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Induction, and Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

for EV and HEV Applications

Zhi Yang, Fei Shang, Student Member, IEEE, Ian P. Brown, Member, IEEE,

and Mahesh Krishnamurthy, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractWith rapid electrification of transportation, it is rare-earth material used in permanent magnet. Other com-

becoming increasingly important to have a comprehensive under- monly used motor topologies include induction motor (IM) and

standing of criteria used in motor selection. This paper presents switched reluctance motor (SRM). An IM has no magnet and

the design and comparative evaluation for an interior permanent

magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) with distributed winding is characterized as robust. The limitation of this topology may

and concentrated winding, induction motor (IM), and switched lie in the cooling system since heat is generated both in rotor

reluctance motor (SRM) for an electric vehicle (EV) or hybrid and stator side. SRM does not depend on permanent magnets

electric vehicle (HEV) application. A fast finite element analysis and is exceptionally robust, making it suitable for harsh envi-

(FEA) modeling approach is addressed for IM design. To account ronments and fault-tolerant operation. However, high-acoustic

for highly nonlinear motor parameters and achieve high motor

efficiency, optimal current trajectories are obtained by extensive noise and low-power factor have been some of the major chal-

mapping for IPMSMs and IM. Optimal turn-ON and turn-OFF lenges. In addition, SRM drives may need customized inverter

angles with current chopping control and angular position con- and a higher number of power cables to enable independent

trol are found for SRM. Additional comparison including noise phase winding on the stator.

vibration and harshness (NVH) is also highlighted. Simulation and Comparisons have been proposed to indicate the merit of

analytical results show that each motor topology demonstrates its

own unique characteristic for EVs/HEVs. Each motors highest each motor topology for EV and HEV application. Researchers

efficiency region is located at different torque-speed regions for in [5] and [6] have presented efficiency maps of the IM, SRM,

the criteria defined. Stator geometry, pole/slot combination, and and PMSM with a general trend. In [7], the authors have ana-

control strategy differentiate NVH performance. lyzed second generation Prius-IPMSM and assessed alternative

Index TermsComparative study, electric vehicle (EV) and spoke-type IPMSM and IM. However, the analysis based on

hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), induction motor (IM), noise vibra- fixed phase current angle control over the full torque-speed

tion and harshness (NVH), permanent magnet motor, switched range may result in nonoptimal operating control. Pellegrino

reluctance motor (SRM).

et al. have presented a comparison of IPMSM and IM in terms

of output power and efficiency over the standard New European

I. I NTRODUCTION

Driving Cycle [8]. Similar work has been done in [9]. In [10],

ture, electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles

(HEV) have received increasing attention. To meet this demand,

authors have claimed that impact of efficiency distribution on

fuel consumption is small after comparing IM, PMSM, and

SRM. However, in literature, very few papers have provided a

EV and HEV motors, which form the core energy conversion comprehensive side-by-side comparison among different trac-

components, should not only satisfy specific requirements in tion motor topologies for EV or HEV applications, especially

performance and efficiency but also vibration, cost, etc. [1][4]. for noise vibration and harshness (NVH) point of view. This

Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) have dom- paper presents a comparative evaluation of the selected motors

inated the traction motor market for EV/HEV application topologies including IPMSM, IM, and SRM. Motor efficiency

recently. They can be designed to operate over wide torque- and NVH are the main focus of the comparison among all

speed range with superior torque density and power density. the candidates. A fast finite element analysis (FEA) modeling

The limitations of this topology are cost and availability of approach is adopted for IM over full torque-speed range con-

Manuscript received January 30, 2015; revised July 30, 2015; accepted sidering saturation effect and optimal current trajectory control

August 02, 2015. Date of publication August 19, 2015; date of current version is taking into account for highly nonlinear motor parameters.

October 15, 2015. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science In order to address the above-mentioned issues, it becomes

Foundation under Grant 1140772. necessary to design and conduct a thorough comparison and

Z. Yang is with GE Healthcare, Florence, SC 29501 USA (e-mail:

zyang22@hawk.iit.edu). assessment of candidate motor topologies, including IPMSM

F. Shang, I. P. Brown, and M. Krishnamurthy are with the Department of with distributed winding, IPMSM with concentrated winding,

Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IM, and SRM. However, it is impractical to build prototypes

IL 60616 USA (e-mail: kmahesh@ece.iit.edu).

for all the competitors and compared with experimental results.

Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online

at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Moreover, all the design and evaluation results are acquired

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TTE.2015.2470092 from FEA in ANSYS environment including RMxprt (magnetic

2332-7782 2015 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.

See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

246 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TRANSPORTATION ELECTRIFICATION, VOL. 1, NO. 3, OCTOBER 2015

(point B) limits the vehicle speed at the highways. Transient

overload capability of the motor is limited by the inverter [8].

In this study, the 48/8 IPMSM used in the second generation

of Toyota Prius [14] was selected as the baseline motor. The

Fig. 1. Cross-section view of: (a) 48/8 IPMSM; (b) 12/8 IPMSM; (c) 48/36 IM; torque-speed envelope shown in Fig. 2 can be acquired from

and (d) 12/8 SRM. [15] where peak torque is 300 Nm up to base speed of 1500 rpm

and high torque of 60 Nm achieved at maximum speed of

equivalent circuit design), Maxwell (static and transient FEA 6000 rpm. Moreover, the maximum dc-link voltage for Prius

design), and Workbench (mechanical vibration analysis), which is 500 V. The other three motor candidates are designed under

can be treated as consistent and is a widely accepted method the same specification and requirements; thus, it generates a

by industrial [8]. This paper is organized into several sections. reasonable and relatively fair comparison between different

Section II identifies motor design inputs and control criteria. topologies. Other geometries such as stack length are optimized

In Section III, design results are compared. Section IV evalu- to meet this requirement.

ates different motor candidates in terms of efficiency and NVH. Special control strategy of different motor topologies should

Conclusion is finally made in Section V. be optimized to achieve a high efficiency. Motor control

relates to one fundamental question: what kind of current

should be applied to the winding to simultaneously satisfy the

II. M OTOR D ESIGN AND C ONTROL C RITERIA performance and efficiency requirement. Since traction motors

Four typical traction motor topologies have been selected for electric vehicle application operate in highly nonlinear

in this comparison, including an IPMSM with 48-slot 8-pole conditions [16], such as saturation and cross coupling, using

(referred to as 48/8 IPMSM), IPMSM with 12-slot 8-pole lookup table [17] may be the optimal solution. Building the

(referred to as 12/8 IPMSM), IM with 48-slot, 36-rotor bar lookup table to find the optimal current trajectories involves

(referred to as 48/36 IM), and a 12/8 SRM with cross-section several steps as following. The 48/8 IPMSM is used for

view shown in Fig. 1. Transient 2-D analysis is used for explaining the method.

achieving the performance curves of 48/8 IPMSM and 12/8 Step 1) Injecting currents into the winding, motor parame-

IPMSM while the 48/36 IM uses static 2-D FEA analysis. ters need to be extracted, especially the flux linkage.

For 12/8 SRM, transient 2-D analysis in Maxwell is used with Figs. 3 and 4 show Prius motors d- and q-axes flux

circuit-field coupling method. Vibration analysis and results are linkage at different current levels, respectively.

acquired through Workbench 3-D analysis. For a fair compari- Step 2) Based on the flux linkage information, optimal oper-

son, all the motors are designed to share the same outer stator ating plane needs to be generated, as shown in Fig. 5.

diameter, steel lamination. This plane is bounded by current limit circle, max-

Designing specific motor for EV and HEV application, imum torque per ampere (MTPA) curve, and max-

there are many considerations such as torque-speed profile, imum torque per voltage (MTPV) curve. Constant

torque ripple requirements, inverter output power capability, torque loci (black curves) and voltage ellipse (blue

dc-link voltage variations, total weight, and cost [8], [11]. The dotted curves) have also been shown.

required peak and continuous torque-speed envelope should be Step 3) For each given torque-speed requirement, optimal

defined according to different driving cycle requirements such current id and iq can be determined by using extrapo-

as UDDS and US06 with respect to mechanical constraints of lation and interpolation techniques. Fig. 6 shows the

the vehicle including vehicle mass, wheel inertia, gearbox ratio, unique combination of reference current id and iq

and efficiency. The detailed procedure can be found in [12] and for each torque-flux, i.e., torque-speed requirements.

[13]. As shown in Fig. 2, the maximum torque at base speed The step size for torque command is 15 Nm and for

(point A) determines the vehicle performance at starting or flux command is 0.007 Wb.

YANG et al.: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTERIOR PM, IM, AND SRM DRIVES 247

(a)

(b)

Fig. 6. (a) Reference current iq versus torque and flux command. (b) Reference

current id versus torque and flux command.

TABLE I

S PECIFICATIONS OF M OTOR T OPOLOGIES

Estimated value.

III. D ESIGN R ESULTS AND C OMPARISON SRM is extended to 105 and 108 mm, respectively. It should be

Table I summarizes the specification of four candidate noted that the rated operating point of 48/8 IPMSM is selected

topologies. The outer diameter of stator is kept to be the same as by estimating the experimental results from [15] but it may

269 mm. The maximum dc-link voltage for all motors is 500 V. not be accurate because the data were protected by intellectual

To meet the torque requirement, the stack length of IM and property.

248 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TRANSPORTATION ELECTRIFICATION, VOL. 1, NO. 3, OCTOBER 2015

Fig. 8. Field orientation in rotor flux reference frame and slot information.

Fig. 7. Optimal operating plane for the 12/8 IPMSM.

A. 48/8 IPMSM

reluctance torque. For IPMSM with fractional slot concentrated

Prius 48/8 IPMSM has several unique design features. winding such as 12/8 IPMSM, it exhibits low saliency which

1) Stator teeth are deep and wide so as to avoid saturation means Lq /Ld is low so that it is easier to saturate at high current

and increase saliency. region. Therefore, reluctance torque cannot be fully utilized and

2) Permanent magnets are arranged in V shape optimally to electromagnetic torque dominates. In contrast, IPMSM with

take advantage of reluctance torque and reduce no load integer slot distributed winding, such as the 48/8 IPMSM used

iron loss. in Prius, has a higher saliency and utilizes reluctance torque

3) Prius motors dominant vibration mode order (which is more effectively as shown in Fig. 5.

equal to the greatest common divisor (GCD) between the

number of slots and the number of poles) is pretty high

so that the resonance with stators low mode orders is C. 48/36 IM

successively avoided. Compared to the 48/8 IPMSM, 48/36 IM has longer stack

length (108 mm) to achieve large torque and high-efficiency

design. FEA transient analysis of induction machine requires

B. 12/8 IPMSM

significant computation time, especially when the excitation is

The designed 12/8 IPMSM has the same stack length as provided by a voltage source. The current needs several peri-

that of Prius motor. Following points are addressed during the ods to reach steady state. To reduce computation time, method

design process. presented in [19] has been adopted as reference. Instead of

1) Nominal operating point was chosen to be 120 Nm at applying voltage in stator winding while keeping rotor copper

2500 rpm. Flux density in the stator teeth and yoke bar short-circuited, both stator and rotor currents are injected

was designed to be lower than the knee point of BH into stator winding and rotor copper bar individually. In the

curve of lamination. This would help avoid saturation at rotor flux reference frame, when the field-oriented condition

overload torque. Current density is kept around 6 A/mm2 (FOC) is satisfied, which means only the d-axis rotor flux exists

for nominal operating point.

while q-axis rotor flux is zero, i.e., r = rd as shown in

2) More permanent magnets were utilized to increase elec- Fig. 8. In other words,

tromagnetic torque component and PMs were arranged in

V shape optimally to minimize torque ripple. LM

irq = isq . (2)

3) Stator slot geometry was optimized to lower overall loss Lr

by balancing copper and iron losses.

4) Number of turns per coil was optimized to meet peak The fast FEA modeling approach based on current excitation

torque-speed envelope requirement. consists of two parts.

Fig. 7 shows the optimal operating plane for the 12/8 1) Magnetostatic FEA Modeling: Both stator and rotor cur-

IPMSM. Its characteristic current is about 100 A, which is close rents are injected into the stator winding and rotor copper

to Prius motors 105 A. For 12/8 IPMSM, MTPA line shifts bar separately. The q-axis currents are adjusted iteratively

away into iq > id region, as shown in Fig. 7, which means until FOC is satisfied as shown in (2). Machine parameters

that the electrometric torque dominates. The torque equation including stator inductance Ls , rotor inductance Lr , and mutual

of IPMSM is given by [18] inductance Lm can be calculated based on current and flux

information. Slip speed related to stator currents (isq /isd ) and

mP rotor time constant (Lr /Rr ) can also be obtained. Obviously,

Tp = (d,P M iq + (Ld Lq )id iq ) . (1)

2 2 the calculation takes saturation effect into account.

YANG et al.: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTERIOR PM, IM, AND SRM DRIVES 249

Fig. 10. Flux linkage and static torque profile at different rotor position.

kept stationary. Stator currents with frequency fe are injected designed to be lower than the knee point of BH curve

into the stator winding. Rotor currents with frequency fe are of lamination. Stack length was increased to 105 mm to

also injected into rotor copper bar with amplitude indicated in meet torque requirement.

(1). Inductances (Ls , Lr , Lm ) varying with currents have been 2) Number of turns per coil was optimized to meet torque-

calculated in magnetostatic FEA. speed envelope requirement such as peak torque up to

Several iterations are needed to extract IMs parameters as base speed (1500 rpm) and high toque at maximum speed

described in magnetostatic FEA. However, this fast FEA mod- (6000 rpm) [24].

eling method saves significant computation time in predicting 3) The turn-ON angle, turn-OFF angle, and current ampli-

IMs performance over the entire torque-speed range. tude can be used to optimize SRM efficiency over full

At the maximum speed of 6000 rpm, the magnetizing reac- torque-speed range [24], [25]. To keep it simple, the

tance Xm >> Rs and stator reactance Xls >> Rs , by neglect- control strategy was designed as follows. At low speed,

ing the stator resistance Rs , the induction machines pull-out current chopping control was adopted with fixed turn-ON

torque can be approximately expressed as [20] angle and fixed dwell angle; at medium speed, current

3P V2 chopping control is adopted with fixed dwell angle and

Tp = variable turn-ON angle; at further high speed, angular

22 2 + (X 2

(RTH + RTH TH + Xlr ) ) position control (single pulse operation) with advanc-

(3)

3P V2 ing turn-ON angle and fixed turn-OFF angle is adopted.

Several iterations and sweeps were performed in the

2 2 2 (Lls + Llr )

RMxprt and Maxwell environment to find the maximum

where V is the supply voltage, Lls is the stator leakage induc- efficiency for each torque-speed point. Fig. 10 shows the

tance, Llr is the rotor leakage inductance, and P is the number flux linkage and static torque profile at different rotor

of poles which equals 4. positions.

According to (3), as the speed approaching the maximum

speed, the pull-out torque will be inversely proportional to the

IV. C OMPARATIVE E VALUATION

square of the speed. Thus, to improve torque performance at

high-speed, rotor slot is designed to be wider and shallower and A. Efficiency Map

number of turns per coil is decreased reasonably [21][23]. This The efficiency maps are presented in Fig. 11. The efficiency

results in reduced rotor leakage inductance and enhanced pull- calculation is defined as

out torque. Optimized rotor slot shape and dimension are shown

Pout

in Fig. 8. Rotor slot height, bottom width, top width, and rotor = (4)

slot open width are 18.5, 6.4, 8, and 3.9 mm, respectively. Pout + Ploss

Fig. 9 shows the optimal operating plane for the 48/36 IM. where Ploss include iron loss, copper loss, and permanent mag-

Optimal stator current trajectories can be obtained following net (PM) losses but exclude frictional or mechanical loss. Iron

the procedure for IPMSM. core loss can be calculated by means of Steinmetz equation [26]

Ploss (W/kg)=Kh (fe )B 2 fe +Kc (fe )B 2 fe 2 +Ke (fe )B 1.5 fe 1.5

D. 12/8 SRM (5)

Design optimization is focused on the following parts. where Kh , Kc , and Ke represent frequency-dependent coeffi-

1) Nominal operating point was chosen to be 100 Nm at cients of hysteresis, eddy current, and excess losses. B is the

3000 rpm. Flux density in stator teeth and yoke was amplitude of flux density and fe is the electrical frequency.

250 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TRANSPORTATION ELECTRIFICATION, VOL. 1, NO. 3, OCTOBER 2015

are set at 100 C and rotor bar of IM is set at 140 C. The

PM temperature is assumed to be lower than 150 C where

there is little irreversible demagnetization effect of the perma-

nent magnet [8]. The experiment results of 48/8 IPMSM in [15]

also prove this assumption. Additional thermal design would

be necessary to maintain the PM temperature. To maximize the

efficiency, the control strategy is carefully chosen as described

in Section II.

For IPMSM and IM, efficiency calculation is done by tran-

sient 2-D-FEA analysis for every 10 Nm and 500 rpm. For

SRM, circuit-field coupling method [27] is used to perform

current chopping control and angular position control.

Efficiency maps show the region where the highest effi-

ciency locates at. For 48/8 IPMSM, the highest efficiency is

97% and locates around 2000 rpm and between 20 and 50

Nm. As stated in [28], the peak torque-speed envelop shows

a good consistency with the result provided in [15] with error

ranging from approximate 5% to 10% between simulated val-

ues and the experimental results at different speed points. For

12/8 IPMSM, the highest efficiency locates in similar region

but with expanded area. Due to its concentrated winding struc-

ture, 12/8 IPMSM with lower copper loss has 0.5%1% higher

efficiency than that of 48/8 IPMSM in most regions. This is

favored to EV and HEV application, as most frequently oper-

ation lies between low- and medium-speed range. However, at

speeds above 5000 rpm, 12/8 IPMSM loses this advantage due

to the penalty from PM eddy current loss. For 12/8 IPMSM

topology, the dominant MMF space harmonic orders and cor-

responding per unit amplitudes are 1st (100%), 2nd (50%), 4th

(25%), 5th (20%), and 7th (14.29%).

Higher order harmonics with relatively large amplitude rotate

relative to the rotor, thereby contributing to high-eddy current

loss at high speed. Regarding 48/8 IPMSM topology, the dom-

inant MMF space harmonic orders and corresponding per unit

amplitudes are 1st (100%), 5th (5.39%), 7th (3.83%), and 11th

(9.09%).

48/36 IM offers efficiency over 96% at high-speed

(>3000 rpm) benefiting from: 1) low copper loss by decreas-

ing d-axis current; 2) low core loss due to low pole number.

It is important to keep in mind that we use fast FEA method

to model induction machine. Any rotor or stator slot harmonic

relating to the motion is not considered as the rotor is kept

stationary. Therefore, iron loss calculation is underestimated.

Below base speed and near peak torque region, efficiency is as

low as 60%. Thus, attention should be paid on how to dissipate

this loss.

Fig. 11(d) shows the efficiency map of 12/8 SRM. The

torque-speed envelop is shaped to represent power less than

60 kW only. However, SRM does have the ability to oper-

ate at higher speed by advancing turning-ON angle or con-

tinuous conduction operation. The maximum efficiency 95%

appears only after 3800 rpm in medium torque (100 Nm)

region.

Detail comparison of loss and efficiency at typical operating

Fig. 11. Efficiency map from top to bottom. (a) 48/8 IPMSM. (b) 12/8 IPMSM. points is given in Appendix I.

(c) 48/36 IM. (d) 12/8 SRM.

YANG et al.: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTERIOR PM, IM, AND SRM DRIVES 251

Fig. 13. Radial force density distribution and its spectrum of 48/8 IPMSM at

60 Nm 2500 rpm (MTPA point).

which determines force distribution shape; n is the time har-

monic order which determine the number of times per second

the force repeats itself; e = 2fe is the rotor angular velocity

Fig. 12. Modal shapes. (a) 48/8 IPMSM. (b) 12/8 IPMSM. (c) 48/36 IM.

in electrical degree.

(d) 12/8 SRM. Fig. 13 shows the evolution of radial force density over time

and space both in one period for 48/8 IPMSM. The motor

TABLE II

operates at MTPA point (60 Nm, 2500 rpm, id = 30 A, iq =

NATURAL F REQUENCIES (H Z ) OF S TATOR

39 A). The horizontal line represents variation in time domain

at one random location, whereas the vertical line represents

variation in space domain at one random time. By applying

bidimensional fast Fourier transformation (FFT), its spectrum

in terms of space and time harmonic order can be identi-

fied which is shown on the right. The amplitude (unit: N/m2 )

is represented by color block. For better visualization, only

amplitudes larger than 2000 N/m2 are shown by color block.

Space harmonic order and frequency under load condition

are in the form as follows (Appendix II):

Number with italic and underline is from Hoppes equation number without

kp = 0, 1, 2, . . . ; ks = 0, 1, 2, . . . (8)

italic and underline is from ANSYS.

nation of pole and slot numbers. Negative space harmonic order

1) Modal Analysis: Fig. 12 shows the mode shapes of the means the deformation rotates in opposite direction [28].

stator calculated in ANSYS workbench environment [28], [29]. Fig. 14 shows the radial force density spectrum under load

Only circumferential modes [29] are plotted in Fig. 12. Table II conditions: 50 Nm at 1000 rpm and 50 Nm at 5000 rpm.

shows the comparison of natural frequencies obtained from For 48/8 IPMSM, radial force density [0, 0fe ] has the largest

ANSYS and analytical calculation based on Hoppes equation amplitude. However, this excitation only causes a time invariant

[28]. The two results agree well for low mode orders. deformation over stator outer periphery, thus vibration velocity

Natural frequencies (unit: Hz) of 12/8 IPMSMs stator are induced is negligible. Radial force density [m, nfe ] with m > 8

relatively low due to its thinner yoke thickness and short stack can be neglected.

length. As from a vibration point of view, higher vibration mode

2) Radial Force: Electromagnetic radial force density act- order (which is equal to space harmonic order) contributes little

ing on stator teeth causes deformation of stator yoke. Based to the stator deformation due to the fact that vibration ampli-

on Maxwell stress tensor method, it is calculated as follows tude is inversely proportional to the fourth power of mode order

[28][32]: [28]. For 48/8 IPMSM, dominant radial force components are

Br2 (, t) Bt2 (, t) [8, 2fe ] [0, 12fe ]. For 12/8 IPMSM, dominant radial force

frad (, t) = (6) components are [4, 2fe ] [0, 6fe ]. For 48/36 IM, dominant

20

radial force component is [4, 2fe ]. Component with space har-

where Br and Bt are the radial and tangential components of monic order 0 cannot be taken into account in Fig. 14(c) as the

the air gap flux density, 0 is the permeability of air, is the rotor is kept stationary in the FEA calculation. For 12/8 SRM,

angular position, and t is the time. Radial force density can dominant radial force component is [4, fe ].

also be expressed by Fourier series as shown in the following For IPMSM and IM at high speed, radial force amplitude is

equation: attenuated as the field is weakened for speed extension.

frad (, t) = Fm,n cos(m + ne t + mn ) (7) For the SRM, harmonic components are much more than the

m,n other motors, especially relating to space harmonic order 0.

252 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TRANSPORTATION ELECTRIFICATION, VOL. 1, NO. 3, OCTOBER 2015

Fig. 15. Stator core deformation under different load conditions. (a) 48/8

IPMSM. (b) 12/8 IPMSM. (c) 48/36 IM. (d) 12/8 SRM.

TABLE III

M AXIMUM D EFORMATION (m) OF S TATOR

ferent load conditions. Under the load 50 Nm at 1000 rpm,

48/8 IPMSM has the minimum stator core deformation with

5.84e7 m, whereas 12/8 IPMSM and 12/8 SRM have the max-

imum deformation with 5.17e6 m. Under the load 50 Nm

at 5000 rpm, 12/8 SRM has the maximum deformation with

4.72e6 m due to single pulse operation. For the other three

motors, deformation is smaller than those under 50 Nm at

1000 rpm condition due to field weakening control at high

speed. Table III compares the maximum deformation of stator

under different load conditions.

Fig. 14. Radial force density spectrum under different load conditions. Left

column: 50 Nm 1000 rpm. Right column: 50 Nm 5000 rpm. (a) 48/8 IPMSM. V. C ONCLUSION

(b) 12/8 IPMSM. (c) 48/36 IM. (d) 12/8 SRM.

This paper performs the side-by-side comparison and assess-

This is due to discontinuous current operation which yields ment of four candidate motor topologies for traction application

much more nonsinusoidal flux in the air gap. in for EVs and HEVs. The topologies considered include inte-

FEA results in Fig. 14 show that the lowest space harmonic rior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM), IM, and

orders except zero for different machines are 8 (48/8 IPMSM), SRM. Comparison criteria include performance, efficiency, and

4 (12/8 IPMSM), 4 (48/36 IM), and 4 (12/8 SRM). This agrees vibration. Also, a fast FEA modeling approach has been devel-

well with analytical analysis shown in Appendix II. The conclu- oped to predict the IMs performance over the full torque-speed

sion is also valid for both low and high speeds, which indicates range and the control strategy is carefully designed to meet

that control strategy for high speed will not change the lowest performance and efficiency requirement simultaneously. NVH

space harmonic order, but only amplitude. From a vibration study including modal analysis and transient analysis is also

point of view, higher space harmonic order (which is equal to provided. Comparative evaluation indicates the following.

vibration mode order) contributes little to the stator deformation 1) 48/8 IPMSM and 12/8 IPMSM offer efficiency as high

due to the fact that vibration amplitude is inversely propor- as 97%. 12/8 IPMSM has lightly higher efficiency at

tional to the fourth power of mode order [33][35]. Therefore, low speed, but above 5000 rpm, this advantage is lose

48/8 IPMSM should have the quietest operation. It is impor- as PM eddy current losses increase by 50 times, about

tant to keep in mind that additional radial force with low space 1000 W. 48/36 IM delivers the highest efficiency 96% at

harmonic order would be introduced once the excitation mode high speed but it has the widest low efficiency region at

changes, e.g., during six step operation [28]. low speed due to copper loss. 12/8 SRM has concentrated

YANG et al.: COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTERIOR PM, IM, AND SRM DRIVES 253

TABLE IV 1) IP M SM

C OMPARISON OF L OSS AND E FFICIENCY AT T YPICAL O PERATING P OINTS

m=vu

v = (3k1 + 1)P/d (q = b + c/d, d = even, k1 = 1, 2, . . .)

v = (6k1 + 1)P/d (q = b + c/d, d = odd, k1 = 1, 2, . . .)

u = (2k2 + 1)P/2 (k2 = 1, 2, . . .)

harmonic order due to stator magneto-motive-force (MMF),

and u is the harmonic order due to rotor MMF. The lowest

mode order except 0 for 48/8 IPMSM is 8. The lowest mode

order except 0 for 12/8 IPMSM is 4.

2) IM

m=vu

v = (6k1 + 1)P/2 (k1 = 1, 2 . . .)

u = k2 z2 + P/2 (k2 = 1, 2 . . .)

to be 4, the lowest mode number except 0 for 48/42, 48/38,

48/36 topologies are 2, 2, and 4, respectively. Comparing

with the other two topologies, 48/36 design exhibits rela-

tively lower noise and vibration due to higher mode order.

3) SRM

m = z1 /r

phases. The lowest mode order except 0 for 12/8 SRM is 4.

R EFERENCES

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Mar. 2005. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.

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for inverter-driven variable speed systems, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA. Previously, he was

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Advantages of switched reluctance motor applications to EV and HEV: Mahesh Krishnamurthy (S02M08SM13)

Design and control issues, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 36, no. 1, received the M.S. degree in electrical engineering

pp. 111121, Jan./Feb. 2000. from the Missouri University of Science and

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IET, 2010. and Energy Conversion Laboratory and Grainger

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Elect. Mach. Drives Conf. (IEMDC), May 2013, pp. 295302. pending. His research interests include design, analysis, and control of power

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Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC, 2006. renewable energy applications.

[30] Y. S. Chen, Z. Q. Zhu, and D. Howe, Vibration of permanent magnet Dr. Krishnamurthy is a Distinguished Lecturer with the IEEE-Vehicular

brushless machines having a fractional number of slots per pole, IEEE Technology Society. He was the General Chair for the 2014 IEEE-

Trans. Magn., vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 33953397, Oct. 2006. Transportation Electrification Conference and Exposition. In the past, he

[31] M. Boesing and R. W. De Doncker, Exploring a vibration synthesis pro- has served as the Technical Program Chair for the 2011 Vehicle Power

cess for the acoustic characterization of electric drives, IEEE Trans. Ind. and Propulsion Conference and 2013 IEEE-Transportation Electrification

Appl., vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 7078, Jan. 2012. Conference. He has served as the Guest Editor or Associate Editor for several

[32] T. Kobayashi, F. Tajima, M. Ito, and S. Shibukawa, Effects of slot com- IEEE journals including the Special Section of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS

bination on acoustic noise from induction motors, IEEE Trans. Magn., ON V EHICULAR T ECHNOLOGY ON S USTAINABLE T RANSPORTATION

vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 21012104, Mar. 1997. S YSTEMS, Special Issue of the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON P OWER

[33] C. Lin and B. Fahimi, Prediction of acoustic noise in switched reluctance E LECTRONICS ON T RANSPORTATION E LECTRIFICATION AND V EHICLE

motor drives, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 250258, S YSTEMS , and Special Issue of the IEEE J OURNAL OF E MERGING

Mar. 2014. AND S ELECTED T OPICS IN P OWER E LECTRONICS ON T RANSPORTATION

[34] M. Arata, N. Takahashi1, M. Fujita, M. Mochizuki, T. Araki, and E LECTRIFICATION. He is currently serving as the Deputy Editor-in-Chief for

T. Hanai, Noise lowering for a large variable speed range use perma- the IEEE T RANSACTIONS ON T RANSPORTATION E LECTRIFICATION and

nent magnet motor by frequency shift and structural response evaluation as the on the steering committee of IEEEs Transportation Electrification

of electromagnetic forces, J. Power Electron., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 6774, Community. He was also the Advisor for the Formula Electric Racecar Team

Jan. 2012. at IIT, which won the prestigious Fiat Chrysler Innovation Award at the SAE

[35] K. Rahman, M. Anwar, and S. Schulz, The Voltec 4ET50 electric drive Formula Hybrid Competition. He was the recipient of the 20062007 IEEE

system, SAE Int. J. Engines, vol. 4, no 1, pp. 323337, Apr. 2011. VTS-Transportation Electronics Fellowship Award for his contributions.

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