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Experiment #01

Objective:
a) To determine the discharge, suction and total pressure head in a loop at different flow rate
when two centrifugal pumps are working in series.
b) Draw a graph b/w total head in (meters) vs. flow rate and find the effect on head.

Apparatus Required:
Series Pumps Test Rig.

Theory
The principle operation of a centrifugal pump is to convert fluid velocity into pressure energy. The pump
consists of three components, an let duct, an impeller, and a volute.

Fig.1 Centrifugal Pump Cut Section View

Fluid enters the inlet duct. As the shaft rotates, the impeller which is connected to the shaft, also
rotates. The impeller consists of a number of blades that project the fluid outward when rotating. This
centrifugal force gives the fluid a high velocity. Next, the moving fluid passes through the pump case and
then into the volute. The volute chamber has a uniformly increasing area. This increasing area decreases
the fluid velocity, which energy into pressure energy.

Two characteristics a pump produces are pressure head and volumetric flow.

The pressure head created from the pump is:

h hd hs __________
(1)
Where hd is the discharge pressure head

Hs = is the suction head. Head is measured in units of length. Due to the fact that head I a way of
denoting pressure, it can be easily determined using a pressure gauge, as long as the pressure taps are
located at the pump suction and discharge ports.

Pump also deliver a certain capacity (Q ) that is also known as a volumetric flow rate. This apparatus
offer Rota Meter devices to calculate the flow rate of the pump, It is also to measure Q the water
overflowing to the hydraulic bench over a specific time.

Series Operation:
If a single pump does not provide enough head for a given application, two pumps connected in
series, as shown in Figure 2 can be a remedy. The effective two-pump performance curve is
obtained by adding the head of each pump at the same flow rate. The operating point shifts from
A to B, thereby providing not only increased head as required but also greater flow. Figure 6
shows the characteristics of two identical pumps, but the pumps do not have to be the same.

In series operation, the discharge of one pump feeds the suction of a second pump. Unlike
parallel operation, series pump curve can be drawn holding the flow constant and adding the
head.

Series operation allows that commercially available equipment can be used in particular system
because sometimes a single pump operation would result in a pump with an extremely high head
and thus an equally high horsepower. For example, distributing pumping schemes applied to
chilled water plants avoid using to big pumps for chilled water circulation that create
unnecessary overpressure at the buildings close to plant. Small pumps situated just at the
building they feed multigame the over pressure problem and at the same time save considerable
pumping energy. Such schemes are based on the series pumps operating principles.
Fig: 2 Centrifugal Pumps working in series

Procedure:
1. Open the interconnecting valve at the output of pump 1 and the input of the pump 2. And
close input valve of pump 2 from the service tank also close the output valve of the pump
1 to the flow meter scale.
2. Switch on the pump and see the pump should run and take the water from the service
tank to the output if it is not taking water please do not run it for more than 30 seconds
and follow the priming procedure until the pumps start working normally.
3. Measure the flow rate using the variable area flow meter of any other means and record it
in the table.
4. Increase the head pressure by closing the discharge valve and get the reading from the
pressure gauge for the head pressure and flow rate from the rotameter.
5. Switch on the second pump and observe the flow rate and pressure and record the data in
the table.
6. Repeat this procedure for more than 10 different pressure and flow rates.
7. Draw the characteristics curve of the pump and observe its behavior.
Observation Table:

Sr.# Head Head Head Head Flow Total Total


Suction Discharge Suction Discharge Rate Head Head
Pump-1 Pump-1 Pump-2 Pump-2 (l/m) PSI m
PSI PSI PSI PSI

Sample Calculation:
Total Head=Hd-HS

Where;

Hd= Total Discharge pressure of pump1& pump2.

Hs=Total suction pressure of pump1 & pump2.


Graph:
Total Head in (meters) vs. Flow rates.

Total head (m)

Flow rate (Q)

Evaluation of experiment:
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Q&A

1. What is the basic purpose of connecting pumps in series?


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2. How you can measure the flow rate in this experiment?


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3. Why discharge of both pumps remains constant?


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4. State basic two applications of centrifugal pump.


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5. Define the term shunt off.


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6. What is the principle operation of centrifugal pump?


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Experiment #02

Objective:
c) To determine the total discharge head in a loop at different flow rate when two
centrifugal pumps are working in parallel.
d) Draw a graph b/w total head in (meters) vs. flow rate and find the effect on discharge.

Apparatus Required:
Parallel Pumps Test Rig.

Theory
The principle operation of a centrifugal pump is to convert fluid velocity into pressure energy. The pump
consists of three components, an let duct, an impeller, and a volute.

Fig.1 Centrifugal Pump Cut Section View

Fluid enters the inlet duct. As the shaft rotates, the impeller which is connected to the shaft, also
rotates. The impeller consists of a number of blades that project the fluid outward when rotating. This
centrifugal force gives the fluid a high velocity. Next, the moving fluid passes through the pump case and
then into the volute. The volute chamber has a uniformly increasing area. This increasing area decreases
the fluid velocity, which energy into pressure energy.

Head is measured in units of length. Due to the fact that head I a way of denoting pressure, it can be
easily determined using a pressure gauge, as long as the pressure taps are located at the pump suction
and discharge ports.

Pump also delivers a certain capacity (Q) that is also known as a volumetric flow rate. This apparatus
offer Rota Meter devices to calculate the flow rate of the pump, it is also to measure Q the water
overflowing to the hydraulic bench over a specific time.
Parallel Operation:
The primary purpose of operating pumps in parallel is to allow a wide range of flow than would be
possible with a single fixed speed pump for systems with widely flow demand. If a single pump does
not provide enough flow rates for a given application, connecting two pumps in parallel, as
shown in Figure 5, can rectify the problem. The effective two-pump performance curve is
obtained by adding the flow rates of each pump at the same head. As shown, when two pumps
are connected in parallel, the operating points shift from A to B, providing not only increased
flow rate as required but also greater head. Figure.1 shows the characteristics of two identical
pumps, but the pumps do not have to be the same.

Fig.1 Centrifugal Pumps Connected in Parallel


Procedure:
1. Close interconnecting valve at the output of pump 1 and the input of pump 2.
2. Switch on the pump and see the pump should run and take the water from the service
tank to the output if it is not taking the water please dont run it for more than 30 sec
and follow the priming procedure until the pumps start working normally.
3. Measure the flow rate using the variable area flow meter of any other means and
record it in the table.
4. Increase the head pressure by closing the discharge valve and get the reading from the
pressure gauge for the head pressure and flow rate from the rotameter.
5. Switch on the second pump and observe the flow rate and pressure and record the
data in the table.
6. Repeat this procedure for more than 10 different pressure and flow rates.
7. Draw the characteristics curve of the pump and observe its behavior.
Observation Table:

Sr.# Flow Rates Total Discharge Total


(P1+P2) Head Head
(l/m) PSI (m)

Graph:
Total Head in (meters) vs. Flow rates.

Total head (m)

Flow rate (Q)


Experiment Evaluation:
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Q&A

1. What is the effect on pressure head when two pumps are running in parallel?
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2. State advantages of using centrifugal pumps.


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3. What is the advantage of using two pumps in parallel?


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4. What is the effect on pressure head if we close the discharge valve?


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5. State difference between impeller & propeller.


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6. Which type of casing used in centrifugal pumps & why?


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Experiment # 03

Objective:
a) To calculate the overall efficiency of a two centrifugal pumps working in a series.

b) Plot the pump performance curves, Pump head (m) vs. flow rate (l/m) to find the effect on
head as compared to a single pump & Efficiency (%) vs. flow rate and discuss your findings.

Apparatus Required:
Series pumps test rig.

Theory:
The power to drive the pump is always greater than the output power the fluid being pumped.
The power is usually lost due to hydraulic losses, volumetric losses, and mechanical losses.
Efficiency is a comparison (ratio) between the power coming out the system and that put into the
system. When the efficiency is high, the system is minimizing those losses.

There are two types of power transformation that occur in this experiment:

1: Electrical Power, Which is transferred into mechanical power viva the pump motor.

2: Mechanical Power, that rotates the shaft, turn the impeller, and transfers power to the fluid.
For each transition of power there is efficiency, including an overall efficiency.

The following diagram shows the power distribution and related efficiencies.

Electrical Power Mechanical Power Output Power

Shaft Efficiency Thermodynamic Efficiency

Overall Pump Efficiency


The electrical power is the power needed to run the pump. This is calculated by multiplying the
input current times the input voltage.

Power ---------------- (1)


electrical V I

Where:

Pelectrical in watts

Voltage in (V)

Current in (Ampere)

The fluid output power the pump is the combination of the flow rate and the pressure head
created by the pump. This is the primary function of the pump. The equation for the fluid output
power is:

Power fluid gQHwater ----------------- (2)

Where;

Power of fluid=W

g =9.8m/s2

Flow quantity=Q= m3/sec

Pressure Head= m

Density of water==kg/m3

Therefore the maximum power required to drive the pump will occur as the flow quantity
approached Q max. The efficiency of the pump is the ratio of output power to the input power of
the pump.

Overall efficiency is calculated by:

Power
fluid
overall Power 100%
electrical ------------------ (3)
Observation Table#01:
Acceleration due to gravity g=.m2/sec
Voltage required V=...(volts)
Density of water =...1000 kg/m3
Current I=...(Ampere)

Sr.# Power(fluid) Power(Electrical) Overall


Q (l/m) Efficiency (%)

Sample Calculation:
Power
electrical V I ..
1.
Power fluid gQHwater
water Power
fluid gQHwater
..

Power
fluid
overall Power 100% ......................
electrical

Graph:
Efficiency (%) vs. flow rate:

Efficiency (%)

Q (l/m)
Observation Table#02:
when two pumps working in series

Sr.# Head Head Head Head Flow Total Total


Suction Discharge Suction Discharge Rate Head Head
Pump-1 Pump-1 Pump-2 Pump-2 (l/m) PSI m
PSI PSI PSI PSI

Sample Calculation:
Total Head=Hd-HS

Where;

Hd= Total Discharge pressure of pump1& pump2.

Hs=Total suction pressure of pump1 & pump2.


Observation Table#03
For Single Pump:

Sr.# Flow Rate Total Pump Total Head


(l/m) Head (m)
(PSI)

Graph:
Pump head (m) vs. flow rate (l/m) for single & double pumps:

H (m)

Q (l/m)

Q&A
1. Define pump.
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2. State difference between shaft efficiency & thermodynamic efficiency.


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3. What is overall pump efficiency?


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4. How we can increase the overall efficiency of the pump?


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5. What is pump shutoff head?


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Experiment # 04

Objective:
a) To calculate the overall efficiency of a two centrifugal pumps working in parallel.

b) Plot the pump performance curves, Pump head (m) vs. flow rate (l/m) to find the effect on
discharge as compared to a single pump & Efficiency (%) vs. flow rate and discuss your
findings.

Apparatus Required:
Parallel pumps test rig.

Theory:
The power to drive the pump is always greater than the output power the fluid being pumped. The
power is usually lost due to hydraulic losses, volumetric losses, and mechanical losses. Efficiency is a
comparison (ratio) between the power coming out the system and that put into the system. When the
efficiency is high, the system is minimizing those losses.

There are two types of power transformation that occur in this experiment:

1: Electrical Power, Which is transferred into mechanical power viva the pump motor.

2: Mechanical Power, that rotates the shaft, turn the impeller, and transfers power to the fluid. For each
transition of power there is efficiency, including an overall efficiency.

The following diagram shows the power distribution and related efficiencies.

Electrical Power Mechanical Power Output Power

Shaft Efficiency Thermodynamic Efficiency

Overall Pump Efficiency

The electrical power is the power needed to run the pump. This is calculated by multiplying the
input current times the input voltage.
Power ---------------- (1)
electrical V I

Where:

Pelectrical in watts

Voltage in (V)

Current in (Ampere)

The fluid output power the pump is the combination of the flow rate and the pressure head
created by the pump. This is the primary function of the pump. The equation for the fluid output
power is:

Power fluid gQHwater ----------------- (2)

Where;

Power of fluid=W

g =9.8m/s2

Flow quantity=Q= m3/sec

Pressure Head= m

Density of water==kg/m3

Therefore the maximum power required to drive the pump will occur as the flow quantity
approached Q max. The efficiency of the pump is the ratio of output power to the input power of
the pump.

Overall efficiency is calculated by:

Power
fluid
overall Power 100%
electrical ------------------ (3)

Observation Table#01:
Acceleration due to gravity g=.m2/sec
Voltage required V=...(volts)
Density of water =...1000 kg/m3
Current I=...(Ampere)

Sr.# Power(fluid) Power(Electrical) Overall


Q (l/m) Efficiency (%)

Sample Calculation:
Power
electrical V I

Power fluid gQHwater

Power
fluid
overall Power 100%
electrical
......................
Graph:
Efficiency (%) vs. flow rate:

Efficiency (%)

Q (l/m)

Observation Table#02:
When two pumps working in parallel:
Sr.# Flow Rates Total Discharge Total
(P1+P2) Head Head
(l/m) PSI (m)

Graph:
Total Head in (meters) vs. Flow rates.

Total head (m)

Flow rate (Q)

Observation Table#03:
For Single Pump:

Sr.# Head Head Total Total


Suction Discharge Head Head
Pump-1 Pump-1 PSI m
PSI PSI

Graph:
Pump head (m) vs. flow rate (l/m) for single & double pumps working in parallel.

H (m)

Q (l/m)

Q&A

1. What characteristics you observed from the graph wrt flow rate?
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2. On what factors efficiency of pump depends?


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3. What is meant by fluid output power?


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4. What do you meant by mechanical power?
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5. Write the formula for calculating thermodynamics efficiency.


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6. Enlist the types of power transmission in this experiment.


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Experiment # 5

Objective:
To determine the total head pressure of a Single centrifugal pump at different flow rate also draw
the characteristics curve of the pump flow rate (l/m) vs. head pressure (Ft).

Apparatus Required:
Single Centrifugal pump.

Theory:
Centrifugal pumps have two major components:

1. The impeller consists of a number of curved blades (also called vanes ) attached in a
regular pattern to one side of a circular hub plate that is connected to the rotating drive
shaft.
2. The housing (also called casing) is a stationary shell that enclosed the impeller and also
supports the rotating drive shaft via a bearing.

A centrifugal pump operates as follows. When the prime mover rotates the drive shaft, the
impeller fluid is drawn in axially through the centre opening (called the eye ) of the housing. The
fluid then makes a 90o turn and follows radially outward. As energy is added to the fluid by
rotating blades (centrifugal action and actual blade force), the pressure and velocity increase until
the fluid reaches the outer tip of the impeller. The fluid then enters the volute-shaped housing
whose increased flow area causes the velocity to decrease. This action results in a decrease in
kinetic energy and an accompanying increase in pressure.

The volute-shaped housing also provides a continuous increase in flow area in the direction of
flow to produce a uniform velocity as the fluid travels around the outer portion of the housing
and discharge opening.

Although centrifugal pumps provide smooth and continuous flow, their flow rate output (also
called discharge) is reducing as the external resistance in increase. In fact, by closing a system
valve (thereby creating theoretically infinite external system resistance) even while the pump is
running at design speed, it is possible to stop pump output flow completely. In such a case, no
harm occurs to the pump unless this no-flow condition occurs over extended period with
resulting excessive fluid temperature build up. Thus pressure relief valves are not needed. The
tips of the impeller blade merely shear through the liquid, and the rotational speed maintains a
fluid pressure corresponding to the centrifugal force established. Figure 1 shows the cutaway of a
centrifugal pump.
Fig.1: The cut way of a centrifugal pump

Procedure:
1. Attach the inlet port of the pump with the hydraulic bench as a source of water supply.
2. Route the outlet port to the tank reservoir so that the close loop of water flow should be
generated.
3. Prime the pump using the priming port as needed.
4. Fully open the discharge valve install at the output of the pump.
5. Switch on the pump and see the pump should run and take the water from the service
tank to the output if it is not taking water do not run it for more than 30 sec and follow
the priming procedure until the pump start working normally.
6. Measure the flow rate using the variable flow meter and record this in the table.
7. Increase the head pressure by closing the discharge valve and get the reading from the
pressure gauge for the head pressure and flow rate from the rotameter.
8. Repeat the above procedure for more than 10 different head pressure and flow rates.
Observation Table:

Sr.# Flow Rate Total Pump Total Pump


(l/m) Head Head
(PSI) (Ft)

Graph:

Total pump head (Ft) vs. flow rate (l/m).

H (Ft)

Q (l/m)
Q&A
1. Why priming is needed in centrifugal pumps?
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2. List types of casing used for centrifugal pumps.


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3. State function of impeller in centrifugal pumps.


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4. Why volute-shaped housing is preferred instead of spiral housing?


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5. State difference between positive & negative slip in pumps.


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6. Define the specific speed of a centrifugal pump.


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Experiment # 06

Objective:
To investigate the operation and characteristics of three basic types of flow meters, including accuracy
and energy losses.

Apparatus Required:
Flow meters test rig.

Theory:
A Venturi meter and an Orifice are both instruments used for measuring the rate of discharge for
a fluid flowing in a pipe. These instruments are based on the same principle which states the
following:
"The pressure difference between any two points on a tapering pipe through which the fluid is
flowing depends on the change of levels and on the change in velocities and therefore on the
volume rate of flow"

Where the flow is led to narrow cross section, at which the velocity increase and hence a fall in
the pressure occur.
A Venturi Meter consists of a short converging conical tube leading to a cylindrical portion,
called the throat, of smaller diameter of that of the pipeline, which is followed by a diverging
section in which the diameter increases again to that of the main pipeline.

An Orifice Meter consists of an orifice plate which has an opening in it smaller than the internal
diameter of the pipeline, placed in a flange connecting the two portions of the pipeline.

Application of Bernoullis equation yields the following results which apply for both the venturi
meter and orifice plate.

Venturimeter flow rate:

Cd A2 P
QV 2 --------------------------- (1)
A
2

1 2
A1
Orifice plate flow rate:

Cd A2 P
Qo 2 -------------------------- (2)
A
2

1 2
A1

Where;

h is the head difference in m determined from the manometers readings for appropriate meter.

g is the acceleration due to gravity, in meters

Cd is the discharge coefficient for meter.

A1 is the area of the test pipe upstream of the meter, in m2

A2 is the throat of the meter, in m2.

For the Venturimeter Cd= 0.98

For the Orifice plate Cd= 0.63

The energy loss that occurs in pipe fitting (so called secondary loss is commonly expressed in
terms of head loss (h, meters), and can be determined from the manometers readings. In this
experiment, head losses are compared against the square of the flow rate used.

Equipment:

The hydraulic bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection.
Flow meter apparatus
A stop watch to allow us to determine the flow rate of water
Procedure:
1. Place the flow meter test rig on the bench and ensure that it is level.
2. Connect the inlet pipe to the hydraulic bench hose and outlet pipe into the volumetric
tank.
3. Start the pump and open the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve, to flush the
system.
4. Close both the bench and test rig valves in order to bleed air from the pressure tappings
points and manometers.
5. Now open the bench valve and allow flow through the manometers tubes to purge them
of air.
6. Then tightened air bleed screw and partially open the test rig flow control valve and
partially close the bench valve
7. Now open the air bleed screw slightly to allow air to be drawn into the top of manometer
tubes.
8. Re-tighten the screw when the manometer levels a convenient height.
9. At a fixed flow rate, record all manometers heights and variable area meter reading carry
out the a timed volume collection using the volumetric tank by closing drain of hydraulic
bench.
10. Collect fluid at least one minute to minimize the timing errors.

Observation Table #01:


Volume of water collected V= . m3
Time taken for collection of water t = .sec
Discharge Q= ..................m3/sec

Sr.# Test Venturi Orifice Variable H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8


Pipe Area Area Area
Area Meter (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
A1 A2 A2 Readings (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
(m2) (m3) (m3) (l/min)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Sample Calculations:
1. Time flow rate:
Qt =-----------------------------
2. Variable area flow rate:
Qa =-----------------------------
3. Orifice plate flow rate:

QO =-----------------------------

4. Venturimeter flow rate:

Qv =-----------------------------

5. Variation area % flow rate error:

(Qo Qt / Qt ) 100 ------------

6. Orifice plate % flow rate error:

(QO Qt / Qt ) 100
--------------

7. Venturimeter % flow rate error:

(Qv Qt / Qt ) 100 --------------

8. Variable area head loss:

H a h4 h5 ------------------

9. Orifice area head loss:

H o h6 h8 ------------------

10. Venturi head loss:


H v h1 h3 --------------------

11. Time flow rate squared:


QC 2 = ------------------------

Q&A
1. Comment on the differences in accuracy of the meters. Could these differences be due to
experimental error?
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2. Why does the variable area meter show less variation in head loss with flow rate than the
other two meters?
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Experiment# 07

Objective:
To study the major parts and working of a single and double acting reciprocating pumps and to
find % slip, Co-efficient of discharge & Theoretical horsepower.

Theory:
A control volume pump is a reciprocating pump in which precise volume control is provided by
varying effective stroke length. Reciprocating pump is a positive displacement pump. Priming is
not required because it is a positive displacement pump. Reciprocating pumps are used in
pumping water in hilly areas. Reciprocating pumps has lower efficiency compared to centrifugal
pumps.

CONSTRUCTION:

The Main Parts of Reciprocating Pump are:

1. CYLINDER

It is made of cast iron or steel alloy. The piston reciprocates inside the cylinder. The movement
of piston is obtained by a connecting rod which connects piston and rotating crank.

2. SUCTION PIPE

It connects the source of water and cylinder, the water is sucked.

3. DELIVERY PIPE

Water sucked by pump is discharged into delivery pipe.

4. SUCTION VALVE

It adjusts the flow from the suction pipe into delivery pipe.

5. DELIVERY VALVE

It admits the flow from the cylinder in to delivery pipe.

6. AIR VESSEL

It is a cast iron closed chamber having an opening at its pass through which the water flows into
vessel.
WORKING:

1. SINGLE ACTING RECIPROCATING PUMP


During the suction stroke the piston moves left thus creating vacuum in the Cylinder.
This vacuum causes the suction valve to open and water enters the Cylinder. During the
delivery stroke the piston moves towards right. This increasing pressure in the cylinder
causes the suction valve to close and delivery to open and water is forced in the delivery
pipe. The air vessel is used to get uniform discharge.

Fig.1: SINGLE ACTING RECIPROCATING PUMP


2. DOUBLE ACTING RECIPROCATING PUMP
This type of pump operates in exactly the same way as the single acting with respect to
its action. The difference is that the cylinder has inlet and outlet ports at each end of the
cylinder. As the piston moves forward, liquid is being drawn into the cylinder at the back
end while, at the front end, liquid is being discharged. When the piston direction is
reversed, the sequence is reversed.

Fig.2 Double acting reciprocating pump

D1=Discharge valve at inlet side of pump

S1=Suction valve at inlet side of pump

D2=Discharge valve at outlet side of pump

S2=Suction valve at outlet side of the pump


Observation and Calculations:

Single Acting Reciprocating Pump:


Piston area=A= 1.5 Ft2
Stroke length=L=1Ft
Cross-sectional area of delivery pipe Ad=0.3 Ft2
Total Head=Ht=40Ft
Speed of pump=N=60 r.p.m
Actual quantity of water lifted, W=550 gal/m

Observation Table:
Sr# A1 (ft2) L Ad Ht N V(Actual) % Slip CD Horse
(ft) (ft2) (ft) (r.p.m) Power
(Theoritical)
1.

2.

3.

4.

Sample Calculations:
Volume swept through by the piston, Vth=A*L -------------------(ft3)
W
Actual volume pumped/sec, Vact (ft3)
L N
Vth Vactual
% Slip 100 (ft3)
Vth
Vactual
Co-efficient of discharge, CD (ft3)
Vth
W (HS H D )
Horse Power Theoretical, H .Pth lb. ft
sec
550

Q&A
1. Why reciprocating pumps are called positive displacement pumps?
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2. State practical application of reciprocating pumps.
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3. On what principle reciprocating pumps works?


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4. What do you mean by positive and negative slip of a pump?


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5. What is the mean of separation in reciprocating pumps?


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6. What is the difference b/w single and double acting reciprocating pumps?
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7. Why reciprocating pumps are less effective than centrifugal pumps?


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8. In what units you can measure the speed of reciprocating pumps?
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9. Why priming in not required in reciprocating pumps?
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Experiment No 8
Objective:
To Demonstrate The Construction And Working Principles Of Steam Turbine. And draw
velocity diagram of reaction-impulse steam turbine.

Apparatus:
Reaction-impulse turbine, cross section of blade, protector etc

Theory of Steam Turbines:


Principles of operation

The motive power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of high
velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotate. The steam from the
boiler is expanded in a nozzle, resulting in the emission of a high velocity jet. This jet of
steam impinges on the moving vanes or blades, mounted on a shaft. Here it undergoes a
change of direction of motion which gives rise to a change in momentum and therefore a
force.

Classification of steam turbines


On the basis of operation, steam turbines can be classified as:

(I) Impulse turbine


(II) Impulse-reaction turbine.

Impulse turbine

In impulse turbine, the drop in pressure of steam takes place only in nozzles and not in
moving blades. This is obtained by making the blade passage of constant cross-sectional
area.

Impulse-Reaction turbine

In this type, the drop in pressure takes place in fixed nozzles as well as moving blades. The
pressure drop suffered by steam while passing through the moving blades causes a further
generation of kinetic energy within these blades, giving rise to reaction and add to the
propelling force, which is applied through the rotor to the turbine shaft.

The simple Impulse turbine


It primarily consists of: a nozzle or a set of nozzles, a rotor mounted on a shaft, one set of
moving blades attached to the rotor and a casing. A simple impulse turbine can be
diagrammatically represented below. The uppermost portion of the diagram shows a
longitudinal section through the upper half of the turbine, the middle portion shows the actual
shape of the nozzle and balding, and the bottom portion shows the variation of absolute
velocity and absolute pressure during the flow of steam through passage of nozzles and
blades

Compounding of impulse turbine

This is done to reduce the rotational speed of the impulse turbine to practical limits.
(A rotor speed of 30,000 rpm is possible, which is pretty high for practical uses.)
Compounding is achieved by using more than one set of nozzles, blades, rotors, in a series,
keyed to a common shaft; so that either the steam pressure or the jet velocity is absorbed by
the turbine in stages.
Three main types of compounded impulse turbines are:

a) Pressure compounded, b) velocity compounded and c) pressure and velocity


compounded impulse turbines.

Pressure compounded impulse turbine


This involves splitting up of the whole pressure drop from the steam chest pressure to the
condenser pressure into a series of smaller pressure drops across several stages of impulse
turbine. The nozzles are fitted into a diaphragm locked in the casing. This diaphragm
separates one wheel chamber from another. All rotors are mounted on the same shaft and the
blades are attached on the rotor. The pressure and velocity variation are shown in the next
diagram.

Velocity compounded impulse turbine


Velocity drop is arranged in many small drops through many moving rows of blades instead
of a single row of moving blades. It consists of a nozzle or a set of nozzles and rows of
moving blades attached to the rotor or the wheel and rows of fixed blades attached to the
casing.

Impulse-Reaction turbine
This utilizes the principle of impulse and reaction. It is shown diagrammatically below:
There are a number of rows of moving blades attached to the rotor and an equal number of
fixed blades attached to the casing. The fixed blades are set in a reversed manner compared
to the moving blades, and act as nozzles. Due to the row of fixed blades at the entrance,
instead of nozzles, steam is admitted for the whole circumference and hence there is an all-
round or complete admission.

Velocity diagram for Impulse turbines


The main parts of an impulse turbine are nozzles and blades. Nozzles produce a jet of steam
of high velocity and the blades change the direction of the jet, thus producing a change in
momentum and a force that propels the blades.
Degree of reaction
The degree of reaction is defined as the
ratio of isentropic heat drop in the
moving blades to the sum of the
isentropic heat drops in the fixed and the moving blades, i.e. in a stage.
(Or, the fraction of the total decrease in enthalpy that occurs across the rotor)

Specifications of Reaction Impulse turbine


No.of stages =03 working pressure =350psi

Maximum speed =10000 rpm Max. Brake power=75 hp

Blade height(h)

h1=8mm h2=10mm h3=12.5mm

No of blades on each rotor=121 Coupled with hydraulic dynamometer

Procedure:
1. Select an appropriate sale for drawing velocity vectors
2. Draw blade velocity that is a line parallel to x-axis to the scale then measure inlet and
outlet angles of the blade cross section
3. No draw the inlet at the left of blade velocity which represents the relative velocity at
inlet

4. Calculate the absolute velocity(velocity of moving blade at inlet) Vb= (m/s)
60
5. Draw this velocity staring from blade velocity and cutting the inlet velocity, this will
complete the velocity diagram at inlet.
6. From the above drawn velocity we can calculate velocity of flow which is component of
absolute velocity required to glide the ream on the next blade. And velocity of whirl
which is component of absolute velocity required to push the steam axially(along the
length)
7. Similarly we can draw the outlet velocity diagram by keeping in view that the relative
velocity at inlet and outlet are same because we assume that there is no friction as the
steam slides over the blades
Observations:
P1=10 bar pressure at inlet
P4=0.1bar ` pressure at outlet
x=1 dryness fraction at inlet
xa=0.96 dryness fraction at inlet of first moving blade
D=31.5cm dia. of rotor
i=90 i =60
e=140 e =320
F M F M F

Calculations:
Pressure ratio across turbine
P1
rp=P4 ---------------------------
pressure ratio pr stage

rp(stage)=(rp)1/3----------------------------
P1
P2 = ----------------
rp(stage)
Pressure at inlet of first moving blade.
P1+P2
Pa = bar ------------------
2

Velocity at inlet of first moving blade

Va=2(1 ) -----------------

h1=enthalpy at (10 bar , x=1)

ha=hf + xahfg
hfg, h f = enthalpies at Pa

Vb= (m/s) ---------------------------
60

Velocity diagram:
(I) At inlet

Vfi Vri Vai

i i
Vb

Vwi

(II) At Outlet
Vb

Vwe

e e

Vfe Vae Vre

Q&A
1. What is meant by impulse turbine?
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2. Write application of impulse turbine.


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3. State difference b/w impulse & reaction turbine.


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4. What do you understand by the terms specific turbine and specific speed?
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5. What do you understand by the term multistage pump?


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6. What criteria do you think well as an Engineer for selection of turbines?


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Experiment # 09

Objective:
To study the types and working principles of positive displacement pumps.

Theory:
A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then
forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. A positive displacement pump
has an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid
flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the
discharge as the cavity collapses.

Classifications:

A. ROTARY PUMPS:

i. THE GEAR PUMP:


In this pump, intermeshing gears or rotors rotate in opposite directions, just like the gears in a
vehicle or a watch mechanism. The pump rotors are housed in the casing or stator with a very
small clearance between them and the casing. (The fluid being pumped will lubricate this
small clearance and help prevent friction and therefore wear of the rotors and casing).

1. In this type of pump, only one of the rotors is driven. The intermeshing gears rotate the
other rotor. As the rotors rotate, the liquid or gas, (this type of machine can also be used
as a compressor), enters from the suction line and fills the spaces between the teeth of the
gears and becomes trapped forming small 'Slugs' of fluid between the teeth.
2. The slugs are then carried round by the rotation of the teeth to the discharge side of the
pump.
3. At this point, the gears mesh together and, as they do so, the fluid is displaced from each
cavity by the intermeshing teeth.
4. Since the fluid cannot pass the points of near contact of the intermeshed teeth nor
between the teeth and casing, it can only pass into the discharge line.
5. As the rotation continues, the teeth at the suction end are opened up again and the same
amount of fluid will fill the spaces and the process repeated. The liquid at the discharge
end is constantly being displaced (moved forward).

Thus gear pumps compel or force a fixed volume of fluid to be displaced for each
revolution of the rotors giving the 'Positive Displacement' action of the pump. Gear
pumps are generally operated at high speed and thus give a fairly pulse-free discharge
flow and pressure. Where these pumps are operated at slower speeds, as in pumping
viscous liquids, the output tends to pulsate due to the meshing of the teeth. Any gas or air
drawn into the pump with the liquid, will be carried through with the liquid and will not
cause cavitations. This action of the pump means that it's a 'Self Priming' pump. The
discharge pressure may however, fluctuate. The output from this type of pump is directly
proportional to the speed of operation. If the speed is doubled, the output will be doubled
and the pressure will have very little effect. (At higher pressures, due to the fine
clearances between the teeth and between the casing and the rotors, a small leakage back
to the suction side will occur resulting in a very small drop in actual flow rate. The higher
the discharge pressure, the more likely that internal leakage will occur).Rotary pumps are
widely used for viscous liquids and are self-lubricating by the fluid being pumped. This
means that an external source of lubrication cannot be used as it would contaminate the
fluid being pumped. However, if a rotary pump is used for dirty liquids or slurries, solid
particles can get between the small clearances and cause wear of the teeth and casing.
This will result in loss of efficiency and expensive repair or replacement of the pump.

ii. THE ' LOBE ' PUMP:

Lobe pumps are similar to external gear pumps in operation in that fluid flows around the
interior of the casing. Unlike external gear pumps, however, the lobes do not make contact.
Lobe contact is prevented by external timing gears located in the gearbox. Pump shaft
support bearings are located in the gearbox, and since the bearings are out of the pumped
liquid, pressure is limited by bearing location and shaft deflection.

1. As the lobes come out of mesh, they create expanding volume on the inlet side of the
pump. Liquid flows into the cavity and is trapped by the lobes as they rotate.
2. Liquid travels around the interior of the casing in the pockets between the lobes and the
casingit does not pass between the lobes.
3. Finally, the meshing of the lobes forces liquid through the outlet port under pressure.
Applications:

Lobe pumps are frequently used in food applications because they handle solids without
damaging the product. Particle size pumped can be much larger in lobe pumps than in other
positive displacement types. Since the lobes do not make contact, and clearances are not as close
as in other Positive displacement pumps, this design handles low viscosity liquids with
diminished performance. Loading characteristics are not as good as other designs, and suction
ability is low. High-viscosity liquids require reduced speeds to achieve satisfactory performance.
Reductions of 25% of rated speed and lower are common with high-viscosity liquids.

iii. THE ' SLIDING VANE ' PUMP:

1. A slotted rotor is eccentrically supported in a cycloid cam. The rotor is located close to the
wall of the cam so a crescent-shaped cavity is formed. The rotor is sealed into the cam by two
side plates. Vanes or blades fit within the slots of the impeller. As the rotor rotates (yellow
arrow) and fluid enters the pump, centrifugal force, hydraulic pressure, and/or pushrods push
the vanes to the walls of the housing. The tight seal among the vanes, rotor, cam, and side
plate is the key to the good suction characteristics common to the vane pumping principle.

2. The housing and cam force fluid into the pumping chamber through holes in the cam
(small red arrow on the bottom of the pump). Fluid enters the pockets created by the vanes,
rotor, cam, and side plate.

3. As the rotor continues around, the vanes sweep the fluid to the opposite side of the crescent
where it is squeezed through discharge holes of the cam as the vane approaches the point of
the crescent (small red arrow on the side of the pump). Fluid then exits the discharge port.
ADVANTAGES
Handles thin liquids at relatively higher pressures
Compensates for wear through vane extension
Sometimes preferred for solvents, LPG
Can run dry for short periods
Can have one seal or stuffing box
Develops good vacuum

DISADVANTAGES
Can have two stuffing boxes
Complex housing and many parts
Not suitable for high pressures
Not suitable for high viscosity
Not good with abrasives

APPLICATIONS

Aerosol and Propellants


Aviation Service - Fuel Transfer, Deicing
Auto Industry - Fuels, Lubes, Refrigeration Coolants
Bulk Transfer of LPG and NH3
LPG Cylinder Filling
Alcohols
Refrigeration - Freons, Ammonia
Solvents
Aqueous solutions
iv. THE 'SCREW' PUMP:

Screw pumps are a more complicated type of rotary pumps, featuring two or three screws
with opposing thread - that is, one screw turns clockwise, and the other counterclockwise.
The screws are each mounted on shafts that run parallel to each other; the shafts also have
gears on them that mesh with each other in order to turn the shafts together and keep
everything in place. The turning of the screws, and consequently the shafts to which they are
mounted, draws the fluid through the pump. As with other forms of rotary pumps, the
clearance between moving parts and the pump's casing is minimal.

Applications:
Generally, two screw or twin-screw pumps are more costly to produce than three screw pumps
and thus are not in as Extensive use. They can, however, handle applications that are well
beyond many types of Pumps including three screw designs. Twin screw pumps are especially
suited to very low available inlet pressure applications and more so if the required flow rates are
high. Services similar to three screw pumps include crude oil pipelining, refinery hot, viscous
product processing, synthetic Fiber processing, barge unloading, fuel oil burner and transfer as
well as unique applications such as adhesive manufacture, nitrocellulose explosive processing,
high water cut crude Oil, multiphase (gas/oil mixtures) pumping, light oil flush of hot process
pumping, cargo off-loading with ballast water as one of the fluids, tank stripping service where
air content can be high and paper pulp Production needing to pump over about 10% solids.

Advantages of Rotary Pumps:

They can deliver liquid to high pressures.


Self - priming.
Give a relatively smooth output, (especially at high speed).
Positive Acting.
Can pump viscous liquids.
Disadvantages of Rotary Pumps:

More expensive than centrifugal pumps.


Should not be used for fluids containing suspended solids.
Excessive wear if not pumping viscous material.
Must NEVER be used with the discharge closed.

B. RECIPROCATING (PISTON) PUMPS:


A reciprocating pump is constructed of metal and has the following main parts:

1. THE CYLINDER This is a metal tube-shaped casing (or body ), which is generally fitted
with a metal lining called a 'cylinder liner '. The liner is replaceable when it becomes worn
and inefficient. The cylinder is also fitted with suction and discharge ports which contain
special spring loaded valves to allow liquid to flow in one direction only - similar to check
valves.

2. THE PISTON The piston consists of a metal drive rod connected to the piston head which
is located inside the cylinder. The piston head is fitted with piston rings to give a seal against
the cylinder lining and minimize internal leakage. The other end of the drive rod extends to
the outside of the cylinder and is connected to the driver. (In the old days of piston pumps,
the driver used to be (and still is in some cases), high pressure steam which was fed to a drive
cylinder by a system of valves in a steam chest).

Modern industries generally use high power electric motors, linkages and gearing to convert
rotating motion into a reciprocating action.

In a single acting pump, the backward stroke of the piston causes a suction which pulls in liquid
through the inlet valve. (The same suction action keeps the discharge valve closed).

On the forward stroke, the increase in pressure generated by the piston, closes the inlet valve and
opens the discharge valve. The liquid is displaced into the discharge system.
2. DOUBLE ACTING RECIPROCATING PUMPS
This type of pump operates in exactly the same way as the single acting with respect to its action.
The difference is that the cylinder has inlet and outlet ports at each end of the cylinder. As the
piston moves forward, liquid is being drawn into the cylinder at the back end while, at the front
end, liquid is being discharged. When the piston direction is reversed, the sequence is
reversed. With a double acting pump, the output pulsation is much less than the single acting.

In theory, a reciprocating pump will always deliver the same volume for each stroke regardless
of discharge pressure. But, as discharge pressure is increased, there is more likelihood of internal
leakage between the piston rings and the cylinder liner, or leaking internal valves, causing a
decrease in output. A measure of this is known as the ' Volumetric Efficiency ' of the pump.
The amount of liquid which leaks internally is known as the ' Slip ' and, if the pump is in good
condition, the slip should be below 1.0%. If slip is above 5.0%, the pump needs to be
overhauled. However, at operating pressures, the amount of slip is relatively constant as long as
wear is not rapid. The output therefore can still be classed as constant. This type of pump is
useful for delivery of fixed quantities of liquid as used in metering or dosing operations.
The speed of a reciprocating pump is generally measured as ' Strokes per Minute '. This is the
number of times the piston moves back and forth in one minute. Speed can also be measured as '
R.P.M.' of the drive motor.
Advantages of Piston Pumps

Reciprocating pumps will deliver fluid at high pressure (High Delivery Head).
They are 'Self-priming' - No need to fill the cylinders before starting.

Disadvantages of Piston Pumps

Reciprocating pumps give a pulsating flow.


The suction stroke is difficult when pumping viscous liquids.
The cost of producing piston pumps is high. This is due to the very accurate sizes of the
cylinders and pistons. Also, the gearing needed to convert the rotation of the drive motor
into a reciprocating action involves extra equipment and cost.
The close fitting moving parts cause maintenance problems, especially when the pump is
handling fluids containing suspended solids, as the particles can get into the small
clearances and cause severe wear. The piston pump therefore, should not be used for
slurries.
They give low volume rates of flow compared to other types of pump.

\
Experiment # 10

Objective:
To investigate the performance of the Pelton Wheel with different range of flow rates and
rotational speeds and to plot a graph b/t power in (watts) vs. Wheel speed (r.p.m).

Theory:
This experiment is to investigate the performance of the Pelton Wheel with different range of
flow rates and rotational speeds. It is mainly about how Pelton Wheel performed under different
conditions. Pelton Wheel is actually an impulse type of hydraulic turbine. The wheel basically
converts portion of kinetic energy of a high velocity jet to mechanical work delivered to the
shaft. Different range of flow rates and rotational speed is used in order to investigate the
behavior of the wheel.
Hydraulic turbines are defined as those machines which convert hydraulic energy into
mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used in running an electric generator which is
directly coupled to the shaft of the turbine. Pelton wheel is a tangential flow impulse turbine.
This turbine is used for higher heads. Figure.1 shows schematic layout of a Pelton wheel. A
Pelton wheel consists of four major components:
1. Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement (spear)
2. Runner and buckets
3. Casing and
4. Breaking jet
(Casing)

(Runner with
buckets)

(Nozzle)
(Spear)
Fig.1 (Pelton Wheel)
1. Nozzle and flow regulating arrangement (spear):
The amount of water striking the buckets of the runner is controlled by providing a spear in the
nozzle as shown in the fig.1. A spear is a conical needle which is operated either by a hand wheel
or automatically in an axial direction. When the spear is pushed forward the amount of water is
reduced and vice versa.
2. Runner with buckets:
It consists of a circular disc on the periphery of which a number of buckets evenly spaced are
fixed. The shape of the buckets is of a double hemispherical cup or bowl. Each bucket is divided
into two symmetrical parts by a dividing wall which is known as splitter. The splitter divides the
jet into two equal parts and the jet comes out at the outer edge of the bucket. The buckets are
shaped in such a way that the jet gets deflected through 1600 or 1700.
3. Casing:
Casing prevents splashing of the water and discharges it to tail race.
4. Breaking jet:
When the nozzle is completely closed there would not be any discharge from the nozzle.
However, the runner continues to rotate because of inertia. In order to stop the runner in a shorter
period, a small nozzle is provided to direct the jet of water on the back of vanes. This jet is called
the breaking jet.

Observations:
Inlet pressure P= 0.7 bar
Inlet head = 7.136 m
Volume of water collected vol = 10 lit
Time taken = 13.2 sec
Discharge = 45.732 lit/sec
Power input Win= 53.354 watt
Density, = 1000 kg/m3
Gravitational acceleration g = 9.81 m/sec2
Radius of dynamometer wheel, Rd = 0.03 m
Spring constant, Ki= 0.8
= 250
R = 0.05 m
Cv = 0.94
Observations Table #01

Weight Tension Speed Measured Measured Measured Theoretical Theoretical Theoretical Velocity
W S Torque Power Efficiency Torque (Tth) Power Out Efficiency Ratio
(g) (g) (rpm) m (Nm) Out mes (Nm) Wout,th th U/V1
Wout, (Watt)
(Watt)
350 50 1386
450 60 1300
550 70 1210
650 80 1136
750 90 1007
850 100 888
950 110 753
1050 120 733

Formulas:
1. Inlet head:

P 105
H (m)
g

2. Discharge or flow rate:

V
Q 60 (liter / min)
T
3. Power output:

Win
P 10 Q 10 (watt )
5 3

60

4. Measured torque:

W-S
Tmes g Rd ( Nm)
1000

5. Measured power output:

(mes)2
Wmes (watt )
60

6. Measured efficiency:
Wout ,mes
mes
Win
7. Theoretical output torque:
th = ( Qx1003 /60 ) (Cv (2gH) - R 2 / 60 ) ( 1+ki cos0 ) R

8. Theoretical power output:

W out, th = t h 2 / 60 (watt )

9. Theoretical efficiency:

P 105
H (m)
g

10. Velocity ratio:

U R 2

V1 CV 2 gH 60

Graph:
Graph of measured power in (watts) Vs. Wheel Speed (r.p.m)

Power (Watts)

Wheel Speed (R.P.M)

RESULT DISCUSSION & CONCLUSIONS:

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