, satu-satunya sumber molekul bahan bakar yang
menjadi tempat bergantung seluruh kehidupan ialah fotosintesis. Fotosintesis
menyediakan makanan bagi hampir seluruh kehidupan di dunia baik secara
langsung atau tidak langsung. Organisme memperoleh senyawa organik yang
digunakan untuk dan rangka karbon dengan satu atau dua cara utama: nutrisi
autotrofik atau heterotrofik. Autotro dapat diartikan bahwa dapat menyediakan
makanan bagi diri sendiri hanya dalam pengertian bahwa autotrof dapat
mempertahankan dirinya sendiri tanpa memakan dan menguraikan organisme
lain. Autotrof membuat molekul organik mereka sendiri dari bahan mentah
anorganik yang diperoleh dari lingkuannya. Oleh karena alasan inilah, para ahli
biologi menyebut autotrof sebagai produsen biosfer.
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Organisme heterotrof memperoleh materi organik melalui cara


pemenuhan nutrisi kedua. Ketidakmampuan dalam membuat makanan
mereka sendiri, menyebabkan hererotrof ini hidup tergantung pada
senyawa yang dihasilkan oleh organisme lain; heteritrif merupakan
komponen biosfer. Sebagian autotrof mengkonsumsi sisa-sisa organisme
mati, menguraikan dan memekan sampah seperti bangkai, tinja dan daun-
daun yang gugur. Heterotrof ini dikenak sebagai pengurai. Sebagian besar
fungi dan banyak jenis bakteri memperoleh makana dengan cara seperti
ini. Hampir seluruh heterotrof, termrasuk manusia, benar-benar
tergantung pada fotoautotrof untuk mrndapatkan makanan dan juga untuk
mendapatkan oksigen, yang merupakan produk samping fotosintesis.

Jalur Fotosintesis
Dengan keberadaan cahaya, bagian-bagian tumbuhan yang berwarna
hijau menghasilkan bahan organik dan oksigen dari karbon dioksida dan air.
Dengan menggunakan rumus molekul, persamaan kimia fotosintesis adalah:

6CO2 + 12 H2O + energi cahaya -----> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

Karbohidrat C6H12O6 ialah glukosa. Air muncul pada kedua sisi persamaan
itu karena 12 molekul dikonsumsi dan 6 molekul terbentuk lagi selama
fotosintesis. Persamaan itu dapat disederhanakan dengan memperlihatkan
selisih konsumsi air:

6CO2 + 6H2O + energi cahaya ----> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Dalam bakteri berfotosintesis, sebagai pengganti H 2O dipakai zat


pereduksi yang lebih kuat seperti H 2, H2S dan H2R (R adalah gugus organik).
Persamaan reaksinya adalah:

2CO2 + 2H2R -----> 2C2O + O2 +2R

Bakteri menggunakan H2R dan menggunakan hidrogen untuk membuat


gula. Dari reaksi kimia tersebut dapat dikatakan bahwa semua organisme
fotosintetik membutuhkan sumber hidrogen, tetapi sumber itu bermacam-
macam.

Tempat Berlangsungnya Proses Fotosintesis


Di dalam tumbuhan, proses fotosintesis pada umumnya berlangsung
dalam organel khusus yang disebut plastid. Plastid mengandung senyawa, yaitu
klorofil. Semua bagian yang berwarna hijau pada tumbuhan, termasuk batang
hijau dan buah yang belum matang, memiliki kloroplas, tetapi daun merupakan
tempat utama berlangsungnya fotosintesis pada sebagian besar tumbuhan.
Terdapat setengah juta kloroplas tiap milimeter persegi permukaan daun.
Warna daun berasal dari klorofil, pigmen warna hijau yang terdapat dalam
kloroplas. Energi cahaya yang diserap klorofil inilah yang menggunakan sintesis
molekul makanan dalam kloroplas.
18

Sebagian besar spesies tumbuhan, terpacu pertumbuhan dan


perkecambahan dalam keadaan terang. Namun biji juga dapat terhambat
perkecambahanyya oleh cahaya. Panjang gelombang merah jauh dari sinar
matahari hampir selalu merupakan panjang gelombang yang paling
menghambat. Cahaya biru juga kadang menghambat. Biji yang membutuhkan
cahaya untuk berkecambah disebut fotodorman. Biji yang biasanya
berkecambah dalam gelap akan terhambat oleh cahaya. Biji yang biasa
berkecambah dalam gelap akan mengalami dormansi atau fase istirahat saat
terkena cahaya dalam tingkat intensitas tertentu.
Cahaya tampak sebagai sumber energi yang digunakan tumbuhan untuk
fotosintesis merupakan bagian spektrum energi radiasi. Reaksi cahaya dalam
fotosintesis merupakan bagian akibat langsung penyerapan foton oleh molekul
pigmen seperti klorofil. Menurut Michael (1994), tidak seluruh foton mempunyai
tingkat energi yang sesuai untuk aktivasi pigmen daun. Di atas 760 nm foton
tidak memiliki cukup energi dan di bawah 390 nm foton memiliki terlalu banyak
energi, hal ini dapat menyebabkan ionisasi dan kerusakan pigmen. Hanya foton
dengan panjang gelombang antara 390 dan 760 nm memiliki tingkat energi yang
cocok untuk fotosintesis. Aktivasi pigmen merupakan akibat langsung dari
interaksi antara foton dengan pigmen, maka pengukuran cahaya yang digunakan
dalam fotosintesis seringkali dilakukan berdasarkan densitas aliran foton, dan
bukan berdasarkan energi. Densitas aliran foton merupakan jumlah foton yang
menumbuk suatu luas permukaan tertentu per satuan waktu. Panjang
gelombang antara 400 dan 700 nm mempunyai efisiensi tinggi dalam
fotosintesis, maka pengukuran cahaya untuk fotosintesis biasanya didasarkan
pada densitas aliran foton dalam panjang gelombang 400 dan 700 nm.
19

Sumber: http://ecology07.blogspot.com/2011_03_01_archive.html . Diunduh


29/6/2011
20

Kesehatan Ekosistem

It is important to recognize the inherent difficulties in defining "health,"


whether at the level of the individual, population, or ecosystem. The concept of
health is somewhat of an enigma, being easier to define in its absence (sickness)
than in its presence. Perhaps partially for that reason, ecologists have resisted
applying the notion of "health" to ecosystems. Yet, ecosystems can become
dysfunctional, particularly under chronic stress from human activity. For example,
the discharge of nutrients from sewage, industrial waste, or agricultural runoff
into lakes or rivers affects the normal functioning of the ecosystem, and can
result in severe impairment. Excessive nutrient inputs from human activity was
one of the major factors that severely compromised the health of the lower
Laurentian Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario) and regions of the upper
Great Lakes (Lake Michigan). Unfortunately, degraded ecosystems are becoming
more the rule than the exception.
The study of the features of degraded systems, and comparisons with
systems that have not been altered by human activity, makes it possible to
identify the characteristics of healthy ecosystems. Healthy ecosystems may be
characterized not only by the absence of signs of pathology, but also by signs of
health, including measures of vigor (productivity), organization, and resilience.
Vigor can be assessed in terms of the metabolism (activity and
productivity) of the system. Ecosystems differ greatly in their normal ranges of
productivity. Estuaries are far more productive than open oceans, and marshes
have higher productivity than deserts. Health is not evaluated by applying one
standard to all systems. Organization can be assessed by the structure of the
biotic community that forms an ecosystem and by the nature of the interactions
between the species (both plants and animals). Invariably, healthy ecosystems
have more diversity of biota than ecologically compromised systems. Resilience
is the capacity of an ecosystem to maintain its structure and functions in the
face of natural disturbances. Systems with a history of chronic stress are less
likely to recover from normal perturbations such as drought than those systems
that have been relatively less stressed.

Healthy ecosystems can also be characterized in economic, social, and human


health terms. Healthy ecosystems support a certain level of economic activity.
This is not to say that the ecosystem is necessarily self-sufficient, but rather that
it supports economic productivity to enable the human community to meet
reasonable needs. Inevitably, ecosystem degradation impinges on the long-term
sustainability of the human economy that is associated with it, although in the
short-term this may not be evident, as natural capital (e.g., soils, renewable
resources) may be overexploited and temporarily enhance economic returns.
Similarly, with respect to social well-being, healthy ecosystems provide a basis for
and encourage community integration. Historically, for example, native Hawaiian
groups managed their ecosystem through a well-developed social cohesiveness
that provided a high degree of cooperation in fishing and farming activity.
21

Kesehatan Agro-ecosystem

Salah satu hipotesis dasar dalam suatu proposal penelitian adalah bahwa
paradigma kesehatan agro-ekosistem akan menyediakan kerangka kerja
konseptual yang bagus daripada paradigma keberlanjutan-pertanian, yang ' tidak
mengandung banyak fakta empiris karena kurangnya definisi yang komprehensif dan
metodologi analitis' (ILRI 1998). Kedua paradigm tersbeut memang dapat dibedakan,
tetapi untuk tujuan praktis biasanya keduanya dianggap sama, pada dasarnya identik
(perbandingan ini dikembangkan secara lebih rinci dalam Smit dan Smithers (1994).
Begitu istilah 'agro digabungkan dnegan ekosistem maka secara eksplisit
komponen manusia dilibatkan, sehingga agro-ekosistem pada dasarnya setara
dengan definisi yang luas dari pertanian, yang mencakup komponen ekologi dan
manusia.

Sustainable agriculture telah didefinisikan dengan berbagai cara dan


sudut pandang (Smit and Brklacich 1989; Cai and Smit 1994; Smit and Smithers
1994), tetapi kebanyakan melingkupi sifat-sifat esensial yang sama. Misalnya
dua definisi berikut ini:

Agri-food systems that are economically viable, meet society's need for
safe and nutritious foods, while conserving natural resources and the
quality of the environment for future generations (SCC 1992),

Agricultural system that can indefinitely meet demands for food and fibre
at socially acceptable economic and environmental costs (Crosson 1992).

Dalam kedua hal tersebut di atas, pertanian berkelanjutan didefinisikan


dengan memperhatikan:
Kebutuhan atau permintaan social atas pangan, termasuk gizi, dan
mencerminkan kesehatan manusia
Kelayakan ekonomis, mengacu kepada pemeliharaan system produksi
Kualitas lingkungan, yang diarahkan pada kondisi sumberdaya biofisik.

Definisi keberlanjutan juga memperhatikan sifat-sifat ini atas waktu


('generasi mendatang atau 'indefinite'). Definisi kesehatan agro-ecosystem
melingkupi sifat-sifat esensial yang sama, yaitu:
1. Kesejahteraan manusia
2. Keragaan ekonomis, dan
3. Kondisi ekologis.

Pada kenyataannya, esensi dari perspektif kesehatan agroekosistem (agro-


ecosystem health, AESH) adalah bahwa ia mencerminkan eksistensi dan
interrelationships di antara beberapa domain system pertanian (economi,
manusia dan ekologi), dan bahwa kesehatan system secara keseluruhan
merupakan fungsi dari kondisi dan interdependensi di antara komponen-
komponen ini.

A simple conceptualisation of agro-ecosystem health indicates three main


dimensions, which interact (hence overlapping sets), which manifest at different
22

scales (hence the different sizes of sets), and which can be employed in
numerous applications, including a) using indicators to compare systems or
document changes in AESH, b) identifying and specifying relationships among
dimensions to understand dynamics and determinants of AESH, and c) assessing
responses in AESH to stresses, both those associated with external environments
(such as climatic variations or macro-economic conditions) and those reflecting
interventions or policies.

Kesehatan Agro-ecosystem: Suatu teladan representasi diagramatik.

Landasan konseptual dari dua paradigm ini, AESH dan agricultural


sustainability (AS), pada hakekatnya sinonim. Keduanya bersifat evaluative dari
keseluruhan kondisi lingkungan pedesaan, ekonomi, dan manusia. Sehingga
sasarannya juga meliputi komponen ini:
Peningkatan ketahanan pangan
Pengentasan kemiskinan
Melestarikan kualitas lingkungan yang baik.

In other respects as well, AESH and AS are very similar. Both are
applicable at different spatial and temporal scales. For both, considerable
effort has been expended in developing indicators, and similar kinds of
indicators (often very long lists) have been proposed. Indicators can take a
wide variety of forms, including state and functional indicators, diagnostic
and early warning indicators. There are also many examples of particular
empirical studies employing indicators, especially of sustainable
agriculture . However, neither of these frameworks can supply a single,
comprehensive measurable indicator which can adequately capture the
23

scope of these systems. Nor do either of them provide a specific set of


analytical steps to document change, assess responses, or evaluate
interventions in these systems. The noteworthy contribution of the agro-
ecosystem health concept is a metaphor, providing a broad framework
which facilitates the consideration of multiple dimensions and the
interactions among them.

Indikator kesehatan agro-ecosystem

What is the route by which a metaphor or concept can be applied to


something so that researchers or practitioners can use in the field? For example,
there is the interest in indicators, or measurable properties which indicate the
health of an agro-ecosystem. For indicators, which represent only one element of
any analysis, three distinct approaches have been tried.

Holistik

This approach, of which several versions have been proposed, aims to


define a set of very generic 'criteria', essentially from first principles, which will
be applicable to all dimensions. Thus, we get such 'holistic indicators' as
integrity, efficiency, resilience, effectiveness, response capability, balance,
richness, transformation ability, self-regulatory capacity, flexibility, stability, and
so on. A particular appeal of this approach is the expectation that the selected
criteria will lead to measurable equivalent indicators on each of the dimensions.
24

A conceptual framework for agro-ecosystem health.

Sumber: http://www.ilri.org/InfoServ/Webpub/fulldocs/Aesh/Concepts.htm ..... diunduh 29/6/2011

Terintegrasi = Disaggregated

In this approach, the indicators of the various dimensions of agro-


ecosystem health are supplied by scientists and practitioners in each of the
disciplines involved. Indicators developed via this route tend to reflect the
variables which are conventionally analysed in the various disciplines. Thus,
economists provide indicators such as gross margins, benefit /cost ratios, or net
income. Sociologists will list measures of household and community structure,
power relations, equity, gender roles, and so on. From the human health and
nutrition fields come indicators of morbidity, longevity, other physiological
features and measures of nutritional status or functionality. From the geophysical
and biological sciences come equally long lists of ecosystem variables which
have been of theoretical interest or have been used before. This approach
certainly generates an ample smorgasbord of indicators. The weaknesses of this
approach are that the lists are impractically long, there are no established
principles for selecting from among the many possibilities (they may all be
'scientifically valid'), and they often are not readily understood by the people in
the agro-ecosystems.

Berbasis Komunitas = Community-based

The essence of this approach (also called stakeholder-derived) is that the


indicators are identified with the active participation of the people who live in the
agro-ecosystem. A variety of methods are available for this kind of participatory
approach, in which the researchers necessarily play at least a facilitatory role,
but where the indicators are certainly meaningful to local people as well as to the
analysts. These include a practical and efficient way of selecting key indicators,
allowing researchers to learn about communities' priorities and alternative
measurements (sometimes supplied directly by residents), and promotion of
people's involvement in (and 'ownership of') both analysis of agro-ecosystems
and any management initiatives to improve their health.

Bagaimana Ekosistem Sehat menjadi Patologis

Stress from human activity is a major factor in transforming healthy


ecosystems to sick ecosystems. Chronic stress from human activity differs from
natural disturbances. Natural disturbances (fires, floods, periodic insect
infestations) are part of the dynamics of most ecosystems. These processes help
25

to "reset" ecosystems by recycling nutrients and clearing space for


recolonization by biota that may be better adapted to changing environments.
Thus, natural perturbations help keep ecosystems healthy. In contrast, chronic
and acute stress on ecosystems resulting from human activity (e.g., construction
of large dams, release of nutrients and toxic substances into the air, water, and
land) generally results in long-term ecological dysfunction.

Lima sumber utama cekaman (stress) antropogenik (akibat dari kegiatan


manusia) terhadap ekosistem, yaitu: rekayasa struktur fisik, panen
berlebihan, limbah residual, masuknya spesies eksotik, dan perubahan
global.

Rekayasa Struktur Fisik


Aktivitas-aktivitas seperti drainage rawa-rawa, pengerukan dasar danau,
pembendungan sungai, dan pembangunan jalan raya, berarti proses
fragmentasi bentang lahan dan mengubah serta merusak habitat-habitat
kritis. Aktivitas-aktivitas ini juga mengganggu siklus hara dan
menyebabkan hilangnya biodiversitas.

Panen berlebihan
Overexploitation is commonplace when it comes to harvesting of wildlife,
fisheries, and forests. Over long periods of time, stocks of preferred
species are reduced. For example, the giant redwoods that once thrived
along the California coast now exist only in remnant patches because of
overharvesting. When dominant species like the giant redwoods (arguably
the world's tallest treeone specimen was recorded at 110 meters tall
with a circumference of 13.4 meters) are lost, the entire ecosystem
becomes transformed. Overharvesting often results in reduced biodiversity
of endemic species, while facilitating the invasion of opportunistic species.

Limbah / Residu.
Discharges from municipal, industrial, and agricultural sources into the air,
water, and land have severely compromised many of the earth's
ecosystems. The effects are particularly apparent in aquatic ecosystems.
In some lakes that lack a natural buffering capacity, acid precipitation has
eliminated most of the fish and other organisms. While the visual effect
appears beneficial (water clarity goes up) the impact on ecosystem health
is devastating. Systems that once contained a variety of organisms and
were highly productive (biologically) become devoid of most lifeforms
except for a few acid-tolerant bacteria and sediment-dwelling organisms.

Introduksi Spesies Eksotik


The spread of exotics has become a problem in almost every ecosystem of
the world. Transporting species from their native habitat to entirely new
ecosystems can wreck havoc, as the new environments are often without
natural checks and balances for the new species. In the Great Lakes Basin,
the accidental introduction of two small pelagic fishes, the alewife and the
26

rainbow smelt, combined with the simultaneous overharvesting of natural


predators, such as the lake trout, led to a significant decline in native fish
species.
The introduction of the sea lamprey, an eel-like predacious fish that
attacks larger fish, into Lake Erie and the upper Great Lakes further
destabilized the native fish community. The sea lamprey contributed to the
demise of the deepwater benthic fish community by preying on lake trout,
whitefish, and burbot. This contributed to a shift in the fish community
from one that had been dominated by large benthics to one dominated by
small pelagics (fish found in the upper layers of the lake profile). This shift
from bottom-dwelling fish (benthic) to surface-dwelling fish (pelagic) has
now been partially reversed by yet another accidental introduction of an
exotic: the zebra mussel. As the zebra mussel is a highly efficient filter of
both phtyoplankton and zooplankton, its presence has reduced the
available food in the surface waters for pelagic fish. However, while the
benthic fish community has gained back its dominance, the preferred
benthic fish species have not yet recovered owing to the degree of initial
degradation. Overall, the increasing dominance by exotics not only altered
the ecology, but also reduced significantly the commercial value of the
fisheries.

Perubahan Global
Rapid climate change (or climate warming) is an emerging potential global
stress on all of the earth's ecosystems. In evolutionary time, there have of
course been large fluctuations in climate. However, for the most part
these fluctuations have occurred gradually over long periods of time.
Rapid climate change is an entirely different matter. By altering both
averages and extremes in precipitation, temperature, and storm events,
and by destabilizing the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which
controls weather patterns over much of the southern Pacific region, many
ecosystem processes can become significantly altered. Excessive periods
of drought or unusually heavy rains and flooding will exceed the tolerance
for many species, thus changing the biotic composition. Flooding and
unusually high winds contribute to soil erosion, and at the same time add
to nutrient load in rivers and coastal waters.
These anthropogenic stresses have compromised ecosystem function in
most regions of the world, resulting in ecosystem distress syndrome (EDS).
EDS is characterized by a group of signs, including abnormalities in
nutrient cycling, productivity, species diversity and richness, biotic
structure, disease prevalence, soil fertility, and so on. The consequences
of these changes for human health are not inconsiderable. Impoverished
biotic communities are natural harbors for pathogens that affect humans
and other species.

Kesehatan Ekosistem dan Kesehatan Manusia


An important aspect of ecosystem degradation is the associated increased
risk to human health. Traditionally, the concern has been with contaminants,
particularly industrial chemicals that can have adverse impacts on human
development, neurological functions, reproductive functions, and that appear to
27

be causative agents in a variety of carcinomas. In addition to these serious


environmental concerns (where the remedies are often technological, including
engineering solutions to reduce the release of contaminants), there are a large
number of other risks to human health stemming from ecological imbalance.
Ecosystem distress syndrome results in the loss of valued ecosystem
services, including flood control, water quality, air quality, fish and wildlife
diversity, and recreation. One of the major signs of EDS is increased disease
incidence, both in humans and other species. Human population health should
thus be viewed within an ecological context as an expression of the integrity and
health of the life-supporting capacity of the environment. Ecological imbalances
triggered by global climate change and other causes are responsible for
increased human health risks.

Hubungan keterkaitan antara jasa-jasa ekosistem, aspek kesejahteraan


manusia dan Kesehatan Manusia

Sumber: http://www.mindfully.org/Heritage/2005/Ecosystem-Degradation-
Threats9dec05.htm .. diunduh 1/7/2011
28

Tekanan-tekanan terhadap ekosistem dapat mengakibatkan gangguan yang


tidak terduga pada aspek kesehatan masa mendatang. Beberapa masalah yang
sangat serius adalah
(Sumber:
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2005/pr67/en/index.html:)
Gizi dan Nutrisi: Degradasi ekosistem perikanan dan ekosistem pertanian
merupakan factor-faktor penyebab mal-nutrisi yang dialami 800 juta
manusia di seluruh dunia. Ada banyak penduduk lainnya yang mengalami
defisiensi kronis mikro-nutrient.
Air minum yang aman: Water-associated infectious diseases claim 3.2
million lives, approximately 6% of all deaths globally. Over one billion
people lack access to safe water supplies, while 2.6 billion lack adequate
sanitation, and related problems of water scarcity are increasing, partly
due to ecosystem depletion and contamination.
Ketergantungan pada bahan bakar padat: Sekitar 3% dari beban
gangguan penyakit global disebabkan oleh pencemaran udara indoor,
penyebab utama penyakit pernafasan. Banyak penduduk dunia
menggunakan bahan bakar padat untuk memasak makanan dan
menghangatkan ruangan, merupakan penyebab utama penggundulan
hutan.

Perubahan Iklim dan Vektor Penyakit

The global infectious disease burden is on the order of several hundred


million cases per year. Many vector-borne diseases are climate sensitive.
Malaria, dengue fever, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and various forms
of viral encephalitis are all in this category. All these diseases are the
result of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) which are transmitted to
humans as a result of bites from blood-sucking arthropods.

Perubahan iklim global, terutama perubahan suhu dan curah hujan - sangat
berkorelasi dengan prevalensi vektor penyakit . Misalnya, virus yang dibawa oleh nyamuk ,
kutu , dan arthropoda lain penghisap darah, umumnya telah meningkatkan tingkat
transmisinya dengan adanya peningkatan suhu. Nyamuk Culex tarsalis membawa virus.
Persentase gigitan yang menghasilkan transmisi SLE tergantung pada suhu, laju transmisi
lebih besar pada suhu tinggi .
Ketergantungan vektor penyakit pada suhu ini juga dapat digambarkan dengan baik
pada penyakit malaria. Malaria adalah endemik di seluruh daerah tropis , dengan prevalensi
tinggi di Afrika , benua India , Asia Tenggara , dan sebagian dari Amerika Selatan, Amerika
Tengah dan Meksiko . Sekitar 2,4 miliar orang tinggal di daerah risiko , dengan 350 juta
infeksi baru terjadi setiap tahunnya , mengakibatkan sekitar 2 juta kematian , terutama pada
anak-anak . Malaria yang tidak diobati dapat menjadi penderitaan seumur hidup dengan
gejala seperti demam , sakit kepala , dan malaise .
The sensitivitas malaria terhadap iklim dapat terjadi karena sifat dari interaksi
parasit , vektor , dan host ; yang semuanya berdampak tingkat penularan pada manusia.
Waktu tumbuh yang diperlukan oleh parasit untuk berkembang penuh dalam host nyamuk
(suatu proses yang disebut sporogoni ) adalah 8-35 hari . Ketika suhu di kisaran 20 C
hingga 27 C , waktu tumbuh ini menjadi lebih singkat. Curah hujan dan kelembaban udara
29

juga sangat berpengaruh. Kekeringan dan hujan lebat cenderung mengurangi populasi
nyamuk yang berfungsi sebagai vektor malaria . Di daerah kering daerah tropis , curah hujan
yang rendah dan kelembaban yang rendah membatasi kelangsungan hidup nyamuk . Banjir
parah dapat mengakibatkan rusaknya habitat berkembang biak bagi nyamuk vektor ,
sedangkan curah hujan medium dapat meningkatkan produksi vektor .

Tambak yang terlantar dapat digunakan untuk nila


merah
(Ujang Komarudin, Perekayasa Muda BBAP Ujung Batee, Aceh. Selasa, 28 September
2010)

Tambak udang yang tidak dikelola lagi biasanya disebabkan oleh gangguan
penyakit, kualitas air tidak layak, sedimentasi tambak, atau karena pemiliknya
tidak mempunyai modal yang cukup. Kondisi tambak seperti ini masih dapat
direkayasa dan dikelola untuk memelihara ikan nila merah. Budidaya jenis ikan
ini ternyata mempunyai risiko yang lebih rendah.

Sumber: http://artaquaculture.blogspot.com/2010/09/nila-merah-untuk-tambak-
idle.html ...... Diunduh 15 desember 2011

Ketidak-seimbangan Ekologis

Kolera adalah penyakit serius dan berpotensi gangguan fatal, disebabkan oleh
bakteri Vibrio cholerae . Gejala kolera meliputi diare eksplosif, muntah, dan sakit perut.
Pandemi terbaru kolera melibatkan lebih banyak daerah daripada waktu-waktu sebelumnya
30

pada abad kedua puluh. Peningkatan prevalensi V. cholerae sangat terkait dengan
degradasi lingkungan pesisir pantai dan laut. Perairan pesisir yang hangat dan kaya hara,
yang dihasilkan oleh perubahan iklim dan penggunaan pupuk , menyediakan lingkungan
yang ideal untuk reproduksi dan penyebaran V. cholerae . Wabah baru kolera di Bangladesh
, misalnya , berkorelasi erat dengan suhu permukaan laut yang lebih tinggi. V. cholerae
menempel pada permukaan copepoda ( krustasea ) air tawar dan laut, serta akar dan
permukaan terbuka dari tumbuhan ( tanaman air ) seperti eceng gondok yang paling
melimpah di Bangladesh.
Pengkayaan hara dan suhu hangat menimbulkan ledkaan populasi ganggang dan
kelimpahan makrofita . Melimpahnya ganggang menyediakan makanan yang berlimpah bagi
copepoda , dan banyaknya copepoda dan macrophyte menyediakan habitat yang bagus
bagi V. cholerae. Penyebaran selanjutnya dari V. cholerae ke muara dan badan air tawar
memungkinkan kontak dengan manusia yang menggunakan air ini untuk minum dan mandi .
Distribusi global patogen laut seperti V. cholerae lebih lanjut difasilitasi oleh air pembuangan
air limbah . Air limbah ini mengandung beragam patogen , termasuk V. Cholerae.

Resistensi Antibiotik dan Praktek Pertanian

Resistensi antibiotik merupakan ancaman bagi kesehatan masyarakat. Strain


resisten antibiotik Streptococcus pneumoniae, bakteri patogen bagi manusia dan merupakan
penyebab utama banyak infeksi, termasuk bronkitis kronis, pneumonia, dan meningitis, telah
sangat meningkat prevalensinya sejak pertengahan 1970-an. Di beberapa wilayah di dunia,
hingga 70 persen dari isolat bakteri yang diambil dari pasien terbukti resisten terhadap
penisilin dan antibiotik lainnya. Penggunaan jumlah besar antibiotik di bidang pertanian dan
perikanan tampaknya telah menjadi faktor kunci yang menyebabkan resistensi antibiotik
pada patogen hewan ternak yang kemudian juga dapat menginfeksi manusia. Salah satu
risiko yang paling serius bagi kesehatan manusia dari praktek-praktek tersebut adalah
enterococci yang resisten nancomycin. Penggunaan avoparcin, pemicu pertumbuhan
hewan, tampaknya telah dikompromikan penggunaan vankomisin, antibiotik yang efektif
terhadap bakteri multi-resisten obat.

Ketahanan Pangan dan Air.


Praktek pertanian juga dapat menimbulkan sejumlah ancaman bagui
kesehatan masyarakat. Sebagian dari hal ini berhubungan dengan jeleknya
pengolaan limbah, yang mengakibatkan sejumlah parasit dan bakteri memasuki
perairan dan system suplai air minum. Hal yang lain adalah melibatkan transfer
lintas spesies pathogen-patogen yang dapat menyerang binatang dan manusia.

The most recent and spectacular example is mad cow disease, known as variant
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, a neuro-degenerative condition that, in
humans, is ultimately fatal. The first case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
(BSE), the animal form of the disease, was identified in Southern England in
November 1981. By the fall of 2000, an outbreak had also occurred in France, and
isolated cases appeared in Germany, Switzerland, and Spain. More than one
hundred deaths in Europe were attributed to what has come to be commonly
called mad cow disease.

Pengelolaan pupuk kandang yang tidak tepat telah berdampak pada


munculnya gangguan E. coli 0157:H7 di Walkerton, Ontario, Canada. Risiko
kesehatan lainnya yang berhubungan dengan mal-fungsi agroecosystems adalah
31

adanya gangguan periodic cryptosporidiosis, penyakit parasitis yang disebarkan


oleh limpasan permukaan (runoff) yang terkontaminasi oleh kotoran ternak yang
sakit (terinfeksi). Parasit ini menyebabkan gangguan penyakit perut dan
diarrhea pada orang-orang yang immune-competent dan diarrhea-parah dan
kematian pada orang-orang yang immune-compromised.

Restorasi Ekosistem
Patologi ekosistem dalam beberapa kasus dapat dengan mudah diatasi
dengan jalan menghilangkan sumber-sumber stress. Misalnya dalam kasus-
kasus degradasi ekosistem yang diakibatkan oleh penambahan bahan kimia
toksik, maka penghilangan stress ini dapat memulihkan kembali kesehatan
ekosistem.

Restorasi Agroekologis

Agroecological restoration is the practice of re-integrating natural systems into


agriculture in order to maximize sustainability, ecosystem services, and
biodiversity. This is one example of a way to apply the principles of agroecology
to an agricultural system. Farms cannot be restored to a purely natural state
because of the negative economic impact on farmers, but returning processes,
such as pest control to nature with the method of intercropping, allows a farm to
be more ecologically sustainable and, at the same time, economically viable.
Agroecological restoration works toward this balance of sustainability and
economic viability because conventional farming is not sustainable over the long
run without the integration of natural systems and because the use of land for
agriculture has been a driving force in creating the present world biodiversity
crisis. Its efforts are complementary to, rather than a substitute for, biological
conservation.

biodiversity is just as important on farms and in fields as it is in deep


river valleys or mountain cloud forests. FAO, 15 October 2004

Agriculture creates a conflict over the use of land between wildlife and
humans. Though the domestication of crop plants occurred 10,000 years
ago, a 500% increase in the amount of pasture and crop land over the last
three hundred years has led to the rapid loss of natural habitats. In recent
years, the world community acknowledged the value of biodiversity in
treaties, such as the 1992 landmark Convention on Biological Diversity.

Reintegration
32

The reintegration of agricultural systems into more natural systems will


result in decreased yield and produce a more complex system, but there
will be considerable gains in biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Biodiversitas
The FAO memperkirakan bahwa lebih dari 40% dari lahan di muka bumi
saat ini digunakan untuk pertanian. Begitu banyaknya lahan yang telah
dikonversi menjadi lahan pertanian, maka hilangnya habitat telah menjadi
pendorong hilangnya keanekaragaman hayati (FAO). Hilangnya
keanekaragaman hayati ini seringkali terjadi dalam dua tahap, dengan
system pertanian campuran yang dilakukan pada lahan-lahan sempit dan
kemudian dengan meluasnya penggunaan pertanian mekanik dan
monokultur. Penurunan keanekaragaman hayati lahan pertanian dapat
ditelusuri dari perubahan praktek pertanian dan peningkatan intensitas
pertanian.

Peningkatan keaneka-ragaman

Heterogeneity (the diversity or complexity of the landscape) has been


shown to be associated with species diversity. For example, the abundance
of butterflies has been found to increase with heterogeneity. One
important part of maintaining heterogeneity in the spaces between
different fields is made up of habitat that is not cropped, such as grass
margins and strips, scrub along field boundaries, woodland, ponds, and
fallow land. These seemingly unimportant pieces of land are crucial for the
biodiversity of a farm. The presence of field margins benefits many
different taxa: the plants attract herbivorous insects, will which attract
certain species of birds and those birds will attract their natural predators.
Also, the cover provided by the no cropped habitat allows the species that
need a large range to move across the landscape.

Monokultur

In the absence of cover, species face a landscape in which their habitat is


greatly fragmented. The isolation of a species to a small habitat that it
cant safely wander from can create a genetic bottleneck, decreasing the
resilience of the particular population, and be another factor leading to the
decline of the total population of the species. Monoculture, the practice of
producing a single crop over a wide area, causes fragmentation. In
conventional farming, monoculture, such as with rotations of corn and
soybean crops planted in alternating growing seasons, is used so that very
high yields can be produced. After the mechanization of farming,
monoculture became a standard practice in corn-beans rotation, and had
broad implications for the long-term sustainability and biodiversity of
farms. Whereas organic fertilizers, had kept the soils nutrients fixed to the
ecosystem, the introduction of monoculture removed the nutrients and
33

farmers compensated for that loss by using inorganic fertilizers. It is


estimated that humans have doubled the rate of nitrogen input into the
nitrogen cycle, mostly since 1975. As a result, the biological processes
that controlled the way crops used the nutrients changed and the leached
nitrogen from farmland soils has become a source of pollution.

Pertanian Organik

Organic farming is defined in different legal terms by different nations, but


its main distinction from conventional farming is that it prohibits the use of
synthetic chemicals in crop and livestock production. Often, it also
includes diverse crop rotations and provides non-cropped habitat for
insects that provide ecosystem services, such as pest control and
pollination. However, it is merely encouraged that organic farmers follow
those kinds of wildlife friendly practices, and as a result there is a great
difference between the ecosystem services that similarly sized but
distinctly managed organic farms provide. A recent review of the 76
studies concerning the relationship between biodiversity and organic
farming listed three practices associated with organic farming that
accounted for the higher biodiversity counts found in organic farms as
compared to conventional farms.

1. Prohibition/reduced use of chemical pesticides and inorganic


fertilizers is likely to have a positive impact through the removal of
both direct and indirect negative effects on arable plants,
invertebrates and vertebrates.

2. Sympathetic management of non-crop habitats and field margins


can enhance diversity and abundance of arable plants,
invertebrates, birds and mammals.

3. Preservation of mixed farming is likely to positively impact farmland


biodiversity through the provision of greater habitat heterogeneity
at a variety of temporal and spacial scales within the landscape.

Degradasi Ekosistem

Degradasi ekosistem: Degradasi atau destruksi lingkungan alam sekala


luas. Kalau suatu ekosistem mengalami gangguan akibat dari peristiwa alam
atau kegiatan manusia maka sangat sulit untuk menghitung dampak yang
dialami oleh seluruh alam. Kalau dua atau lebih ekosistem mengalami degradasi
maka peluang terjadinya destruktif sinergistik akan berlipat-ganda. Ecosistem-
ekosistem di banyak daerah akan terancam, dengan segala kekayaan
biologisnya dan potensi manfaat materialnya. (Source: WPR)
34

Degradation of Coastal Environments and Potential Effects on Coastal


aquaculture

(Guidelines for the promotion of environmental management of coastal aquaculture


development (based on a review of selected experiences and concepts). FAO Fisheries
Technical Paper. No. 328. Rome, FAO. 1992. 122 p. )

The coastal zone as an economic entity provides sites for a wide range of
activities, such as agriculture (e.g., rice, coco palm, bananas), forestry (e.g.,
mangrove, nypa palm), fisheries and aquaculture, human settlements,
manufacturing and extractive industries (e.g., sand mining, oil, minerals), waste
disposal, ports and marine transportation, land transportation infrastructure,
water control and supply projects, shore protection works, tourism and
recreation. The multiple resource uses or activities in coastal areas may produce
a variety of changes in environmental or socio-economic conditions, which in
turn may result in an impact of social concern.

It is important to recognize that in many coastal areas, pollution and habitat


modification stemming from human activities other than aquaculture are
increasingly affecting resource use productivity of aquaculture as well as limiting
success and development possibilities of the aquaculture industry.
35

Sumber: http://www.fao.org/docrep/T0697E/t0697e04.htm ..... diunduh 20 Desember


2011

Degradasi Ekosistem: Tanggungjawab Moral terhadap Planet


Bumi
Kegiatan manusia telah berdampak pada degradasi ekosistem. Karena planet,
binatang dan lingkungan semuanya saling berinteraksi, maka perubahan yang
berlangsung dalam ekosistem akan mempunyai dampak negative terhadap
kehidupan dan planet bumi ini. Oleh karena itu, kita semua wajib untuk
mengendalikan kegiatan-kegiatan manusia guna mewujudkan kelestarian planet
bumi di masa mendatang yang lebih nyaman dan lebih aman. Kita semua
manusia perlu bernafas dalam udara segar, hal yang tidak mungkin terjadi kalau
pembakaran bahan bakar fosil masih berlebihan. Hal ini akan menyesakkan nafas
berbagai spesies oprganisme dan mengakibatkan perubahan iklim yang menjadi
ekstrim.
Aktivitas manusia telah mengakibatkan perubahan pola lingkungan hidup dunia.
Aktivitas lainnya yang juga menyebabkan kerusakan ekosistem adalah perikanan,
pemanfaatan air tawar, dan penebangan /penggundulan huitan. Penebangan
hutan telah mengakibatkan kandungan CO2 atmosfir meningkat dan
mengakibatkan punahnya beberapa spesies. Siklus lingkungan telah mengalami
perubahan drastic akibat kegiatan manusia. Ada kerusakan parah pada lapisan
ozon. Bagaimana kita akan dilindungi dari bahaya radiasi ultraviolet?
Bagaimana kita harus melindungi lapisan ozon ini? Masing-masing dari kita semua
, harus mengambil rtanggung-jawab ini untuk mereduksi emisi CO2 dengan jalan
menanam lebih banyak pohon sehingga jalur-jalur hijau melindungi semua
kehidupan. Oleh karena itu penyelamatan planet bumi dari kepunahan berada di
tangan kita manusia semuanya.
(Sumber: http://EzineArticles.com/3784225)
36

Gambar berikut ini menunjukkan keterkaitan antara tekanan penduduk,


fenomena kekeringan, proses-proses degradasi, desertification, dan kerentanan
pangan.

Sumber: http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/envsec.html .. diunduh 2/7/2011

Keterkaitan antara Ketahanan pangan rumahtangga dan Ketahanan Lingkungan:


Siklus Kemiskinan-Degradasi Lingkungan
37

Sumber: http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/envsec.html .. diunduh 2/7/2011

Mencegah Degradasi Ekosistem


Memulihkan kembali degradasi ekosistem sangatlah sulit, dan banyak
sekali risiko kesehatan manusia telah bermunculan akibat dari hilangnya
kesehatan ekosistem, pendekatan yang paluing efektif sebenarnya adalah
mencegah terjadinya kerusakan ekosistem. Akan tetapi pendekatan seperti ini
tidak mudah dilaksanakan, ada beragam kendala menghadang. Di Negara-
negara sedang berkembang dan Negara-negara maju ada inklinasi yang kuat
untuk melanjutkan pertumbuhan ekonominya, meskipun dengan biaya mahal
berupa kerusakan lingkungan yang parah. Terlepas dari motivasi ego-
kemandirian, argumentasi yang diambil ialah bahwa pertumbuhan ekonomi
mempunyai banyak manfaat nyata bagi kesehatan, seperti penyediaan sarana
yang lebih efisien untuk distribusi pangan, penyediaan pangan yang lebih baik,
dan penyediaan layanan kesehatan yang elbih bagus, serta pendanaan untuk
penelitian memperbaiki standard kehidupan. Ini semuanya memang manfaat
dari pembangunan ekonomi, dan telah berhasil meningkatkan status kesehatan
penduduk dunia.
However, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the past is not
necessarily the best guide to the future. The human population is at an alltime
high, and associated pressures of human activity have led to increasing
38

degradation of the earth's ecosystems. As ultimately healthy ecosystems are


essential for life of all biota, including humans, current global and regional trends
are ominous. Under these circumstances, a tradeoff between immediate material
gains and long-term sustainability of humans on the planet may be the only
option. If so, the solution to sustaining human health and ecosystem health
becomes one of devising a new politic that places sustaining lifesupport systems
as a precondition for betterment of the human condition.

Pertanian = Agriculture

The word agriculture is the English adaptation of Latin agricultra, from


ager, "a field", and cultra, "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the
soil". Thus, a literal reading of the word yields "tillage of a field / of fields".

Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms
for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key
implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of
domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of
civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture
is also observed in certain species of ant and termite, but generally speaking
refers to human activities.

The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its


development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures,
and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand
and maintain the lands suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this
usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland
farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising
livestock. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale
monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although
there is growing support for sustainable agriculture (e.g. permaculture or organic
agriculture).

Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and


technological improvements have sharply increased yields from
cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological
damage and negative human health effects. Selective breeding and
modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming have
similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about
animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones,
and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production.
39

The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers,
fuels, and raw materials. In the 21st century, plants have been used to grow
biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, bioplastics, and pharmaceuticals. Specific foods
include cereals, vegetables, fruits, and meat. Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp,
silk and flax. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo. Other useful materials
are produced by plants, such as resins. Biofuels include methane from biomass,
ethanol, and biodiesel. Cut flowers, nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the
pet trade are some of the ornamental products.

Sistem Produksi Tanaman

Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources


and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy;
economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the
farmer.[47][48] Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests
are burnt, releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then perennial
crops for a period of several years.[49]

Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest, and the farmer moves to a new
plot, returning after many more years (10-20). This fallow period is shortened if
population density grows, requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or manure)
and some manual pest control. Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity
in which there is no fallow period. This requires even greater nutrient and pest
control inputs.

Further industrialization lead to the use of monocultures, when one


cultivar is planted on a large acreage. Because of the low biodiversity, nutrient
use is uniform and pests tend to build up, necessitating the greater use of
pesticides and fertilizers.[48] Multiple cropping, in which several crops are grown
sequentially in one year, and intercropping, when several crops are grown at the
same time are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as polycultures.

In tropical environments, all of these cropping systems are practiced. In


subtropical and arid environments, the timing and extent of agriculture may be
limited by rainfall, either not allowing multiple annual crops in a year, or
requiring irrigation. In all of these environments perennial crops are grown
(coffee, chocolate) and systems are practiced such as agroforestry. In temperate
environments, where ecosystems were predominantly grassland or prairie, highly
productive annual cropping is the dominant farming system.

The last century has seen the intensification, concentration and


specialization of agriculture, relying upon new technologies of agricultural
chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), mechanization, and plant breeding
40

(hybrids and GMO's). In the past few decades, a move towards


sustainability in agriculture has also developed, integrating ideas of socio-
economic justice and conservation of resources and the environment
within a farming system.[50][51] This has led to the development of many
responses to the conventional agriculture approach, including organic
agriculture, urban agriculture, community supported agriculture,
ecological or biological agriculture, integrated farming and holistic
management, as well as an increased trend towards agricultural
diversification.

Sistem Produksi Ternak

Animals, including horses, mules, oxen, camels, llamas, alpacas, and dogs,
are often used to help cultivate fields, harvest crops, wrangle other animals, and
transport farm products to buyers. Animal husbandry not only refers to the
breeding and raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk,
eggs, or wool) on a continual basis, but also to the breeding and care of species
for work and companionship. Livestock production systems can be defined based
on feed source, as grassland - based, mixed, and landless.

Grassland based livestock production relies upon plant material such as


shrubland, rangeland, and pastures for feeding ruminant animals. Outside
nutrient inputs may be used, however manure is returned directly to the
grassland as a major nutrient source. This system is particularly important in
areas where crop production is not feasible because of climate or soil,
representing 30-40 million pastoralists.[49] Mixed production systems use
grassland, fodder crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and
monogastic (one stomach; mainly chickens and pigs) livestock. Manure is
typically recycled in mixed systems as a fertilizer for crops. Approximately 68%
of all agricultural land is permanent pastures used in the production of livestock.

Landless systems rely upon feed from outside the farm, representing the
de-linking of crop and livestock production found more prevalently in OECD
member countries. In the U.S., 70% of the grain grown is fed to animals on
feedlots. Synthetic fertilizers are more heavily relied upon for crop production
and manure utilization becomes a challenge as well as a source for pollution.

Menurut Jongbloed and Lenis (1995), beberapa pendekatan untuk mereduksi


limbah ternak dan pencemaran lingkungan adalah:

1. Supply nutrients to the required level. This can be accomplished by


better knowledge of nutrient availability (N, P) in the feed, a better
knowledge of the animals requirement and a better agreement of
supply and requirement.
41

2. Enhance digestibility of P and protein. Use of microbial phytase to


improve digestibility of P reduces needs for supplementation; enzyme
treatment of non-starch polysaccharides; reduce anti-nutritional factors
through treatment of ingredients and processing of complete diets.

3. Change feedstuff composition. For example selection of highly


digestible sources of P (mono-calcium phosphate rather than di-
calcium); use of amino acid supplementation and reduction in protein
levels.

4. Memperbaiki efisiensi pakan.

Dampak lingkungan lainnya:

1. Levels of potassium supply exceed demand by a factor of 3-5 and


levels in fresh water can exceed accepted levels by a factor of 2-4.

2. High moisture level of livestock waste increases transport costs for


disposal.

3. Although feed additives may reduce excretion of N and P as a result of


better feed conversion, copper and zinc growth promotants can
accumulate in soils.

4. Free-ranging pigs requiring more fibre in the diet have lower feed
conversion and more waste per unit of meat produced.

5. Specific pathogen-free herds can improve feed conversion by 10-15


percent.

Sumber: Jongbloed and Lenis (1995)


42

Pertanian-Ekologis = Ecoagriculture

Ecoagriculture menggambarkan lanskap yang mendukung produksi pertanian dan


konservasi keanekaragaman hayati, bekerja secara harmonis untuk meningkatkan
kesejahteraan masyarakat pedesaan. Sementara itu, banyak masyarakat pedesaan yang secara
mandiri telah menerapkan system Ecoagriculture selama ribuan tahun, selama abad terakhir
ini banyak lanskap ini telah dikonversi menjadi beragam penggunaan lahan; beberapa daerah
menerapkan praktek-praktek pertanian intensif tanpa memperhatikan dampaknya terhadap
keanekaragaman hayati, dan daerah lainnya dilindungi sepenuhnya menjadi kawasan lindung
atau daerah perlindungan DAS. Suatu gerakan Ecoagriculture baru sekarang mendapatkan
momentum untuk menyatukan pengelola lahan dan pemangku kepentingan lainnya untuk
menemukan cara yang kompatibel untuk melestarikan keanekaragaman hayati sambil juga
meningkatkan produksi pertanian.

"Ecoagriculture" is a term coined in 2000 (by Sara Scherr and Jeffrey


McNeely) to convey a vision of rural communities managing their
resources to jointly achieve three broad goals at a landscape scale what
we refer to as the three pillars of ecoagriculture:
Enhance rural livelihoods;
Conserve or enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services; and
Develop more sustainable and productive agricultural systems.

Ecoagriculture is both a conservation strategy and a rural development


strategy. Ecoagriculture recognizes agricultural producers and communities as
key stewards of ecosystems and biodiversity and enables them to play those
roles effectively. Ecoagriculture applies an integrated ecosystem approach to
agricultural landscapes to address all three pillars, drawing on diverse elements
of production and conservation management systems. Meeting the goals of
ecoagriculture usually requires collaboration or coordination between diverse
stakeholders who are collectively responsible for managing key components of a
landscape.
As an alternative strategy to industrial agriculture, an ecoagriculture
approach works by mimicking natural systems to create a new ecosystem, one
consisting mainly of perennials and indigenous species. There are many names
for ecoagricultural systems; permaculture, natural systems agriculture,
agroecology, and while doctrinaires will expound the differences between these
labels, all work on the same principals and emulate basic analogous concepts. By
mimicking and re-creating an eco-system, biodiversity, stability, fertility,
resilience and resistance are increased, there-by strengthening the overall
agricultural system. Chemical additions are not required as the system is closed
and entirely self-supportive, additionally needed amendments will be provided
from organic by-products of the system. Ecoagriculture systems have been
43

shown to be effective in both climate change mitigation and adaptation, while


being extremely productive as a food source.
Ecoagriculture systems have been described as domesticated
ecosystems . The premise works similarly to a forest, or a prairie, or any other
ecosystem. A forest is an entirely contained system, each individual part making
the whole stronger. A forest does not require outside fertilizers or pesticides or
irrigation, yet nutrients in the soil, insect ratios, water are typically keep in
proper balance. This system, thus, maintains its own health, runs on the sun's
energy, recycles nutrients, and at no expense to the planet or people. Using
these concepts, ecoagriculture designs a system allowing these processes to
work with the land, to achieve the desired outcome of an increased, diverse food
supply.

Pohon ditanam pada guludan untuk memanfaatkan air hujan yang tertampung
pada parit (swale)
Sumber: http://climatelab.org/Ecoagriculture ..... diunduh 30/6/2011

Ecoagriculture is both a conservation strategy and a rural development


strategy. Ecoagriculture recognizes agricultural producers and communities as
key stewards of ecosystems and biodiversity and enables them to play those
roles effectively. Ecoagriculture applies an integrated ecosystem approach to
agricultural landscapes to address all three pillars -- conserving biodiversity,
enhacing agricultural production, and improving livelihoods -- drawing on diverse
elements of production and conservation management systems. Meeting the
44

goals of ecoagriculture usually requires collaboration or coordination between


diverse stakeholders who are collectively responsible for managing key
components of a landscape.

Pertanian Berkelanjutan = Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of


ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It
has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production
practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term:
Satisfy human food and fiber needs
Make the most efficient use of non-renewable resources and on-farm
resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles
and controls
Sustain the economic viability of farm operations
Enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole. [1]

A growing movement has emerged during the past two decades to


question the role of the agricultural establishment in promoting practices that
contribute to these social problems. Today this movement for sustainable
agriculture is garnering increasing support and acceptance within mainstream
agriculture. Not only does sustainable agriculture address many environmental
and social concerns, but it offers innovative and economically viable
opportunities for growers, laborers, consumers, policymakers and many others in
the entire food system.
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals--environmental health,
economic profitability, and social and economic equity. A variety of philosophies,
policies and practices have contributed to these goals. People in many different
capacities, from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed
to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes
commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture.

Sustainable agriculture is said to offer three main goals that industrial


agriculture has not been successfully accounting for environmental
health and diversity, economic profitability, and social and economic
equity. In summary, it looks to promote harmony between agriculture and
social responsibility so that the ability of future generations to meet their
own needs is not obstructed. In reality, the growth rate of the global
human population is rapid, but not something the agricultural industry
cant keep up with.
45

Sumber: http://lidomain.blogspot.com/ .. diunduh 30/6/2011

Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime
importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social
responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of
rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the
future. Stewardship of land and natural resources involves maintaining or
enhancing this vital resource base for the long term.

Model Usahatani berkelanjutan


To be sustainable, inputs must be less than outputs. Inputs include fuel
and all forms of energy, labour and raw materials. Even treatment of
wastes must not consume excessive energy. For a farmer to practice
sustainable agriculture, he must derive a reasonable income from his
efforts. The only purchased inputs are corn and other feed ingredients.
From here, all 'wastes' are recycled. Dung, carcasses, etc are all
composted and made into high quality humus. Using humus and compost
tea and proper management, an acre of land can produce 30 tonnes of
high protein napia grass. This is fed to goats and fish. Using humus and
compost tea, and selecting low-nitrogen demanding heritage seeds,
seperti kacang-kacangan, bayam, terung, dll. we can produce abundant
market vegetables.
46

Model usahatani berkelanjutan sekala mikro (Sumber:


http://dqfarm.blogspirit.com/web/ .. diunduh 30/6/2011)

A systems perspective is essential to understanding sustainability. The


system is envisioned in its broadest sense, from the individual farm, to the local
ecosystem, and to communities affected by this farming system both locally and
globally. An emphasis on the system allows a larger and more thorough view of
the consequences of farming practices on both human communities and the
environment. A systems approach gives us the tools to explore the
interconnections between farming and other aspects of our environment.
A systems approach also implies interdisciplinary efforts in research and
education. This requires not only the input of researchers from various
disciplines, but also farmers, farmworkers, consumers, policymakers and others.

Making the transition to sustainable agriculture is a process. For farmers,


the transition to sustainable agriculture normally requires a series of small,
realistic steps. Family economics and personal goals influence how fast or
how far participants can go in the transition. It is important to realize that
each small decision can make a difference and contribute to advancing the
entire system further on the "sustainable agriculture continuum." The key
to moving forward is the will to take the next step.
Finally, it is important to point out that reaching toward the goal of
sustainable agriculture is the responsibility of all participants in the
system, including farmers, laborers, policymakers, researchers, retailers,
and consumers. Each group has its own part to play, its own unique
contribution to make to strengthen the sustainable agriculture community.
47

The specific strategies for realizing these broad themes or goals of


systems . The strategies are grouped according to three separate though related
areas of concern: Farming and Natural Resources, Plant and Animal Production
Practices, and the Economic, Social and Political Context. They represent a range
of potential ideas for individuals committed to interpreting the vision of
sustainable agriculture within their own circumstances.

Usaha Pertanian dan Sumberdaya Alam

The physical aspects of sustainability are partly understood. Practices that


can cause long-term damage to soil include excessive tillage (leading to erosion)
and irrigation without adequate drainage (leading to salinization). Long-term
experiments have provided some of the best data on how various practices
affect soil properties essential to sustainability. The most important factors for an
individual site are sun, air, soil and water. Of the four, water and soil quality and
quantity are most amenable to human intervention through time and labour.

Sistem Produksi Primer

Plants produce plant matter from soil nutrients, water and carbon dioxide,
using the energy of light. It is called primary production. The diagram
shows the carbon flows (is equal to energy flows). At left one sees a plant
receiving light and CO2 from the air and returning oxygen. At night, when
there is no sunlight, plants respire like animals do, taking up oxygen and
returning CO2. Surprisingly, a large proportion of a plant's primary
production (50%) disappears underground, where it grows the root system
and feeds soil organisms. Only 50% is used for above-ground growth. Of
this, between 10 and 40% is used for growing, depending on plant type,
age and kind of harvesting. If the plant is grazed regularly, the grown
biomass will be grazed, amounting to no more than 40%. The remaining
10% is lost by leaf drop. This leaf litter is decomposed by fungi and
bacteria, contributing energy to the soil biota, while returning nutrients to
the plant
48

Sumber: http://www.seafriends.org.nz/enviro/soil/ecology.htm ..... diunduh


30/6/2011

Udara dan sinar matahari tersedia di mana-mana di muka Bumi ini, namun tanaman
juga tergantung pada ketersediaan hara dalam tanah dan ketersediaan air dalam tanah. Ketika
petani menanam dan panen tanaman , mereka mengambil sejumlah hara dari dalam tanah .
Tanpa pengembalian sejumlah hara ke tanah, maka tanah akan mengalami penurunan tingkat
kesuburannya dan dapat berdampak pada penurunan pertumbuhan dan hasil panen. Pertanian
berkelanjutan tergantung pada pengelolaan tanah dan meminimalkan penggunaan sumber
daya yang tidak terbarukan, seperti gas alam (digunakan dalam mengkonversi nitrogen
atmosfer menjadi pupuk sintetis) , atau bijih mineral ( misalnya fosfat ) . Sumber nitrogen
yang dapat tersedia secara berkelanjutan , meliputi:

1. Daur ulang limbah tanaman dan ternak atau kotoran manusia yang telah diolah

2. Menanam tanaman legume dan hijauan seperti kacang-kacangan atau alfalfa yang
membentuk mampu bersimbiosis dengan bakteri fiksasi nitrogen yang disebut
rhizobia

3. Produksi industri pupuk nitrogen dengan proses Haber menggunakan hidrogen , yang
saat ini berasal dari gas alam , tetapi hidrogen ini sebenarnya dapat dibuat dengan
elektrolisis air menggunakan listrik ( mungkin dari sel surya atau kincir angin )
49

4. Rekayasa genetik tanaman non - legume untuk membentuk simbiosis penambat


nitrogen atau fiksasi nitrogen tanpa simbion mikroba .

The last option was proposed in the 1970s, but is only recently becoming
feasible. Sustainable options for replacing other nutrient inputs (phosphorus,
potassium, etc.) are more limited. More realistic, and often overlooked, options
include long-term crop rotations, returning to natural cycles that annually flood
cultivated lands (returning lost nutrients indefinitely) such as the Flooding of the
Nile, the long-term use of biochar, and use of crop and livestock landraces that
are adapted to less than ideal conditions such as pests, drought, or lack of
nutrients. Crops that require high levels of soil nutrients can be cultivated in a
more sustainable manner if certain fertilizer management practices are adhered
to.

Air - Pertanian

In some areas, sufficient rainfall is available for crop growth, but many
other areas require irrigation. For irrigation systems to be sustainable they
require proper management (to avoid salinization) and must not use more water
from their source than is naturally replenished, otherwise the water source
becomes, in effect, a non-renewable resource. Improvements in water well
drilling technology and submersible pumps combined with the development of
drip irrigation and low pressure pivots have made it possible to regularly achieve
high crop yields where reliance on rainfall alone previously made this level of
success unpredictable. However, this progress has come at a price, in that in
many areas where this has occurred, such as the Ogallala Aquifer, the water is
being used at a greater rate than its rate of recharge.

Suplai dan Penggunaan Air

An extensive water storage and transfer system has been established


which has allowed crop production to expand to very arid regions. In
drought years, limited surface water supplies have prompted overdraft of
groundwater and consequent intrusion of salt water, or permanent
collapse of aquifers. Periodic droughts, some lasting up to 50 years, have
occurred in any areas. Several steps should be taken to develop drought-
resistant farming systems even in "normal" years, including both policy
and management actions: 1) improving water conservation and storage
measures, 2) providing incentives for selection of drought-tolerant crop
species, 3) using reduced-volume irrigation systems, 4) managing crops to
reduce water loss, or 5) not planting at all.
50

Kualitas Air.

The most important issues related to water quality involve salinization and
contamination of ground and surface waters by pesticides, nitrates and
selenium. Salinity has become a problem wherever water of even
relatively low salt content is used on shallow soils in arid regions and/or
where the water table is near the root zone of crops. Tile drainage can
remove the water and salts, but the disposal of the salts and other
contaminants may negatively affect the environment depending upon
where they are deposited. Temporary solutions include the use of salt-
tolerant crops, low-volume irrigation, and various management techniques
to minimize the effects of salts on crops. In the long-term, some farmland
may need to be removed from production or converted to other uses.
Other uses include conversion of row crop land to production of drought-
tolerant forages, the restoration of wildlife habitat or the use of
agroforestry to minimize the impacts of salinity and high water tables

Indicators for sustainable water resource development are: Internal


renewable water resources. This is the average annual flow of rivers and
groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation, after ensuring that there
is no double counting. It represents the maximum amount of water resource
produced within the boundaries of a country. This value, which is expressed as an
average on a yearly basis, is invariant in time (except in the case of proved
climate change). The indicator can be expressed in three different units: in
absolute terms (km3/yr), in mm/yr (it is a measure of the humidity of the
country), and as a function of population (m3/person per yr).

Global renewable water resources. This is the sum of internal


renewable water resources and incoming flow originating outside the
country. Unlike internal resources, this value can vary with time if
upstream development reduces water availability at the border.
Treaties ensuring a specific flow to be reserved from upstream to
downstream countries may be taken into account in the computation of
global water resources in both countries.

Dependency ratio. This is the proportion of the global renewable water


resources originating outside the country, expressed in percentage. It is
an expression of the level to which the water resources of a country
depend on neighbouring countries.

Water withdrawal. In view of the limitations described above, only gross


water withdrawal can be computed systematically on a country basis
as a measure of water use. Absolute or per-person value of yearly
water withdrawal gives a measure of the importance of water in the
country's economy. When expressed in percentage of water resources,
it shows the degree of pressure on water resources. A rough estimate
51

shows that if water withdrawal exceeds a quarter of global renewable


water resources of a country, water can be considered a limiting factor
to development and, reciprocally, the pressure on water resources can
have a direct impact on all sectors, from agriculture to environment
and fisheries.

Tanah-pertanian

Soil erosion is fast becoming one of the worlds greatest problems. It is


estimated that "more than a thousand million tonnes of southern Africa's soil are
eroded every year. Experts predict that crop yields will be halved within thirty to
fifty years if erosion continues at present rates." Soil erosion is not unique to
Africa but is occurring worldwide. The phenomenon is being called Peak Soil as
present large scale factory farming techniques are jeopardizing humanity's
ability to grow food in the present and in the future. Without efforts to improve
soil management practices, the availability of arable soil will become increasingly
problematic.

Beberapa teknik pengelolaan tanah

1. Pertanian tanpa olah tanah (No-till farming)


2. Keyline design
3. Tumbuhan penahan angin untuk melindungi tanah
4. Mengembalikan bahan organic ke dalam tanah
5. Menghentikan penggunaan pupuk-pupuk kima
6. Melindungi tanah dari air runoff..

Berfungsinya ekosistem tanah

Chemical decomposing activity can be found throughout the soil, but it is


most active in five special areas. They are the arenas where activity
concentrates. The drilosphere is the workplace of earth worms. As can be
seen from the top right drawing, worms leave a funnel-shaped business
end on top of previous funnels. Earth is cast on top and to the side,
covering leaf litter in a loose fashion. In the oxygen-rich moisture, other
organisms find shelter or actively take part in some of the process.
Rainwater dissolves nitrates, DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) and
transports it down the worm hole.

The detritusphere works where leaf litter is moist and rich in oxygen. Here
fungi can work efficiently, decomposing cellulose while taking oxygen in
and respirating carbon dioxide. Inside anoxic corners of leaf structure,
bacteria convert nitric oxides to nitrogen.
52

Sumber:

http://www.seafriends.org.nz/enviro/soil/ecology.htm ..... diunduh 30/6/2011

Where masses of young roots are found, activity is high in the porosphere of the
soil. Pores are necessary to hold water and to transport oxygen and carbon
dioxide. Aggregates of soil are pierced by hair roots (yellow) and covered in
hyphae of fungi (purple). By the transport channels from worms and other
organisms, water, nitrates, phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon compounds
leach from the top down.
In the aggregatusphere, sand and clay particles form enclosed workshops for
bacteria. Many chemical processes happen here, producing nitrates (NO3-),
ammonia (NH4+), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxides and more. Many
compounds are
transported by the fine
hyphae to other
places.
53

Sumber:: http://www.seafriends.org.nz/enviro/soil/ecology.htm ..... diunduh


30/6/2011
The rhizosphere is the area directly around hair roots. This is a special
place because hair roots bring food and oxygen, enabling the micro organisms to
work faster than anywhere else. A continuous flow of water is caused, as water is
absorbed by these roots, drawing with it dissolved substances. As these hair
roots grow, they intrude into other aggregatuspheres, find nutrients, get eaten,
and other fine roots take their place. The soil is in a continuous state of
decomposition, provided moisture and oxygen are available.

Udara-pertanian

Many agricultural activities affect air quality. These include smoke from
agricultural burning; dust from tillage, traffic and harvest; pesticide drift from
spraying; and nitrous oxide emissions from the use of nitrogen fertilizer. Options
to improve air quality include incorporating crop residue into the soil, using
appropriate levels of tillage, and planting wind breaks, cover crops or strips of
native perennial grasses to reduce dust.

Ekonomi - Pertanian

Socioeconomic aspects of sustainability are also partly understood.


Regarding less concentrated farming, the best known analysis is Netting's study
on smallholder systems through history. [12] The Oxford Sustainable Group defines
sustainability in this context in a much broader form, considering effect on all
stakeholders in a 360 degree approach

Given the finite supply of natural resources at any specific cost and
location, agriculture that is inefficient or damaging to needed resources may
eventually exhaust the available resources or the ability to afford and acquire
them. It may also generate negative externality, such as pollution as well as
financial and production costs.

The way that crops are sold must be accounted for in the sustainability
equation. Food sold locally does not require additional energy for transportation
(including consumers). Food sold at a remote location, whether at a farmers'
market or the supermarket, incurs a different set of energy cost for materials,
labour, and transport.

Metode-metode Pertanian
54

What grows where and how it is grown are a matter of choice. Two of the
many possible practices of sustainable agriculture are crop rotation and soil
amendment, both designed to ensure that crops being cultivated can obtain the
necessary nutrients for healthy growth. Soil amendments would include using
locally available compost from community recycling centers. These community
recycling centers help produce the compost needed by the local organic farms.

Many scientists, farmers, and businesses have debated how to make


agriculture sustainable. Using community recycling from yard and kitchen waste
utilizes a local area's commonly available resources. These resources in the past
were thrown away into large waste disposal sites, are now used to produce low
cost organic compost for organic farming. Other practices includes growing a
diverse number of perennial crops in a single field, each of which would grow in
separate season so as not to compete with each other for natural resources. [13]
This system would result in increased resistance to diseases and decreased
effects of erosion and loss of nutrients in soil. Nitrogen fixation from legumes, for
example, used in conjunction with plants that rely on nitrate from soil for growth,
helps to allow the land to be reused annually. Legumes will grow for a season and
replenish the soil with ammonium and nitrate, and the next season other plants
can be seeded and grown in the field in preparation for harvest.

Monoculture, a method of growing only one crop at a time in a given field,


is a very widespread practice, but there are questions about its sustainability,
especially if the same crop is grown every year. Today it is realized to get around
this problem local cities and farms can work together to produce the needed
compost for the farmers around them. This combined with growing a mixture of
crops (polyculture) sometimes reduces disease or pest problems but polyculture
has rarely, if ever, been compared to the more widespread practice of growing
different crops in successive years (crop rotation) with the same overall crop
diversity. Cropping systems that include a variety of crops (polyculture and/or
rotation) may also replenish nitrogen (if legumes are included) and may also use
resources such as sunlight, water, or nutrients more efficiently (Field Crops Res.
34:239).

Replacing a natural ecosystem with a few specifically chosen plant


varieties reduces the genetic diversity found in wildlife and makes the organisms
susceptible to widespread disease. The Great Irish Famine (18451849) is a well-
known example of the dangers of monoculture. In practice, there is no single
approach to sustainable agriculture, as the precise goals and methods must be
adapted to each individual case. There may be some techniques of farming that
are inherently in conflict with the concept of sustainability, but there is
widespread misunderstanding on impacts of some practices. Today the growth of
local farmers' markets offer small farms the ability to sell the products that they
have grown back to the cities that they got the recycled compost from. By using
local recycling this will help move people away from the slash-and-burn
techniques that are the characteristic feature of shifting cultivators are often
cited as inherently destructive, yet slash-and-burn cultivation has been practiced
in the Amazon for at least 6000 years; [15] serious deforestation did not begin until
the 1970s, largely as the result of Brazilian government programs and policies. [16]
55

To note that it may not have been slash-and-burn so much as slash-and-char,


which with the addition of organic matter produces terra preta, one of the richest
soils on Earth and the only one that regenerates itself.

There are also many ways to practice sustainable animal husbandry. Some
of the key tools to grazing management include fencing off the grazing area into
smaller areas called paddocks, lowering stock density, and moving the stock
between paddocks frequently.

Several attempts have been made to produce an artificial meat, using


isolated tissues to produce it in vitro; Jason Matheny's work on this topic, which
in the New Harvest project, is one of the most commented.[18]

Perlakuan Tanah pertanian

Pengasapan Tanah dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif ekologis menggantikan


bahan kimia untuk sterilisasi tanah. Berbagai metode tersedia untuk mendorong uap ke dalam
tanah untuk membunuh hama dan memperbaiki kesehatan tanah. Pengkomposan limbah
domestic, limbah pertanian, sampah halaman, dan limbah organik dapur, dapat memberikan
sebagian besar kebutuhan pupuk yang diperlukan pertanian lokal. Pengomposan ini
berpotensi menjadi sumber energi yang dapat diandalkan.

Apa itu Kompos?


Kompos adalah jenis pupuk humus sehat dan kaya hara, serta menjadi bahan
pembenah tanah yang dihasilkan dari dekomposisi bahan organik. Sampah organik
digunakan untuk menggambarkan limbah yang berasal dari biomasa hidup seperti
rumput, daun, kulit sayuran, makanan yang dimasak dll. Pengomposan merupakan
sarana sederhana untuk menciptakan kondisi yang tepat untuk mempercepat proses
dekomposisi limbah organic ini.
56

Sumber: http://www.bionetix.co.uk/static/Compost_Info_and_Tips/ .. diunduh 30/6/2011

Dampak eksternal

A farm that is able to "produce perpetually", yet has negative effects on


environmental quality elsewhere is not sustainable agriculture. An example of a
case in which a global view may be warranted is over-application of synthetic
fertilizer or animal manures, which can improve productivity of a farm but can
pollute nearby rivers and coastal waters (eutrophication). The other extreme can
also be undesirable, as the problem of low crop yields due to exhaustion of
nutrients in the soil has been related to rainforest destruction, as in the case of
slash and burn farming for livestock feed.

Agricultural activities contribute strongly to eutrophication and


the spread of pollutions in the basin.
57

Sumber: http://www.zoologi.su.se/ekoklim/study_region.html ..... diunduh


30/6/2011

The chain of eutrophication begins with an overload of nutrients that enters the
aquatic ecosystem. This schematic show various nutrient pathways and their
effects. The future half of the diagram shows improved water quality based on
better nutrient filtering.
58

Sumber: http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/news/news-
archive/soc_0017.html ..... diunduh 30/6/2011

Sustainability affects overall production, which must increase to meet the


increasing food and fiber requirements as the world's human population expands
to a projected 9.3 billion people by 2050. Increased production may come from
creating new farmland, which may ameliorate carbon dioxide emissions if done
through reclamation of desert as in the worlds, or may worsen emissions if done
through slash and burn farming. Additionally, Genetically modified organism
crops show promise for radically increasing crop yields, although many people
and governments are apprehensive of this new farming method.

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs)

Genetically modified organism (GMO) is an organism that was changed


using methods of modern biotechnology. In such organism defined gene
for exactly defined characteristic from other organism has been inserted.
GMO are microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses), plants and
animals.

According to Slovene legislation ''GMO is an organism, with the exception


of human beings, or a micro-organism, in which the genetic material has
been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or natural
recombination.'' (Management of Genetically Modified Organisms Act
(Official Gazette of RS No. 23/2005))

According to EU legislation ''GMO means an organism, with the exception


of human beings, in which the genetic material has been altered in a way
that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural
recombination.''(Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of
the Council of 12 March 2001 on the deliberate release into the
environment of genetically modified organisms and repealing Council
Directive 90/220/EEC - Commission Declaration)

According to international Cartagena Protocol ''Living Modified Organism


(LMO) means any living organism that possesses a novel combination of
genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.''
(Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological
Diversity)
59

Sumber: http://www.biotechnology-
gmo.gov.si/eng/gensko_spremenjeni_organizmi/index.html

Manfaat Teknologi GMO

Tanaman Pertanian
Memperbaiki rasa dan kualitas
Mereduksi waktu pemasakan
Increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance
Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides
New products and growing techniques
Binatang-Ternak
Hasil produksi yang lebih baik : daging, telur dan susu
Perbaikan kesehatan binatang dan metode diagnosisnya
Peningkatan resistensi, productivity, hardiness, dan efisiensi pakan
Lingkungan Hidup
" Bioherbicides dan bioinsecticida ramah lingkungan
Konservasi tanah, air dan energi
Bio-proses untuk produk kehutanan
Pengelolaan limbah secara lebih baik
Pengolahan lebih efisien.
Masyarakat
Meningkatkan kertahanan pangan bagi penduduk yang semakin
banyak
60

Recombinant DNA technology: genetically modified organism


production

Sumber:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/122433/Genetically-
modified-organisms-are-produced-using-scientific-methods-that-
include ..... diunduh 30/6/2011

Kontroversi GMO

Keamanan
Dampak potensial terhadap kesehatan manusia: allergens, transfer
resistensi antibiotic, efek-efek yang belum diketahui.
Dampak potensial terhadap lingkungan: unintended transfer of
transgenes through cross-pollination, unknown effects on other
organisms (e.g., soil microbes), and loss of flora and fauna
biodiversity
Akses dan Properti Intelektual
Dominasi produksi pangan dunia oleh beberapa perusahaan
Meningkatkan ketergantungan Negara berkembang kepada Negara
industry maju
Eksploitasi sumberdaya alam secara Biopiracy-foreign
61

Etika
Pelanggaran nilai-nilai ^ntrinsic dari organism alamiah
Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species
Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa
Stress bagi binatang

Some advocates favour sustainable agriculture as the only system which


can be sustained over the long-term. However, organic production methods,
especially in transition, yield less than their conventional counterparts and raise
the same problems of sustaining populations globally.

Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such


as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to
maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. Organic farming
excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers, pesticides
(which include herbicides, insecticides and fungicides), plant growth
regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, and
genetically modified organisms.

Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of


soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity
and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with
adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and
science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships
and a good quality of life for all involved..
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements

Productivitas dan Profitabilitas Pertanian Organik

Various studies find that versus conventional agriculture, organic crops


yielded 91%, or 95-100%, along with 50% lower expenditure on fertilizer
and energy, and 97% less pesticides, or 100% for corn and soybean,
consuming less energy and zero pesticides. (Stanhill, G. 1990). The
comparative productivity of organic agriculture. Agriculture, Ecosystems,
and Environment. 30(1-2):1-26).

The results were attributed to lower yields in average and good years but
higher yields during drought years. A 2007 study compiling research from
293 different comparisons into a single study to assess the overall
efficiency of the two agricultural systems has concluded that
62

organic methods could produce enough food on a global per


capita basis to sustain the current human population, and
potentially an even larger population, without increasing the
agricultural land base.

(Perfecto et al.., in Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (2007),


22: 86108 Cambridge University Press: cited in New Scientist 13:46
12 July 2007)

Converted organic farms have lower pre-harvest yields than their


conventional counterparts in developed countries (92%) but higher than
their low-intensity counterparts in developing countries (132%). This is
due to relatively lower adoption of fertilizers and pesticides in the
developing world compared to the intensive farming of the developed
world. (Badgley, C. et al. .Organic agriculture and the global food supply.
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (2007), 22: 86-108.

Organic farms withstand severe weather conditions better than


conventional farms, sometimes yielding 70-90% more than conventional
farms during droughts.[42] Organic farms are more profitable in the drier
states of the United States, likely due to their superior drought
performance. Organic farms survive hurricane damage much better,
retaining 20 to 40% more topsoil and smaller economic losses at highly
significant levels than their neighbors.

Contrary to widespread belief, organic farming can build up soil organic


matter better than conventional no-till farming, which suggests long-term
yield benefits from organic farming. An 18-year study of organic methods
on nutrient-depleted soil, concluded that conventional methods were
superior for soil fertility and yield in a cold-temperate climate, arguing that
much of the benefits from organic farming are derived from imported
materials which could not be regarded as self-sustaining. [46]

Profitabilitas Pertanian Organik


(Lotter, D. (2003). Organic Agriculture (PDF). Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture 21 (4). http://donlotter.net/lotter_organicag.pdf.)

The decreased cost of synthetic fertilizer and pesticide inputs, along with
the higher prices that consumers pay for organic produce, contribute to
increased profits. Organic farms have been consistently found to be as or
more profitable than conventional farms. Without the price premium,
profitability is mixed. Organic production was more profitable in Wisconsin,
given price premiums.
63

Agroekosistem
(sumber: http://www.answers.com/topic/agroecosystem#ixzz1f2iWFTtJ)

An agroecosystem is the basic unit of study for an agroecologist, and is


somewhat arbitrarily defined as a spatially and functionally coherent unit of
agricultural activity, and includes the living and nonliving components involved
in that unit as well as their interactions.

"Suatu agroekosistem dapat dilihat sebagai bagian dari ekosistem konvensional.


Bagian inti dari suatu agroekosistem adalah manusia dengan aktivitas pertaniannya.
Namun demikian, agroekosistem tidak terbatas pada kegiatan pertanian (misalnya
usahatani), melainkan juga termasuk kawasan yang dipengaruhi oleh kegiatan
pertanian ini, biasanya dengan perubahan kompleksitas spesies dan aliran energi, serta
untuk keseimbangan hara. Secara tradisional suatu agroekosistem, terutama yang
dikelola secara intensif, ditandai oleh adanya komposisi spesies yang lebih sederhana
dan aliran energi dan hara yang lebih sederhana daripada ekosistem alamiah.
Demikian juga, agroekosistem sering dikaitkan dengan masukan hara yang tinggi,
banyak yang ke luar dari system pertanian mengakibatkan munculnya eutrofikasi pada
ekosistem yang tidak secara langsung behubungan dengan pertanian ".

One of the major efforts of disciplines such as agroecology is to promote


management styles that blur the distinction between agroecosystems and
"natural" ecosystems, both by decreasing the impact of agriculture (increasing
the biological and trophic complexity of the agricultural system as well as
decreasing the nutrient inputs/outflow) and by increasing awareness that
"downstream" effects extend agroecosystems beyond the boundaries of the
farm. In the first case, polyculture or buffer strips for wildlife habitat can restore
some complexity to a cropping system, while organic farming can reduce
nutrient inputs. Efforts of the second type are most common at the watershed
scale. An example is the National Association of Conservation Districts' Lake
Mendota Watershed Project, which seeks to reduce runoff from the agricultural
lands feeding into the lake with the aim of reducing algal blooms. A model for
the functionings of an agricultural system, with all inputs and outputs. An
ecosystem may be as small as a set of microbial interactions that take place on
the surface of roots, or as large as the globe. An agroecosystem may be at the
level of the individual plant-soil-microorganism system, at the level of crops or
herds of domesticated animals, at the level of farms or agricultural landscapes,
or at the level of entire agricultural economies.
64

Ciri-ciri Agroekosistem
Agroekosistem berbeda dengan ekosistem alami dalam beberapa hal:
1. Energi yang mendorong semua ekosistem autotrophic, termasuk agroekosistem, baik
secara langsung maupun tidak langsung, berasal dari energi surya. Namun demikian,
input energi untuk agroekosistem tidak hanya mencakup energi alami (sinar matahari),
tetapi juga energi olahan (bahan bakar fosil) serta tenaga kerja manusia dan hewan.
2. Biodiversitas dalam agroekosistem umumnya dikurangi oleh adanya manajemen manusia
untuk menyalurkan sebanyak mungkin energi dan hara ke dalam system spesies
budidaya.
3. Evolusi adalah sebagian besar, melalui seleksi buatan, dimana sifat fenotipik yang
diinginkan secara komersial ditingkatkan melalui program pemuliaan dan rekayasa
genetika.
4. Agroekosistems biasanya dikaji dari berbagai Perspektif, termasuk Neraca dan Aliran
energi, pertukartan materi, Neraca hara, dan Dinamika populasi serta Komunitas.

Solar energy influences agroecosystem productivity directly by providing


the energy for photosynthesis and indirectly through heat energy that influences
respiration, rates of water loss, and the heat balance of plants and animals.
Nutrient uptake from soil by crop plants or weeds is primarily mediated by
microbial processes. Some soil bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen into forms that
plants can assimilate. Other organisms influence soil structure and the exchange
of nutrients, and still other microorganisms may excrete ammonia and other
metabolic by-products that are useful plant nutrients. There are many complex
ways that microorganisms influence nutrient cycling and uptake by plants. Some
microorganisms are plant pathogens that reduce nutrient uptake in diseased
plants. Larger organisms may influence nutrient uptake indirectly by modifying
soil structure or directly by damaging plants.
Although agroecosystems may be greatly simplified compared to natural
ecosystems, they can still foster a rich array of population and community
processes such as herbivory, predation, parasitization, competition, and
mutualism. Crop plants may compete among themselves or with weeds for
sunlight, soil nutrients, or water. Cattle overstocked in a pasture may compete
for forage and thereby change competitive interactions among pasture plants,
resulting in selection for unpalatable or even toxic plants. Indeed, one important
goal of farming is to find the optimal densities for crops and livestock.
Widespread use of synthetic chemical pesticides has bolstered farm
production worldwide, primarily by reducing or eliminating herbivorous insect
pests. Traditional broad-spectrum pesticides such as DDT, however, can have far-
ranging impacts on agroecosystems. For instance, secondary pest outbreaks
associated with the use of many traditional pesticides are not uncommon due to
the elimination of natural enemies or resistance of pests to chemical control.
Growers and pesticide developers in temperate regions have begun to focus on
alternative means of control. Pesticide developers have begun producing
selective pesticides, which are designed to target only pest species and to spare
natural enemies, leaving the rest of the agroecosystem community intact. Many
growers are now implementing integrated pest management programs that
incorporate the new breed of biorational chemicals with cultural and other types
of controls.
65

ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM

Agroecosystem analysis is a thorough analysis of an agricultural


environment which considers aspects from ecology, sociology, economics, and
politics with equal weight. There are many aspects to consider; however, it is
literally impossible to account for all of them. This is one of the issues when
trying to conduct an analysis of an agricultural environment. In the past, an
agroecosystem analysis approach might be used to determine the sustainability
of an agricultural system. It has become apparent, however, that the
"sustainability" of the system depends heavily on the definition of sustainability
chosen by the observer. Therefore, agroecosystem analysis is used to bring the
richness of the true complexity of agricultural systems to an analysis to identify
reconfigurations of the system (or holon) that will best suit individual situations.

Agroecosystem analysis is a tool of the multidisciplinary subject known as


Agroecology. Agroecology and agroecosystem analysis are not the same
as sustainable agriculture, though the use of agroecosystem analysis may
help a farming system ensure its viability. Agroecosystem analysis is not a
new practice, agriculturalists and farmers have been doing it since
societies switched from hunting and gathering (hunter-gatherer) for food
to settling in one area. Every time a person involved in agriculture
evaluates their situation to identify methods to make the system function
in a way that better suits their interests, they are performing an
agroecosystem analysis.

Analisis Agroecosystem dan Pertanian berkelanjutan


It is difficult to discuss these differences without the aid of an example.
Consider the case of a conventional apple farmer. This farmer may choose to
change his farm to conform to the standards of USDA approved organic
agriculture because he felt motivated by social or moral norms or the potential of
increased profits or a host of other reasons. This farmer evaluated his situation
and reconfigured it to try to improve it. Some might look at this situation and
conclude that the apple farmer chose organic apple production because it is
more sustainable for the environment. But, what if a few years later the farmer
finds that he is struggling to make a profit and decides to go back to
conventional agriculture? The farmer performed another agroecosystem analysis
and arrived at a reconfiguration that some might see as unsustainable. This
example illustrates how agroecosystem analysis is not required to lead a more
environmentally sustainable form of agriculture. Agroecosystem analysis might
66

produce a reconfiguration that is more economically sustainable or socially


sustainable or politically sustainable for a farmer (or other actor). By definition,
however, agroecosystem analysis is not required to produce an environmentally
sustainable configuration for an agricultural system.

Pendekatan untuk Analisis

William L. Bland, from the University of WisconsinMadison, developed the idea of


a farm as a Holon (philosophy). This term, holon, was originally introduced by
Arthur Koestler in 1966, in which he referred to a holon as an entity in which it is a
part by itself, a holon, while contributing to a larger entity, which is also a holon.
Bland develops this for an agricultural environment or farm as, "The farm holon is
both the whole in which smaller holons exists, and a part of larger entities,
themselves holons." This idea was expanded upon by Bland and Michael M. Bell
University of WisconsinMadison in their 2007 article "A holon approach to
agroecology," because it is difficult to account for boundary and change when
using a systems thinking approach. One major difference between Koestler's
holon and the holon idea developed for agroecosystem analysis is that the latter
can only be defined as a holon if it has intentionality.

The farm itself is a holon and within the farm holon, other holons exist. For
example, a farm animal, the farm family, and a farmworker can all be considered
holons within the farm. Additionally, the farm is considered a holon which is
inpart connected to other holons such as the county in which the farm resides,
the bank from which the farmer borrowed money, or the grain elevator where the
farmer can sell goods. Things like the tractor or the barn are not holons because
they lack intentionality. When conducting an agroecosystem analysis, the
analyst should approach the farm as the farm itself and the "ecology of contexts"
in which the farm and the farmer function. A "context" is anything that might
influence functioning of the farm and cause it to change. According to Bland and
Bell, examples of contexts include, "family, farm business, genetic heart disease,
and spiritual beliefs." These examples illustrate the breadth of contexts that
could influence why farmers do what they do. Bland concluded his model of a
farm as a holon by stating, "A farm is not sustainable (disintegrates) when it
cannot find an overall configuration that is simultaneously viable in all contexts."

Pertanyaan yang harus diperhatikan

There is no right or wrong way to evaluate an agroecosystem. It is


important to identify all actors in a holon before beginning the analysis. When an
analyst accepts the task of analyzing the agroecosystem, first and foremost, it
must be approached as to incorporate all elements involved and should derive
questions that should be answered.
Pertanyaan-pertanyaan seperti:
Apakah faktor-faktor pembatas (holons and contexts) menentukan
konfigurasi agroecosystem yang ada sekarang?
Bagaimana mengkuantifikasikan keberl;anjutan suatu usahat
pertanian (economi, social, politis, ekologi dan/atau lainnya)?
67

Bagaimana petani atau keluarga usahatani mempersepsikan suatu


agroecosystem?
Apa saja yang dilakukan petani saat ini, dan bagaimana praktek-
praktek tersebut mempengaruhi viabilitas agroecosystem?
Dapatkan petani melestarikan kesejahteraannya dengan praktek-
praktek yang ada sekarang?
Apakah nilai-nilai yang dianut oleh petani dari darimana asalnya nilai-
nilai tersebut?
Apakah petani akan mempertimbangkan alternatif konfigurasi
usahataninya?

Manajemen Agroekosistem

Organic Agro-Ecosystem Management from Prototyped Organic


Farmer Learning Processes. Yuppayao Tokeeree, Sunantha Laowansiri
and Sopit Vetayasuporn. 2010. The Social Sciences, 2010 , Volume: 5 ,
Issue: 6, Page 532-537.

Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari manajemen agroekosistem


organic dan mensintesis proses pembelajaran yang dilakukan oleh
petani organic Mr. Kampan Laowongsri. Mr. Kampan adalah prototype
petani organic yang menerapkan system pertanian terpadu di propinsi
Mahasarakarm. Sistem pertanian terpadu ini sesuai dengan kaidah-
kaidah mutual-manajemen antara sumberdaya fisik dan sumberdaya
buiologis serta system pemanfataan limbahnya. Limbah pertanian
dirombak dan diolah menjadi material yang bermanfaat dan digunakan
dalam proses pertanian.
Hasil-hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa keberhasilan system
pertanian organic terpadu ini berpangkal dari proses pembelajaran
sendiri petani, prinsip kearifan local, dan pengalaman yang telah dilalui
dari generasi ke generasi, percobaan-percobaan, saran pemerintah dan
suasta, diskusi komunitas dan informasi-informasi lainnya. Sistem
pertanian organic terpadu dari Mr. Kampan ini bukan hanya bertumpu
pada keragaan usahatani, tetapi juga mewujudkan kelestarian,
kelayakan ekonomi, kesejahteraan petani, keramahan lingkungan dan
hasil-hasil opertanian yang aman dikonsumsi. Kecuali itu, kelebihan
hasil-hasil pertanian dari konsumsi keluarga dapat dijual dan
menghasilkan income bagi keluarganya.

PROTOTIPE SISTEM PENGELOLAAN AGROEKOSISTEM


ORGANIK

Pertanian organik adalah sistem produksi pertanian bahan pangan dan serat yang
berkelanjutan secara sosial, ekonomi dan lingkungan. Hal ini berkonsentrasi pada pemupukan
tanah dan memperhatikan kemampuan alami tanaman, hewan dan agro - ekosistem. Pertanian
68

organik mengurangi faktor produksi eksternal dan meninggalkan penggunaan bahan kimia
sintetik. Sistem ii menekankan pada penggunaan limbah tanaman, rabuk, tanaman legume,
pupuk hijau dan bahan organik lainnya, untuk mendaur-ulangkan hara dan energi dalam
system pertanian. Pertanian ini mencakup upaya kelestarian lingkungan dengan menjaga
keseimbangan alam dan keanekaragaman hayati, sehingga manajemen agroekosistem organik
mirip dengan alam dan sesuai dengan kearifan lokal. Oleh karena itu, pertanian organik
merupakan proses pertanian yang mengandalkan jasa-jasa alam, dengan jalan menggunakan
proses biologis untuk meningkatkan produksi dan mencegah gangguan hama, dan mengikuti
sirkulasi sumberdaya yang digunakan dalam pertanian untuk manfaat maksimal . Oleh karena
itu , prinsip pertanian organik akan sesuai dengan kondisi lokal dalam hal ekonomi, social-
masyarakat, cuaca dan budaya . Manajemen agroekosistem organik merupakan faktor penting
yang mengarah kepada pengembangan pertanian berkelanjutan.

Regarding to this management, farmers must be diligent and patient in


cultivation that there are methods as the followings: soil fertile management by
main using of organic matters, circulating plants cultivation emphasizing on local
plants, no usage of agricultural machines to maintain and curing soil structural
properties, no usage of pesticides, herbicides and other chemicals and soil-
covering plants cultivation instead of chemicals usage. Besides, the land
management is another factor that is very simportant to be the base of agro-
ecosystem built. It regards with various plants cultivation, internal and inter-
relative areas organism management and farm areas allocation that are
necessary to have a good plan for creating a new agro-ecosystem of organic
farms. These managements actually are the ancient agriculture in local
communities of Asian countries. The mutual conditions in food chain and food
web interaction including energy exchange have created the ecological
sustainability for instances, resource units in farm production, rice cultivation,
fish farming and horticultural cultivation can be used to circulate and mutual
support in the dimension of resource and energy transferring. Mahasarakarm, a
province in Thailand, supports activities of organic farming to farmers.

Farmers have started to cultivate plants and domesticate animals with


creating the agro-ecosystem balance in farms. Many of them have succeeded in
the organic farming management that helps to generate organic or green
products creating health benefits to farmers and consumers as well as income to
farmers in long term operation. The organic farmer has worked on the basis of
agro-ecosystem intention by allocating relevant resources and creating the
organic agro-ecosystem in his farm appropriately with local conditions as well as
emphasizing on the integrated management comprising the items as follows.

PENGELOLAAN LAHAN: The farmer land has been allocated accordingly


with the new agricultural theory. The theory has defined the land proportion of
water source: rice field: horticultural field: accommodation as 30: 30: 30: 10,
respectively. His farm land proportion was 24.8: 19.7: 45.8: 9.7 due to the
performance and adjustment following the suitability of local ecological
geography. When in-depth studying of land allocation, his land has been
69

separated into 9 sub-areas i.e., rice field, mixed horticultural and vegetable field,
circulating seasonal vegetable field, asparagus field, herbal field, rice filed and
pool edges, water source, animal domesticating area and rice straw group. The
highest amount land is the water source area for solving the lack of water in
summer season. The rice field edge also consumes a large area by constructing
the big size edges to protect water drainage from outside lands which
contaminate chemicals and prevent flood. Besides, the edges can be used to
cultivate plants especially perennial trees.

PENGELOLAAN TANAH: The prototyped farmer has fertilized to improve


the soil quality by using manures, green manures from vetch plants, fermented
manure, biological fermented water, plowing without rice cob burning and
reducing soil nutrients by low waste harvesting of products. Furthermore, there
are the cultivation of circulating plants for maintaining nutrients balance, the
conservation of soil benthos and the protection of soil erosion by cultivating
plants on rice filed and pool edges and soil covered plants.

PENGELOLAAN AIR: In northeast Thailand, most farmers have faced the


drought problem and there is no sufficient water for cultivating plants, especially
in summer season. Therefore, the prototyped farmer constructed the pools for
water using sufficiently in throughout year. He has allocated the land for water
resource about 24.8% that there are 3 pools total containing 10,453 m 3. In
addition, he has managed water resource with water supply system by installing
small water pumps, PVC pipe lining to cover farm area and installing water
sprinkles having specific valve breaker. The breaker will be opened when
watering plants at desired time and watering will be controlled suitably to
disperse water and protect evaporation. Most sprinkles can easily move for
comfortably water supply management and after harvesting they can move out
for soil plowing.

PENGELOLAAN TANAMAN DAN TERNAK: The prototyped farmer


emphasize on biodiversity and mutualism condition among organisms in his
farm. There were 139 species and 56 families of plants i.e., 15 species of shrub,
45 species of perennial plant and 79 species of biennial plant. Each species taken
to cultivate in the farm had been selected by mixing local wisdom principles with
regards to benefits and science bases.

The plants were tested in the experimental land until receiving the
appropriate species that are mutual basis in the organic agro-ecosystem.
Besides, there is the cultivation of circulating seasonal plants accompany with
vetch plants in the same field creating good products due to nutrients balance as
well as nitrogen cycle.
70

The main characteristic of this farm is the neatly rice cultivation. He has
cultivated by using a rice sprout in one hole that one rai (1,600 m 3) uses only 1
kg of seeds. The selected seeds have been cultured for 7 days that a rice sprout
has the length about 10-15 cm. Then the sprouts have been transferred to
cultivate in the prepared rice filed having sludge characteristic. They have been
pulled out by using a spoon to scoop for maintaining the seed left. After that they
are transferred to cultivate as soft sticking their seed roots to the field because
the sprouts are still young.

In the first stage, watering them is like vegetable watering that soil is just
soaked until the sprouts were split. In addition, it is necessary to release water
out until the appropriate water level because if there is more water in the filed
crabs will destroy rice but less water weeds will grow which is wasting time to
get rid of them. Therefore, farmers should pay attention in their cultivation and
emphasize on the integrated farming system by no mono-crop cultivation and
biodiversity consideration. The prototyped organic farmer gave the reasons for
organic agro-ecosystem as the followings.

The organic farming emphasizes on cultivation for consumption and


income circulation all year round. Due to the differences of harvesting period the
cultivating plants can be circulated to give production throughout a year. Then, it
can help to support farmers in terms of consumption and commerce throughout
a year. It helps to protect outbreaks of diseases and pests because pests cannot
destroy the area of integrated plants in a wide range. Most cultivating plants are
local species that can be found easily. These species are easy in curing and
appropriate with annual water amount.

Farmers will cultivate herbs for getting rid of pests throughout a year
without using from other chemicals. These help to their self-assistance that
farmers will use their resources in a sufficient way. Regarding to domesticating
animals, there are 7 types i.e., cow, chicken, duck, cricket, frog, fish and pig.
Most animals are local species that are tolerant to environmental conditions and
easy in domesticating with giving high products. These create income circulation
throughout a year. Additionally, these animals help to circulate nutrients and be
a source of organic manure. Other natural animals such as earthworm, millipede,
ground lizard, predator insect and so on are beneficial for organic decomposition
and controlling pests in the fields.

PENGELOLAAN HAMA

From the investigation, there were 52 species and 43 families of pests that
were 38.46% of pest insects, 42.31% of predator insects, 3.85% of parasites and
15.38% of cross-pollination insects. These proportions show that the beneficial
pespts found in the organic farm were higher than the pest insects. There are 3
methods of pest control and management i.e., using wood vinegar, using
biological fermented water and cultivating pest controlling plants.
71

Wood vinegar is produced from charcoal burning and the biological


fermented water is generated from the fermentation of herbs in the field. These
herbal plants are in local forest and have been using since the past such as tuba
root (Derris sp.), Ebony, Nim, Sarcostemma acidum Voigt (Leafless medicinal
tree), Stemona sp., Cassia fistula L., Jatropha curcas L. and so on. For using,
these plants must be dissolved in water and then sprayed into the cultivating
fields as suitably with each type of plants. Regarding with the cultivation for
pests controlling, the prototyped organic farmer has cultivated various types of
plants, integrated plants, circulating seasonal plants and insect attracting-
expelling plants such as marigold, sunflower, sympodium and so on. These
cultivations have created the biodiversities of species and disturbed the pests
that cannot select the specific plant for living and eating as usual. Hence, they
are an alternative choice to control pests naturally instead of using chemicals,
including help to reduce risks of farmers.

PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH.

The organic agro-ecosystem supports the waste management. The


prototype organic farmer has used the occurred wastes to recycle for using in the
production processes. The study found that the production and household wastes
such as animal manures, vegetable refuses, leaves and solid wastes have been
totally recycled. If there are the decomposing wastes such as food refuses,
vegetable refuses and leaves he uses most of them to produce the soil fertilizer
and some of them to produce the biological fermented water. The fresh
vegetable refuses have been used for feeding cricket, chicken and goose. For the
recycled wastes such as plastics, paper, glasses and bottles, he has used them
as recycling or collecting for sale. The management of organic agro-ecosystem
components can introduce the linkage among the components. These
management characteristics are duplicated from the nature for producing foods
and agricultural products as environmentally friendly system. The organic agro-
ecosystem management of Mr. Kapan Laowongsri is a very good case study
because he has created the organic farming system as mutual consideration
under the limitations of area, soil, water and air to be appropriate with plants and
animals. His management has cooperated between physical and biological
resources by emphasizing on soil fertility, water source, weather controlling with
perennial plants, plant species selection for mutual conditions and so on. This
relationship is from the selection and creation of the prototyped organic farmer
with intention and harmonious mixing the new interdisciplinary knowledge and
the local wisdom.

Each resource has then presented its roles and has linked with the others
in the productive ways. Plants and animals in the fields have been arranged to
use the physical resources as maximum beneficiaries. His management has
helped to circulate nutrients and resources, allocate the selected plants as
suitably, fertilize soil and maximize recycled wastes use in his organic farm.
72

These are the interdisciplinary organization creating the knowledge of organic


agro-ecosystem. His self-learning processes have crated the understandings of
the organic agro-ecosystem that he began from analyzing the ecosystem
components in his farm by appropriately adjusting resource proportion, worker
and investment. After that he established the suitable methods accounting with
worker and budget in his family and accompanied with learning the organic agro-
ecosystem processes. He has been always learning from agricultural study trips,
farmer talks and other agricultural academic sources. Then he has used gained
knowledge to experiment, Trial and error test and adjust methods to suit with his
farm conditions including resource, worker and budget until receiving the
appropriate performances of his farm. These performances have generated good
products sufficiently for consumption and incomes for circulating in his family
and farm.

Model pengelolaan agroekosistem organic dari hasil proses pembelajaran petani


organic (Sumber: http://www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?
doi=sscience.2010.532.537.. diunduh 2/7/2011)
73

Perbaikan praktek budidaya dan sumberdaya yang ada sat ini dengan
memasukkan beberapa tipe pupuk organic tampaknya menjadi metode yang
opaling menjanjikan untuk berhasil pada saat ini. Beberapa poraktek untuk
memperbaiki kesuburan tanah dijelaskan berikut ini.

KONSERVASI TANAH

Metode konservasi tanah harus dilakukan untuk dapat memperbaikii


kesuburan tanah. Soils of hills are lost through detrimental agronomic practices
such as slicing terrace risers every year, excessive tillage and hoeing in the rainy
season, and severe grazing pressure on pasture and forest lands. In order to first
check mass soil erosion, improvements to the management of grazing land and
degraded forest land are essential. Use of minimum tillage methods, and
preventing the practice of slicing tall bariland risers should be adopted to reduce
further soil losses. This last practice should be restricted to those areas where
soil loss is not a problem, for example flat khetland as discussed above.

Perbaikan Produktivitas Lahan

The major reason for declining soil fertility is the need to use the land
more intensively because of increasing human population, coupled with a
reduction in manure production, so that nutrients extracted by food crops are not
adequately replaced. This is the result of a reduction in animal populations in
some areas, but is mostly the result of depletion of the animal feed resources
from the forest and grass lands, which means that livestock are not realising
their full potential the year round.

Productivity of open grassland and forest in the mid-hills is estimated to be


able to support only 0.54 and 0.31 livestock units/ha respectively, whereas the
present stocking rate is about nine to thirteen times greater than the carrying
capacity (Wyatt-Smith, 1982). Therefore, urgent attention must be given to
resolving this situation by managing the forest resources properly. Productivity
from the forest could be increased by giving priority to fodder tree planting,
along with the introduction of improved varieties of grasses and legumes
between the trees under silvipastoral management systems.

Perbaikan Sistem Manajemen Ternak

Large herds or flocks of animals of sub-optimal productivity are not worth


much in terms of overall agricultural production, and poor management systems
do not help to increase the quantity of animal products. Since 46% of manure is
lost in grazing away from the farm, it has been estimated that even if the animal
74

numbers in the hills of Nepal were halved, manure production would remain
almost what it is at present, provided that it was collected and utilized properly.
Stall-feeding could result in a doubling of the amount of dung collected per
animal at present.

Animal populations already overburden the hill farmer, and it is essential


to consider complete stall-feeding in order to use the available feed effectively
and maximise manure production. The wastage of valuable urine can be
prevented and utilized by improving drainage and constructing a store pit at the
animal shed. Losses of manure due to rain and sun could be minimised by
providing some kind of simple shelter over the compost heap/pit.

Similarly, animal production could be improved by the timely supply of


feed and water, without wastage. Straw as a livestock feed can be improved in
quality by treatment with urea, and by the practice of ensiling or otherwise
preserving the summer surplus of grass and agricultural crop by-products. These
could then be consumed during the food scarcity period of winter. Trials to this
effect are being carried out under the Fodder Thrust programme previously
described.

Perbaikan Budidaya Tanaman

In order to supply food grain for a steadily increasing human population


from a fixed or limited land resource, improvements to existing farming practices
are inevitable. From the soil conservation and fertility standpoint, intercropping
of grain legumes within the major cropping systems should be encouraged
whenever possible. Similarly, planting grasses and legumes on terrace risers, on
farm boundaries and on irrigation bunds should be practised more widely.
Legume crops such as cowpea, and crops such as oats and berseem can be
grown after the rice is harvested using zero tillage, with broadcasted seed while
the ground is still moist. Such practices would provide substantial amounts of
forage with a minimum of labour, and render the soil more fertile. Improved crop
varieties will give more return over local varieties, particularly where intensive
cultivation, and irrigation facilities, or other input supplies are available.
However, to achieve this in the hills, government subsidies in addition to
technical information may be necessary.

Perbaikan Simpanan dan Aplikasi Pupuk / Rabuk Organik

Because of a present lack of awareness of correct preparation methods,


manure is often mixed with farm and forest waste in a heap, does not
decompose properly, and so is inferior in quality. To alleviate such problems, the
pit method of composting should be adopted, and if possible a starter such as
dung slurry, should be applied to assist proper decomposition. However, possible
75

socio-economic constraints need to be evaluated before recommending these


changes to farmers on a wide scale, because of the implied extra labour
requirements involved.

Penggunaan Pupuk Alternatif

Input tambahan (pupuk dan teknologi) diperlukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas


tanaman. Pada saat suplai pupuk organik tidak cukup, penggunaan pupuk kimia harus
dipertimbangkan. Meskipun mahal, dan tidak dapat diandalkan pasokannya di daerah pelosok
pedesaan, penggunaan pupuk kimia dapat melengkapi aplikasi kompos atau pupuk kandang.
Hati-hati menggunakannya, sebaiknya dalam kombinasi dengan pupuk organik, supaya dapat
meningkatkan hasil tanaman tanpa menyebabkan kerusakan kualitas tanah. Penggunaan
pupuk hayati, air banjir, dan inokulasi Rhizobium yang sesuai pada benih legum, juga dapat
membantu untuk mengurangi efek kelangkaan pasokan pupuk organik.

Kompos dan Pupuk Hijau

The present trend of only exploiting green manuring plants should be


changed to one of developing their production on a sustainable basis. More than
twenty species have been identified that have some sort of role as green
manure, but very few are being consciously propagated by farmers. Research
into the most suitable species for assessing their quality, and the feasibility of
increasing their production should be given high priority.

Penguatan Kelembagaan dan Pemberdayaan SDM

The limited number of scientists to investigate problems of soil fertility,


and also suffers from insufficient infrastructural and technical laboratory facilities
at present. This is hampering the development of improved soil conservation and
fertility maintenance methods, through lack of technical information and
analytical support services.

AKUAKULTUR
76

Budidaya perairan (akuakultur) merupakan bentuk BUDIDAYA berbagai


hewan atau tumbuhan perairan yang menggunakan air sebagai komponen
pokoknya. Kegiatan-kegiatan yang umum termasuk di dalamnya adalah
budidaya ikan, budidaya udang, budidaya tiram, serat budidaya rumput laut
(alga). Dengan batasan di atas, sebenarnya cakupan budidaya perairan sangat
luas namun penguasaan teknologi membatasi komoditi tertentu yang dapat
diterapkan. Budidaya perairan adalah bentuk perikanan budidaya, untuk
dipertentangkan dengan perikanan tangkap. Di Indonesia, budidaya perairan
dilakukan melalui berbagai sarana. Kegiatan budidaya yang paling umum
dilakukan di kolam/empang, tambak, tangki, karamba, serta karamba apung.
(http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budidaya_perairan).
77

Coastal aquaculture and the environment


((Guidelines for the promotion of environmental management of coastal aquaculture
development (based on a review of selected experiences and concepts). FAO Fisheries
Technical Paper. No. 328. Rome, FAO. 1992. 122 p. )

Benefits of Coastal aquaculture

Generally, the socio-economic benefits arising from aquaculture expansion include


the provision of food, contributing to improved nutrition and health, the generation of
income and employment, the diversification of primary production, and, increasingly
important for developing countries, foreign exchange earnings through export of high-
value products (UNDP/Norway/FAO, 1987; Schmidt, 1982).

1. Aquaculture is also being promoted for its potential to compensate for the low
growth rate of capture fisheries. Stocking and release of hatchery-reared
organisms into inland and coastal waters support culture-based fisheries
(Larkin, 1991).

2. Sustainable development of aquaculture can contribute to the prevention and


control of aquatic pollution since it relies essentially on good-quality water
resources.

3. Culture of molluscs and seaweeds may in certain cases counteract processes


of nutrient and organic enrichment in eutrophic waters. Conversely,
productivity of oligotrophic waters may be enhanced due to the nutrient and
organic wastes released from aquaculture farms.

4. Aquaculture can contribute to rehabilitation of rural areas through re-use of


degraded land.

Key areas of ecological concern : Nutrient and organic enrichment

Many aquaculture operations invariably result in the release of metabolic waste


products (faeces, pseudo-faeces and excreta) and uneaten food into the aquatic
environment. In general, the recipient for soluble waste is the water column and the
recipient for the organic waste is the sediment.

The release of soluble inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) has the
potential to cause nutrient enrichment (hypernutrification) possibly followed by
eutrophication (increase of primary production) of a waterbody. Related changes in
phytoplankton ecology may result in algal blooms, which can be harmful to wild and
78

farmed organisms. However, there is no evidence that algal blooms have been caused by
coastal aquaculture.

The largest proportion of solid wastes released, which is predominantly organic


carbon and nitrogen, settles to the seabed in the immediate vicinity of the farm. Organic
enrichment of the benthic ecosystem may result in increased oxygen consumption by the
sediment and formation of anoxic sediments, with, in extreme cases, outgassing of
carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide; enhanced remineralization of organic
nitrogen and reduction in macrofauna biomass, abundance and species composition.

There is evidence of very localized effects of reduced concentrations of dissolved


oxygen in bottom and surface waters close to farm sites which are due to the
considerable biochemical oxygen demand of released organic wastes and the respiratory
demands of the cultured stock.

Coastal zones for shrimp culture. I. Intertidal Zone; Mangrove virgin forest (A); Secondary
forest (B). II. Supratidal Zone: Rice field (C); Coconut plantation (D). (from Poernomo,
1990). Sumber: http://www.fao.org/docrep/T0697E/t0697e04.htm
79

Tambak MERUPAKAN kolam buatan, biasanya di daerah pantai, yang diisi


air dan dimanfaatkan sebagai sarana budidaya perairan (akuakultur). Hewan
yang dibudidayakan adalah hewan air, terutama ikan, udang, serta kerang.
Penyebutan "tambak" ini biasanya dihubungkan dengan air payau atau air laut.
Kolam yang berisi air tawar biasanya disebut kolam saja atau empang. Kondisi
dasar tambak merupakan suatu keadaan fisik dasar tambak beserta proses yang
terjadi didalamnya baik yang menyangkut biologi, kimia, fisika maupun ekologi
yang secara langsung maupun tidak langsung ikut berpengaruh pada kehidupan
udang maupun organisme lainnya dalam suatu keterkaitan ekosistem perairan
tambak. Parameter ini dapat dijadikan sebagai salah satu tolok ukur kualitas
perairan tambak dengan dasar pemikiran sebagai berikut:
Dasar tambak merupakan ruang gerak dan tempat hidup bagi udang
dan organisme lainnya dalam kondisi normal seperti habitat alaminya, sehingga
kondisi dasar tambak akan mempengaruhi tingkat keamanan dan kenyamanan
bagi udang maupun organisme lainnya di dalam perairan tersebut. Dasar
tambak juga merupakan tempat akumulasi kotoran tambak baik yang berasal
dari treatment budidaya maupun proses metabolisme yang dilakukan oleh
organisme yang hidup di perairan tambak tersebut. Dasar tambak merupakan
suatu area di dalam tambak yang membentuk suatu sub komunitas tersendiri
yang bersifat benthic di dalam tambak dan keberadaannya mempunyai korelasi
yang erat dengan ekosistem perairan tambak.
Pada dasar tambak terjadi proses-proses biologi, kimia, fisika dan ekologi
yang sangat tergantung pada kestabilan ekosistem perairan. Pada kondisi
tertentu, dasar tambak dapat bersifat an aerob karena tidak terjadinya proses
oksidasi sehingga dapat membahayakan bagi kondisi dan kualitas udang di
dalam tambak. Kondisi dasar tambak mempunyai keterkaitan secara langsung
dengan kondisi dan kualitas udang serta kualitas perairan tambak, yaitu jika
perairan tambak berada pada keseimbangan ekosistem dan bersifat stabil serta
kondisi dan kualitas udang bagus maka kondisi dasar tambak akan terjaga
dengan sendirinya. Salah satu faktor yang juga ikut menentukan kondisi dasar
tambak adalah penempatan posisi kincir air yang dioperasikan pada saat
kegiatan budidaya berlangsung. Posisi kincir yang sesuai dan dapat
mengarahkan kotoran dasar tambak ke arah sentral pembuangan dapat
meminimalkan terjadinya penyebaran akumulasi kotoran tersebut di dasar
tambak, sehingga pada saat dilakukan pembuangan air tambak kotoran tersebut
dapat ikut terbawa.
Pada dasarnya setiap petakan tambak yang sedang dioperasikan selalu
dijumpai adanya kotoran dan hal yang perlu diperhatikan adalah tingkat
keberadaan dan tingkat penyebarannya di dasar tambak dibandingkan dengan
tolok ukur dari hasil pengamatan terhadap kondisi dan kualitas udang serta
kualitas perairan tambak. Beberapa faktor penyebab yang dapat mengakibatkan
terjadinya akumulasi kotoran di dasar tambak adalah
(http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tambak_Ikan):
1. Desain dan kontruksi dasar tambak yang tidak dirancang dengan
tingkat kesesuaian terkonsentrasinya kotoran ke arah sentral
pembuangan, sehingga menyebabkan kotoran di dasar tambak
tersebut menyebar di beberapa titik konsentrasi.
80

2. Penempatan posisi kincir air yang kurang tepat, sehingga tidak dapat
mengarahkan kotoran tersebut ke arah sentral pembuangan.
3. Program pakan yang over feeding jika dibandingkan dengan tingkat
kebutuhan udang. Sisa pakan yang berlebihan tersebut tidak
terkonsumsi oleh udang dan membusuk serta terakumulasi di dasar
tambak menjadi kotoran.
4. Teknik pemberian pakan yang tidak merata ke seluruh area pakan di
dalam petakan tambak, sehingga pakan terakumulasi di satu titik dan
tidak terkonsumsi merata sehingga membusuk di dasar tambak.
5. Tingkat populasi udang di dalam tambak. Pada tambak dengan
populasi udang yang relatif padat, kondisi dasar tambak akan relatif
bersih karena kotoran di dasar tambak akan terdorong dengan
sendirinya ke sentral pembuangan yang diakibatkan oleh aktifitas
udang di dasar tambak.
6. Kurangnya pengecekkan dasar tambak dengan melakukan
penyelaman secara berkala.
7. Kurangnya intensitas dan frekuensi sirkulasi air yang dapat
mendorong kotoran dasar tambak ke arah sentral pembuangan.

Berkembangnya system budidaya perairan (akua-kultur)


dianggap sebagai era Revolusi Biru karena mendatangkan
berbagai manfaat bagi kehidupan manusia dan ramah lingkungan

(Jeremy Elton Jacquot, Technology / Clean Technology, June 19, 2007 )

Jeffrey Sachs, the director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University and
world-renowned anti-poverty crusader, has turned his prodigious attention to an
issue dear to many of us in the TreeHugger community: environmental
sustainability.
81

Aquaculture, could support rising consumption of seafood while reducing


anthropogenic pressures on oceanic ecosystems. This "Blue Revolution" has
come at a critical time because, as he put it:

"Between 1950 and today the total landed catch from open- and inland-sea
fishing almost quintupled, from around 20 million to about 95 million metric
tons. Both higher demand from rising world incomes and higher supply from
more powerful fishing vessels contributed to the surge. So, too, did large and
misguided subsidies to fishing fleets, reflecting the political power of
geographically concentrated fishing communities and industries. The world
put itself on a course to gut ocean ecosystems, with devastating
consequences."

Sumber: http://www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/discussing-the-merits-of-
aquaculture.html
82

Sumber: http://www.feedingminds.org/fmfh/fisheries-aquaculture/wonders-of-the-
oceans/from-the-sea-to-your-plate/lesson-9-farming-fish/en/

Sistem akuakultur terpadu (budidaya udang, ikan, dan mangrove) di


Kenya

Photographer: Max Troell . Sumber: http://www.azote.se/index.asp?


q=vattenbruk&id=14138&p=40&lang=eng
83

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