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Solutions of Triangles

Theory Notes - Solutions of Triangles


1. ELEMENTS OFATRIANGLE
In a triangle ABC the angles are denoted by capital letters A, B and C and the length of the sides
opposite to these angles are denoted by small letters a, b and c. Semi perimeter of the triangle is

given by s = a b c and its area is denoted by .


2

2. SINE RULE
a b c
In a triangle ABC, = 2R (where R is circum radius)
sin A sin B sin C

1 1 1
Note : Area of triangle = bc sinA = ac sinB = ab sinC.
2 2 2

Drill Exercise - 1
.in
ps
a 2 sin( B C) b 2 sin(C A ) c 2 sin( A B)
1. In any triangle ABC, prove that + + =0
sin B sin C sin C sin A sin A sin B
te
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sin A sin(A B)
2. If in a ABC, = , prove that a2, b2, c2 are in A. P..
sin C sin(B C)
ud

3. ABCD is a trapezium such that AB and CD are parallel and CB is perpendicular to them. If
ADB = 60, BC = 4 and CD = 3, then find the length of side AB.
St

4. If the sides of a triangle are in arithmetic progression, and if its greatest angle exceeds the least angle
1 cos
by , show that the sides are in the ration 1 x : 1 : 1 + x, where x = .
7 cos
5. Through the angular points of a triangle are drawn straight lines which make the same angle with the
opposite sides of the triangle; prove that area of the triangle formed by them is to the area of the
original triangle as 4 cos2 : 1.

3. COSINE RULE
In a triangle ABC,

b2 c2 a 2 c2 a 2 b2
(i) cos A = (ii) cos B =
2bc 2ca

Page 1 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

a 2 b2 c2
(iii) cos C =
2ab

Drill Exercise - 2

cos A cos B cos C a 2 b 2 c 2


1. In any ABC, prove that + + = .
a b c 2abc

1 (m 1)(m 3)
2. Let ABC be a triangle such that 2b = (m + 1)a and cos A = , where m (1, 3).
2 m
Prove that there are two values of the third side one of which is m times the other.

1 1 3
3. In a triangle ABC, C = 60, then prove that + =
ac bc a bc

cos A 2 cos C sin B


4. If in a triangle ABC, = prove that the triangle is either isosceles or right
cos A 2 cos B sin C
angled.
.in
ps
5. A ring, 10 cm, in diameter, is suspended from a point 12 cm, above its centre by 6 equal strings
attached to its circumference at equal intervals. Find the cosine of the angle between consecutive
strings.
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Illustration 1:
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Find the angles of the triangle whose sides are 3 + 3,2 3 and 6.
Solution:
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Let a = 3 +

b 2 c 2 a 2 12 6 9 3 6 3
3,b=2 3,c= 6 cos A =
2bc 12 2
St

66 3 1 3
= = cos 1050 A = 1050
12 2 2 2

a b
Applying Sine formula : , we get
sin A sin B


b
sin B = sin A
a
2 3
3 3

sin 1050 =
1
2
B = 450

A = 1050, B = 450, C = 300

4. PROJECTION FORMULAE
(i) a = b cos C + c cos B (ii) b = c cos A + a cos C (iii) c = a cos B + b cos C

Illustration 2:
If A = 450, B = 750, prove that a + c 2 = 2b.
Solution:

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Solutions of Triangles
As A = 450, B = 750 we have C = 600
2b = 2 (a cos C + c cos A) = 2(a cos 600 + c cos 450)
= a + c 2 = L.H.S.
5. NAPIERS ANALOGY (TANGENT RULE)
BC bc A CA ca B
(i) tan cot (ii) tan cot
2 bc 2 2 ca 2
A B a b C
(iii) tan cot
2 ab 2

6. HALF ANGLE FORMULAE


A

s b s c B s c s a
(a) (i) sin (ii) sin
2 bc 2 ca
C

s a s b
(iii) sin
2 ab

ss a ss b

.in
A B
(b) (i) cos = (ii) cos =
2 bc 2 ca
ps
C s s c
(iii) cos
2 ab
te
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A s b s c B s c s a
s s a ss b
(c) (i) tan = (ii) tan =
2 2
ud

C s a s b
(iii) tan 2 ss c
St

Drill Exercise - 3

1. In a ABC, if a = 13, b = 14, and c = 15, find the followings


A A A
(i) (ii) sin (iii) cos (iv) tan
2 2 2

2. The sides of a triangle are x2 + x + 1, 2x + 1 and x2 1; prove that the greatest angle is 120.

sin B c a cos B
3. In any ABC, prove that =
sin C b a cos C

4. If are the lengths of the altitudes of a ABC, prove that


1 1 1 cot A cot B cot C
2 + 2 + 2 = where is the area of ABC.

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Solutions of Triangles

A B C abc A
5. In a ABC, prove that cot + cot + cot = cot .
2 2 2 bca 2
7. AREA OF TRIANGLE
Area of triangle = s(s a )(s b)(s c)

2 2 2 2
7.1 (i) sin A = s s a s b s c (ii) sinB= s s a s b s c
bc bc ca ca
2 2
(iii) sin C = s s a s b s c
ab ab

8. m-n THEOREM
Let D be a point on the side BC of a ABC such that
BD : DC = m : n and ADC = , BAD = and
DAC = . Then
(i)
(ii)
(m + n) cot = m cot n cot
(m + n) cot = n cot B m cot C .in
ps
9. CENTROID AND MEDIANS OF A TRIANGLE
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The line joining any vertex of a triangle to the mid point of the opposite side of the triangle is called the
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median of the triangle. The three medians of a triangle are concurrent and the point of concurrency of
the medians of any triangle is called the centroid of the triangle. The centroid divides the median
in the ratio 2 : 1.
ud

Illustration 3:
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Find the lengths of the medians and the angles made by the medians with the sides of a triangle ABC.
Solution :

2 2 2
a2 2
AD = AC + CD 2AC. CD cos C = b + ab cosC,
4
and c2 = b2 + a2 2ab cos C.

a2
Hence 2AD2 c2 = b2 ,
2

1 1 2 A
so that AD = 2b 2 2c 2 a 2 = b c 2 2bc cos A
2 2

F
E
Similarly, G

1 1
BE = 2c 2 2a 2 b 2 , and CF = 2a 2 2b 2 c 2 B
D C
2 2

Page 4 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

If BAD and CAD , we have


sin DC a

sinC AD 2AD

a sin C a sin C
sin =
2AD 2b 2 2c 2 a 2
Similarly
a sin B
sin =
2 b 2 2c 2 a 2

Drill Exercise - 4

1. If the medians of a ABC make angles with each other, prove that
cot + cot + cot + cotA + cotB + cotC = 0

.in
2. In an isosceles right angled triangle a straight line is drawn from the middle point of one of the equal
sides to the opposite angle. Show that it divides the angle into parts whose cotangents are 2 and 3.
ps
3. D, E and F are the middle points of the sides of the triangle ABC; prove that the centroid of the
triangle DEF is the same as that of ABC, and that its orthocentre is the circumcentre of ABC.
te
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4. Prove that the median through A divides it into angles whose cotangents are 2 cot A + cot C and 2
1
cotA + cotB, and makes with the base an angle whose cotangent is (cot C ~ cot B)
ud

2
5. Prove that the distance between the middle point of BC and the foot of the perpendicular from A is
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b2 ~ c2
.
2a

10. CIRCUM CIRCLE


The circle which passes through the angular points of a ABC, is called its circumcircle. The centre
of this circle i.e., the point of concurrency of the perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the ABC,
is called the circumcenter.

E F
O

A A
B C
a/2 D a/2

Page 5 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles
Radius of the circumcircle is given by the following formulae
a b c abc
R=
2sin A 2sin B 2sin C 4
Illustration 4:
If in a ABC, O is the circumcenter and R is the circumradius and R1, R2 and R3 are the circumradii
a b c abc
of the triangles OBC, OCA and OAB respectively, then prove that R R R 3 .
1 2 3 R
Solution:
Clearly, in the OBC, BOC = 2A, OB = OC = R, BC = a.
a
2R1 = {using sine rule in BOC)
sin 2A

b c A
Similarly, 2R2 = and 2R 3
sin 2B sin 2C
a b c
R R R = 2(sin2A + sin2B + sin 2C)

.in
1 2 3 O

= 2.4 sin A sin B sin C,


ps
B C
a b c abc
=8 . . 3 .
2R 2R 2R R
te

Illustration 5:
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If the distances of the sides of a ABC from its circumcenter be x, y and z respectively, then prove
a b c abc
that x y z 4xyz .
ud

Solution :
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a
Let M be the circumcenter. MD BC. So BD = DC = and BMD = A.
2

a
BD 2 = tan A, i.e., a = tan A,
In BDM, = tan A or A
MD x 2x

b c F E
Similarly, 2 y = tan B, = tan C z
2z M y
A x
a b c
tan A + tan B + tan C = 2x 2y 2z
B C
D

a b c
and tan A. tan B. tan C = 2x . 2 y . 2z

But in a triangle ABC, tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A. tan B. tan C

Page 6 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

a b c abc

x y z 4xyz

11. ORTHOCENTER AND PEDAL TRIANGLE OF A TRIANGLE.


In a triangle the altitudes drawn from the three vertices to the opposite sides are concurrent and the
point of cuncurrency of the altitudes of the triangle is called the orthocenter of the triangle. The
triangle formed by joining the feet of these perpendiculars is called the pedal triangle i.e.
DEF is the pedal triangle of ABC.
A

F
E

P
900 C
B C
D

Illustration 6:

.in
Find the distance of the orthocenter from the sides and angular points of a triangle ABC.
Solution :
ps
PD = DB tan PBD = DB tan (900 C)
c
te

= AB cos B cot C = cos B cos C = 2R cos B cos C


sin C
Similarly
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PE = 2R cosA cosC and PF = 2R cosA cosB


Again
ud

A
AP = AE sec DAC = c cos A cosec C
c F
St

= cos A = 2 R cos A E
sin C
P
so, BP = 2R cos B and CP = 2R cos C 90 C
B
D C

Illustration 7:
Find the distance between the circumcenter and the orthocenter of a triangle ABC

Solution :
Let O be the circumcenter and P be the orthocenter of the ABC
A
If OF be perpendicular to AB, we have
OAF 900 C F
P
O L
Also PAL 900 C
OAP C B
B C
D K
Also OA = R and PA = 2R cosA
OP2 = OA2 + PA2 2OA. PA cos OAP

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Solutions of Triangles
= R2 + 4R2 cos2 A 4R2 cosA cos (C B)
= R2 4R2 cosA [cos(B + C) + cos (C B)] = R2 8R2 cos A cos B cosC
OP = R 1 8 cos A cos B cos C
12. BISECTORS OF THE ANGLES
If AD bisects the angle A and divide the base into portions x and y, we have, by Geometry,
x AB c
x y xy a

y AC b c b bc bc

ac ab
x= and y =
bc bc
Also let be the length of AD A

we have ABD + ACD = ABC


1 A 1 A 1
c sin b sin bc sin A,
2 2 2 2 2

bc sin A 2bc A B
i.e., cos x D y
C
b c sin A b c

.in
2
2
Drill Exercise - 5
ps
1. Show that the distances of the orthocentre from the sides of a triangle ABC are
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2R cos B cos C , 2R cos C cos A & 2R cos C cos A .


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2. In any ABC, prove that a cosA + b cosB + c cosC = 4R sinA sinB sinC.

3. If p1, p2 p3 are respectively the perpendiculars from the vertices of a triangle to the opposite sides,
ud

a 2 b 2c 2
prove that p1p2p3 = .
8R 3
St

4. In a ABC, if 8R2 = a2 + b2 + c2, show that the triangle is right angled.

5. AD, BE and CF are the perpendiculars from the angular points of a triangle ABC upon the opposite
sides : prove that the diameter of the circumcircles of the triangle AEF, BDF, and CDE are respectively
a cot A , b cot B and c cot C and that the perimeters of the triangles DEF and ABC are in the ratio r : R.

13. INCIRCLE
The circle which can be inscribed within the triangle so as to touch each of the sides of the triangle is
called its incircle. The centre of this circle i.e., the point of concurrency of angle bisectors of the
triangle is called the incentre of the ABC.
A

E
r F
I r

900 B/2
B/2 r C/2
B C
D

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Solutions of Triangles
Radius of the Incircle is given by the following formulae
A B C A B C
r= = (s a) tan = (s b) tan = (s c) tan = 4R sin sin sin .
s 2 2 2 2 2 2
Illustration 8:
Find the distance between the circumcenter and the incentre.
Solution :
Let O be the circumcenter and I be the incentre of ABC.
Let OF be perpendicular to AB and IE be perpendicular to AC.
OAF 900 C. A

OAI IAF OAF


F
A
2
A
= 900 C C
2 2

ABC CB

2 O I
E

Also, B C

IE r B C
AI = 4R sin sin

.in
A A 2 2
sin sin
2 2
ps
OI 2 OA 2 AI 2 2OA. AI cos OAI

B 2 C B C CB
te

= R2 + 16R2 sin2 sin 8R2 sin sin cos


2 2 2 2 2
yS

OI 2 B 2C B C B C B C
1 16 sin 2 sin 8sin sin cos cos sin sin
R 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
ud

B C B C B C
= 1 8 sin sin cos cos sin sin
2 2 2 2 2 2
St

B C A
= 1 8 sin sin sin . . . (i)
2 2 2
B C A
OI R 1 8 sin sin sin .
2 2 2

Illustration 9:
If the distances of the vertices of a triangle ABC from the points of contacts of the incircle with sides

be , and , then prove that r2

Solution:
Let the incircle touches the side AB at P, where AP = . Let I be the incentre.
From the right-angled IPA,
r A A B C
tan ; r cot similarly, = r cot and r cot
2 2 2 2

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Solutions of Triangles
In ABC, we have the identity
A B C A B C
cot cot cot cot cot cot
2 2 2 2 2 2
A

. .
r r r r r r
P E

or
1
13 I
r r
B C

r2 = .

Illustration 10:
Show that the line joining the in-centre to the circumcenter of a triangle ABC is inclined to the side BC
cos B cos C 1
at an angle tan 1 .
sin C sin B
Solution:

.in
Let I be the in-centre of O be the circumcenter of the triangle ABC. Let OL be parallel to BC. Let
ps
IOL . IM = r OC = R, NOC A

IL IM LM IM ON r R cos A
tan
te


OL BM BN BM NC B
r cot R sin A
yS

2
A
A B C
sin sin R cos A
4R sin
ud

2 2 2 I
L
A B C B O
4R sin sin sin .cot R sin A
St

2 2 2 2
B NM C
cos A cos B cos C 1 cos A cos B cos C 1

sin A sin C sin B sin A sin C sin B

cos B cos C 1
tan 1
sin C sin B
.

14. THE DISTANCES BETWEEN THE SPECIAL POINTS


(i) The distance between circumcenter and orthocenter is = R. 1 8 cos A cos B cos C

(ii) The distance between circumcenter and incentre is = R 2 2Rr .

Page 10 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

(iii) The distance between incentre and orthocenter is 2r 2 4R 2 cos A cos B cos C .

Drill Exercise - 6
1. In a triangle ABC, the incircle touches the sides BC, CA and AB at D, E, F respectively. If radius of
incircle is 4 units and BD, CE and AF be consecutive natural numbers, find the sides of the triangle
ABC.
2. Show that the distances of the incentre from vertices A,B & C are
B C C A A B
4R sin sin , 4R sin sin , 4R sin sin respectively..
2 2 2 2 2 2

A B C
3. In a ABC, prove that ratio of the area of the incircle to that of the triangle is : cot cot cot .
2 2 2
4. Prove that a cot A b cot B c cot C 2(R r ) .

.in
5. If the incentre & the circumcentre of a triangle are equidistant from the side BC,
prove that cos B cos C 1 .
ps
15. ESCRIBED CIRCLES
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The circle which touches the side BC and the two sides AB and AC produced is called the escribed
circle opposite the angle A. Its centre and radius will be denoted by I1 and r1 respectively.
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Radii of the excircles are given by the following formulae A

A A B C
s tan 4R sin cos cos
ud

(i) r1 =
sa 2 2 2 2 B D1
C
F1
B A B C
St

(ii) r2 = s tan 4R cos sin cos E1


sb 2 2 2 2
L I1
C A B C
(iii) r3 = s tan 4R cos cos sin . M
sc 2 2 2 2

16. EXCENTRAL TRIANGLE


The triangle formed by joining the three excentres I1, I2 and I3 of
ABC is called the excentral or excentric triangle. Not that "

(i) Incentre I of ABC is the orthocenter of the excentral


I1I2I3.

(ii) ABC is the pedal triangle of the I1I2I3.

A B
(iii) The sides of the excentral triangle are 4 R cos , 4 R cos and
2 2

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Solutions of Triangles

C A B C
4 R cos and its angles are , and .
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
(iv) II1 = 4 R sin : II2 = 4 R sin : II3 = 4 R sin
2 2 2

Illustration 11 :
If the exradii r1, r2 and r3 of a ABC are in HP, show that its sides a, b and c are in A.P..
Solution:

We know that r1 = , r2 , r3
sa sb sc
r1, r2, r3 are in HP
sa sb sc
, , are in AP

s a, s b, s c are in AP a, b, c are in AP

Drill Exercise - 7
.in
ps
1. Prove the following :

r r1 r2 r3 1 (A B)
te

abc 1 C
R (r1 r2 r3 r ) (a b) sec sec
4rs 4 4 cos C 4 2 2
yS

a b
2 2
(r r )(r2 r )(r3 r ) r s 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2
1
2c sin( A B) 4r 2 4 r r1 r r2 r r3
ud

A
a cos A (b c) tan 2 r sin A

4 sin A 4 cos A 2 sin A
St

2. Prove the following :

A A A
rr1r2 r3 rr1 cot s(s a ) tan cos bc(s b)(s c)
2 2 2
1 sin A sin B 2
Rr (sin A sin B sin C) (b 2 sin 2C c 2 sin 2B) (a b 2 )
4 2 sin( A B)
a 2 b2 c2 (abc) 2 / 3
(sin 2A sin 2B sin 2C)1 / 3
4(cot A cot B cot C) 2 5/3

3. Show that the radii of the three escribed circles of a triangle are the roots of the equation,
x3 x2 (4R + r) + xs2 rs2 = 0

4. If R1, R2 and R3 be the diameter of the excircles of a ABC (opposite to the vertices A, B and C
a b c R R2 R3
respectively), then prove that 1 .
R1 R 2 R 3 abc

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Solutions of Triangles

5. Prove that r 2 r12 r2 2 r3 2 16R 2 (a 2 b 2 c 2 ) .

17. SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES


When any three of the six elements (except all the three angles) of a triangle are given, the triangle is
known completely. This process is called the solution of triangles.

b2 c2 a 2
(i) If the sides a, b and c are given, then cos A = . B and C can be obtained in the
2bc
similar way.

(ii) If two sides b and c and the included angle A are given, then using
BC bc A BC
tan cot , we get .
2 bc 2 2

.in
BC A
Also = 90 0 , so that B and C can be evaluated.
2 2
ps
b sin A
The third side is given by a = .
sin B
te

c
yS

(iii) If two sides b and c and the angle B (opposite to side b) are given, then sin C = sin B, A =
b
b sin A
1800 (B + C) and a =
ud

give the remaining elements. If b < c sin B, there is no triangle


sin B
possible (fig 1). If b = c sin B and B is an acute angle, then there is only one triangle possible
St

(fig 2). If c sin B < b < c and B is an acute angle, then there are two values of angle C (fig 3).
If c < b and B is an acute angle, then there is only one triangle (fig 4).

A A

c c
b c sinB
b c sinB

B D
D
B (Fig 1) (Fig 2)

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Solutions of Triangles

A
A

c b b c sinB
b b c sinB c

D C2 B C1
B C2 C1
(Fig 4)
(Fig 3)

This case is, sometimes, called an ambiguous case.

Illustration 12:
In any triangle ABC, the sides are 6 cm, 10 cm and 14 cm. Show that the triangle is obtuse-angled
with the obtuse angle equal to 1200.
Solution:
Let a = 14, b = 10, c = 6
The largest angle is opposite the largest side.

.in
b 2 c 2 a 2 100 36 196 1
cos A = A 1200
2bc 120 2
ps
Illustration 13:
te

If in a triangle ABC, a = (1 + 3 ) cm, b = 2 cm and C = 600, then find the other two angles and the
third side
yS

Solution:


2
1 1 3 4 c
2
ud

a 2 b2 c2
cos C = .
2ab 2 2 1 3 .2
St

c2 = 6 c= 6
sin A sin B sin C
Also,
a b c

3
sin A sin B 1
2 sin B = B = 450
1 3 2 6 2

A = 1800 (450 + 600) = 750

Illustration 14 :
Given the base of a triangle, the opposite angle A, and the product k2 of the other two sides, show
A
that it is not possible for a to be less than 2k sin .
2
Solution:
Given b.c = k2

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Solutions of Triangles

b2 c2 a 2
Now cosA =
2bc
A
2
k2
2k cosA = b + a
2
2 2
or
b
b
c
or b (a + 2k cosA). b2 + k4 = 0
4 2 2

Since b2 is real, (a2 + 2k2) (a2 + 2k2 cosA 2k2) 0


B C
2 2 A 2 2 A a
a 2k .2 cos a 2k .2sin 0
2 2

2 2

2 2 A 2 2 A
a 4k cos a 4k sin 0
2 2

2 2
A A
a 2 4k 2 sin 2 0 [since a2 + 4k2 cos2 is always positive]
2 2
A A
a 2k sin a 2k sin 0
2 2

a 2k sin
A
or a 2k sin
A
.in
(since 2ksin(A/2) is real)
ps
2 2
A
But a must be positive. a 2k sin is rejected
te

2
A
Hence a 2 k sin
yS

.
2
ud

DRILL EXERCISE - 8

1. A right triangle has c = 64, A = 61 and C = 90. Find the remaining parts.
St

2. Solve the triangle in which b = 100, c = 100 2 and B = 30.

3. In a ABC if a, b and A are given, then prove that two triangles are formed such that the sum of their
1 2 2
areas is b sin A.
2
4. The lengths of two sides of a triangle are 12 cm and 12 2 cm respectively, and the angle opposite the
shorter side is 30; prove that there are two triangle satisfying these conditions, find their angles and
show that their areas are in the ratio 3 1 : 3 1

5. In a ABC, if a, b and A are given, then there are two triangles with third sides c1 and c2 such that
c1 c2 = 2 a 2 b 2 sin 2 A

18. INSCRIBED & CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGONS

Page 15 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles
(Important Formulae)
1 2 2
I. Area of Polygone of n sides inscribed in a circle of radius r = nr sin
2 n
1 2
II. Area of Polygone of n sides inscribing a circle of radius r = nr tan
2 n

III. Side of Inscribed polygone = 2r sin .
n

IV. Side of Circumscribed polygone = 2r tan .
n
Illustration 15 :
Find the radii of the inscribed and the circumscribed circles of a regular polygon of n sides with each
side a and also find the area of the regular polygon.
Solution:
Let AB, BC and CD be three successive sides of the polygon and O be the centre of both the incircle
and the circumcircle of the polygon
2
BOC

.in
n
1 2
ps
BOL
2 n n
If a be a side of the polygon, we have
te

a O D
a = BC = 2BL = 2RsinBOL = 2Rsin r cot . A
yS

n 2 n
Now the area of the regular polygon = n times the area of the R R
ud


OBC n OL.BC n . cot .a
1 1 a na 2
cot . B
2 2 2 n 4 n L C
St

DRILL EXERCISE - 9

1. If a, b, c, d are the sides of a quadrilateral described about a circle then prove that
A C
ad sin 2 bc sin 2 .
2 2
2. Two regular polygons of n & 2n sides have the same perimeter, show that their areas are in the ratio

2 cos : 1 cos .
n n

3. If 2a be the side of a regular polygon of n sides, R & r be the circumradius & inradius, prove that

R r a cot .
2n

4. With reference to a given circle, A1 & B1 are the areas of the inscribed and circumscribed regular
polygons of n sides, A 2 & B 2 are corresponding quantities for regular polygons of 2n sides. Prove
that A 2 is a geometric mean between A1 & B1 and B2 is a hormonic mean between A 2 & B1 .

Page 16 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

Answer Key

Drill Exercise - 1

25 3
3.
43 3

Drill Exercise - 2
313
5.
338

Drill Exercise - 3

1 2 1
1. (i) 84 (ii) (iii) (iv)
5 5 2

Drill Exercise - 6
.in
ps
1. a = 13, b = 15, c = 14
te

Drill Exercise - 8
yS

1. A = 29 , a = 64 cos 29, b = 64 sin 29


ud

2. a = 50 ( 6 2 ) , A = 15 , C = 135
St

4. 45 and 105; 135 and 15

SOLVED OBJECTIVE EXAMPLES


Example 1:
If D is the mid point of the side BC of a triangle ABC and AD is perpendicular to AC, then
(a) 3b2 = a2 c2 (b) 3a2 = b2 3c2
(c) b2 = a2 c2 (d) a2 + b2 = 5c2
Solution:
A
From the right angled CAD, we have
0
90
c
b 2b a 2 b 2 c 2 A /2 b
cos C =
a/2 a 2ab
2 2 2
a + b c = 4b 2
a2 c2 = 3b2.
B C
a/2 D a/2

Page 17 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles
Example 2:
There exists a triangle ABC satisfying
sin A sin B sin C
(a) tanA + tanB + tanC = 0 (b)
2 3 7
(c) (a + b)2 = c2 + ab (d) none of these
Solution:
(a) In a triangle ABC, we know that tan A + tan B + tan C = tan A tan B tan C. Since none of
tan A, tan B, tan C can be zero, (a) is not possible
If (sin A)/2 = (sin B)/3 = (sin C)/7, then by the laws of sines
a b c

2 3 7
which is not possible, as the sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side

2 2
a 2 b2 c2 1
If (a + b) = c + ab, then = = cos C = , which is possible
2ab 2 3
Hence (c) is the correct answer.

Example 3:

(a) tan A = a/b (b) tan B = b/a .in


If the tangents of the angles A and B of a triangle ABC satisfy the equation abx2 c2x + ab = 0, then
ps
(c) cos C = 0 (d) sin2 A + sin2 B + sin2 C = 2
Solution:
te

From the given equation, we get


yS

tan A + tan B = c2 / ab and tan A tan B = 1. A

tan A tan B
ud

Since tan (A + B) =
1 tan A tan B c
b


St

We get A + B = and hence C = .


2 2
B
a C

Therefore, triangle ABC is right angled at C. Hence,


tan A = a/b, tan B = b/a, cos C = 0, sin A = a/c, sin B = b/c and sin C = 1, so that
a2 b2 a 2 b2
2 2
sin A + sin B + sin C =2 1 1 1 1 2 [ a2 + b2 = c2]
c2 c2 c2
Hence, all options are correct.

Example 4:
If in a triangle ABC sin A , sin B and sin C are in A.P., then the altitudes are in
(a) A.P. (b) H.P.
(c) G.P. (d) none of these
Solution:
If p1, p2, p3, are altitude from A, B, C respectively,

Page 18 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

1 1 1 2 2 2
then = ap1 = bp2 = cp3 p1 = , p2 = , p3 =
2 2 2 a b c
By the law of sines
a b c
= k (say)
sin A sin B sin C
2 2 2
p1 = , p2 = , p3 =
k sin A k sin B k sin C
Now, sin A, sin B, sin C are in A.P. p1, p2, p3 are in H.P.

Example 5:
In a triangle ABC, medians AD and CE are drawn. If AD = 5, DAC = / 8 and
ACE = /4, then the area of the triangle ABC is equal to
25 25
(a) (b)
9 3
25 10
(c) (d)

.in
18 3
Solution:
ps
Let O be the point of intersection of the medians of triangle ABC. Then the area of ABC is three
2 10
times that of AOC. Now, in AOC, AO = AD = . Therefore, applying the sine rule to
te

3 3
AOC, we get
yS

OC AO 10 sin / 8
OC .
sin / 8 sin / 4 3 sin / 4
ud

1
area of AOC = . AO.OC. sin AOC
St

1 10 10 sin / 8 B
. . . .sin
2 3 3 sin / 4
=
2 8

50 sin / 8cos / 8 50 25 E
. D
sin / 4
= 9 18 9
O
25 25
area of ABC = 3. /4
9 3 /8
A C
Example 6:
In a triangle ABC, if tan (A/2) = 5/6 and tan (B/2) = 20/37, the sides a, b and c are in
(a) A.P. (b) G.P.
(c) H.P (d) none of these
Solution:

Page 19 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

C 0 A B AB cot A / 2 cot B / 2 1
We have tan = tan 90 = cot = cot A / 2 cot B / 2
2 2 2

6 37
. 1
5 20 222 100 122 2

= 6 37 120 185 305 5

5 20

A C s b s c s a s b
ss a ss c
Also tan tan =
2 2

5 2 sb
. 3s b s 2s 3b
6 5 s
a + b + c = 3b a + c = 2b
Which shows that a, b and c are in A.P.

Example 7:
If in a triangle ABC, a = 5, b = 4 and cos (A B) = 31/32, then the third side c is equal to

.in
(a) 6 (b) 8
(c) 4 (d) none of these
ps
Solution:
AB AB
te

1 tan 2 1 tan 2
2 31 2

cos (A B) = 2 AB 32 1 tan 2 A B
yS

1 tan
2 2

AB AB 1
ud

63 tan2 1 tan
2 2 63
Now
St

AB ab C 1 54 C
tan cot cot
2 ab 2 63 5 4 2

C 63
tan =
2 9
1 tan 2 C / 2 1 63 / 81 18 1
Also, cos C =
1 tan C / 2
2 1 63 / 81 144 8
c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos C = 25 + 16 2.5.4. (1/8) = 36 c = 6
Hence (a) is the correct answer.

Example 8:
In a triangle ABC, if r1 = 2r2 = 3r3, then a : b is equal to
5 4
(a) (b)
4 5

Page 20 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

7 4
(c) (d)
4 7
Solution:
From the given relation, we have
A B C
s tan = 2s tan = 3s tan
2 2 2

tan(A / 2) tan(B / 2) tan(c / 2)


k (say)
6 3 2
Also, since A/2 + B/2 + C/2 = 900, we get
A B B C C A
tan tan tan tan tan tan 1
2 2 2 2 2 2
6k. 3k + 3k. 2k + 2k. 6k = 1 36k2 = 1 k = 1/6

2 tan A / 2 12k
1
1 tan 2 A / 2
sin A =
1 36k 2

and sin B =
2 tanB / 2

1 tan B / 2 1 9k
2
6k
2

4
.in
ps
5
Hence, by the law of sines, sin A/a = sin B/b, we have
te

a sin A 5

b sin B 4
yS

a:b=5:4
ud

Example 9:
Let AD be a median of the ABC. If AE and AF are medians of the triangles ABD and ADC
St

a2
respectively and AD = m1, AE = m2, AF = m3, then is equal to
8
(a) m 22 m 32 2m12 (b) m12 m 22 2m 32

(c) m 22 m 32 2m12 (d) none of these

Solution: A

c2 b2 a 2
In ABC, AD2 = m12 =
2 4

2 B C
a E D F
2
In ABD, AE = m2 = AD c 2
2 2
2

2 4

Page 21 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

2
a
2
AD b
2

2
AF2 = m32 =
2 4

b2 c2 a 2 a2 a2 a2
m22 + m32 = AD2 + m12 m12 2m12
2 8 4 8 8
a2
m 2 2 m32 2m12
8

Example 10:
If I is the incentre of a triangle ABC, then the ratio IA : IB : IC is equal to
A B C A B C
(a) cosec : cosec : cosec (b) sin : sin : sin
2 2 2 2 2 2
A B C
(c) sec : sec : sec (d) none of these
2 2 2

.in
Solution:
Here BD : DC = c : b
ps
But BD + DC = a;
c
BD = .a
te

bc
A
yS

BD AD

In ABD, sin A sin B
2 I
ud

B C
D
ca sin B 2 A
St

AD = . cos ec
b c sin A b c 2
2
AI AB c bc

ID BD ca / b c
Also,
a
bc A B C
AI = .AD cos ec Similarly BI = cos ec , CI cos ec
abc s 2 s 2 s 2
A B C
IA : IB : IC cos ec : cos ec : cos ec
2 2 2
Example 11:
a cos A b cos B c cos C
In a ABC, the value of is equal to
abc
R R
(a) (b)
r 2r

Page 22 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

r 2r
(c) (d)
R R
Solution:
a cos A b cos B ccos C 2R sin A cos A 2R sin Bcos B 2R sin Ccos C

a bc 2s
4R abc abc
.sin 2A sin 2B sin 2C =
R R
= .4 sin A sin B sin C = . 3
2s 2s 2s 8R 4sR 2
abc
But R= ,r=
4 s
4R r
So, the value =

4. .R 2 R
r

Example 12:
The area of a circle is A1and the area of a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle is A2. Then

.in
A1 : A2 is
2
cos sec
ps
(a) (b)
5 10 5 10
2
te

(c) cos ec (d) none of these


5 10
Solution:
yS

360 0
In the OAB, OA = OB = r and AOB = = 720 D
ud

5
1 1
ar ( AOB) = . r . r. sin 720 = r2 cos 180
St

2 2 E O C
r

2r 2 2
A1 : A2 = 2 0
sec A B
5r cos18 5 10

Example 13:
In a triangle ABC a = 5, b = 4 and c = 3. G is the centroid of the triangle. Circumradius of triangle
GAB is equal to
5
(a) 2 13 (b) 13
12
5 3
(c) 13 (d) 13
3 2
Solution:

Page 23 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

2 2 A
AG = A A1, BG = BB1
3 3
1 B1
AG = 2b 2 2c2 a 2 G
3

1 B C
and BG = 2a 2 2c 2 b 2 A1
3
1 1 2
AG = a , BG b 4c 2 as a2 = b2 + c2
3 3
5 1 2
AG = , BG 16 36 13
3 3 3
1
Also, AB = c = 3 and GAB ABC 2
3
If R1 be the circumradius of triangle GAB then
AG BG AB 5 . 2 13.3.
1
R1 = 4 GAB

.in
3 3 4 .2

5 13
ps
= units.
12
Example 14:
te

A variable triangle ABC is circumscribed about a fixed circle of unit radius. Side BC always touches
the circle at D and has fixed direction. If B and C vary in such a way that (BD). (CD) = 2 then locus
yS

of vertex A will be a straight line


(a) parallel to side BC (b) right angle to side BC
ud

(c) making an angle /6 with BC (d) making an angle sin1 (2/3) with BC
Solution:
BD = (s b), CD = (s c) (s b)(s c) = 2
St

s(s a) (s b) (s c) = 2 s(s a)
2 2(s a )
= 2 s(s a)
2
2
1 (radius of incircle of triangle ABC)
s s
a
= constant.
s
1
Now = aH , where Ha is the distance of A from BC.
2 a
1 aH a 2s
= 1 Ha = = constant
s 2 s a
Locus of A will be a straight line parallel to side BC.

Example 15:
In the adjacent figure AB is the diameter of circle, centered at O. If COA = 600. AB = 2r,,
AC = d and CD = , then

Page 24 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles D
B

(a) 3 r d (b) r 2 d 2 O

(c) r 3 d 3 (d) 2 r d C

A
Solution:

AC = d, OA = OB = r , CD = BD = , COA =
3

AC2 = OA2 + OC2 2AOOC. cos
3
D
1 B

d2 = 2r2 2r2 . = r2
2

2
O

Also, BOD = COD = C


3.2 3
BD A

tan r 3d 3
3 OB r
Hence the correct answer is (c)
.in
ps
SOLVED SUBJECTIVE EXAMPLES
te

Example 1:
yS

The lengths of sides of a triangle are three consecutive natural numbers and its largest angle is twice
the smallest one. Determine the sides of the triangle.
ud

Solution:
Let the lengths of the sides be n, n + 1, n + 2, where n N.
St

From the question, the largest angle opposite to the side n + 2 is 2 while the smallest angle oposite
to the side n is .

n 12 n 22 n 2 n 2 6n 5 n 1n 5 n 5
Now cos = = 2n 1n 2 2n 2
2n 1n 2 2n 1n 2

n 2 n 1 n 2 n 2 2n 3 n 1n 3 n 3
2 2

and cos 2 = = 2n n 1 2n
2n n 1
=
2n n 1

2
n 3 n5
But cos 2 = 2 cos 1; so
2 2 1
2n 2n 2

n 3 n 52
or 1 or (n 3)(n+2)2 = n{(n + 5)2 2 (n + 2)2}
2n 2n 2 2

or (n 3)(n2 + 4n + 4) = n ( n2 + 2n + 17)
or n3 + n2 8n 12 = n3 + 2n2 + 17n
or (n 4)(2n2 + 7n + 3) = 0 n = 4 or 2n2 + 7n + 3 = 0.

Page 25 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

7 49 24
Roots of 2n2 + 7n + 3 = 0 are
4
1
i.e., and 3 which are not natural numbers.
2
n = 4 and hence sides are 4, 5, 6.

Example 2:
Consider the following statements concerning a ABC:
(i) The sides a, b, c and the area are rational.
B C
(ii) a, tan , tan are rational.
2 2
(iii) a, sin A, sin B, sin C are rational.
Prove that (i) (ii) (iii) (i)
Solution :
Let (i) be true, i.e., a, b, c and be rational numbers.
B s c s a C s a s b

.in
abc
Now, tan , tan and s =
2 2 2
ps
Now, (i) a, b, c, , s are rational.
B C
So tan and tan are rational because sum, difference, product and quotient of nonzero rational
te

2 2
numbers are rational.
yS

Thus (i) (ii).


B C
ud

Let (ii) be true, i.e., a, tan , tan be rational


2 2
St

B
2 tan
Now, sin B = 2 = rational, because tan B is rational.
B 2
1 tan 2
2

C
2 tan
sin C = 2 = rational, because tan C is rational.
C 2
1 tan 2
2

C s c s a s a s b s a s b s c s a
2
B a
Now, tan . tan = . = 1 .
2 2 s s a s b s c s s
(ii) s is rational
b + c is rational, because a is rational.
a b c a bc rational
But
sin A sin B sin C sin A sin B sin C rational

Page 26 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

a
is rational. But a is rational. So sinA is rational
sin A
Thus (ii) (iii)
Let (iii) be true, i.e., a, sin A, sin B, sin C be rational.
a b c

sin A sin B sin C
a sin B
b = rational
sin A
a sin C 1
and c= = rational = 2 bc sin A = rational.
sin A
Thus (iii) (i).

Example 3:
4
If in a triangle ABC, a = 6, b = 3 and cos (A B) = , find the area of the triangle.
5
Solution :

4 1 tan 2
AB
2 4 .in
ps
Here, cos (A B) = ,
5 A B 5
1 tan 2
2
te

AB
2 tan 2 AB 1
yS

By componendo and dividendo, 2 54 or tan2


2 54 2 9
ud

AB 1
or tan ( A > B).
2 3
St

AB ab C 1 63 C C
But tan cot cot or cot = 1; C = .
2 ab 2 3 63 2 2 2
1 1
The area of the triangle = ab sin C .6.3. sin 9 sq. units.
2 2 2

Example 4:
If p, q are perpendiculars from the angular points A and B of the ABC drawn to any line through the
vertex C, then prove that
a2b2 sin2 C = a2p2 + b2q2 2abpqcos C.

Solution : p
Let ACE = . Clearly, from the figure, we get

sin C
p q
sin ,
AC BC

Page 27 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

p q
sin , sin . cos C cos .sin C
b a


q p
cos C cos .sin C or q p
2

cos C cos .sin C =


2 2
p2
b2

1 1 cos 2 C
a b a b

q 2 p2 2pq p2 p2 2
or cos 2
C cos C 1 1 cos C
a 2 b2 ab b2 b2

q2 p2 2pq
or 2
2
cos C sin 2 C or a2p2 + b2q2 2abpqcosC = a2 b2sin2C.
a b ab

Example 5:

In a ABC, prove that cos A. cos C =



2 c2 a 2
, where AD is the median through A and
3ca
AD AC.
Solution:

From the ABC, cos A =


b2 c2 a 2
.in . . . (i)
ps
2bc
AC b 2b
From the CAD, cos C = . . . (ii)
te

CD a / 2 a

BD AB
yS

From the ABD,


sin(A 90 ) 0 sin ADB
ud

a/2 c a c

or

cos A sin 900 C or 2 cos A cos C
St

a cos C a 2b b
cos A= . , from (ii)
2c 2c a c A

b2 c2 a 2 b
from (i),
2bc c
or b2 + c2 a2 = 2b2 B C
D

or c2 a2 = 3b2 . . . (iii)
b 2 c 2 a 2 2b b 2 c 2 a 2
Now, cosA. cosC = .
2bc a ca

=

3b 2 3 c 2 a 2


a 2 c2 3 c2 a 2
,
from (iii)
3ca 3ca

=

2 c2 a 2
.

3ca

Page 28 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles
Example 6:
Find the sides and angles of the pedal triangle.
Solution:
Since the angle PDC and PEC are right angles, the points P, E, C and D lie on a circle,
PDE = PCE = 900 A
Similarly P, D, B and F lie on a circle and therefore
PDF = PBF = 900 A, Hence FDE = 1800 2A
Similarly DEF = 1800 2B
EFD = 1800 2C
Also, from the triangle AEF we have
A
EF AE AB cos A c cos A c cos A

sin A sin AFE cos PFE cos PAE sin C F
E
c
EF = sin A cos A = a cosA P
sin C
90 C
B C
D
similarly DF = b cosB and DE = c cosC

Example 7:
.in
The base of a triangle is divided into three equal parts. If t1, t2 , t3 be the tangents of the angles
ps
subtended by these parts at the opposite vertex, prove that:
te

1 1 1 1 1
4 1 2
t1 t 2 t 2 t 3 t2
yS

Solution:
Let the points P and Q divide the side BC in three equal parts such that BP = PQ = QC = x
ud

A
Also let,
BAP = , PAQ = , QAC =

St

and AQC =
From question,
tan = t1, tan = t2, tan = t3.

Applying,
B C
m : n rule in triangle ABC, we get P Q

(2x + x) cot = 2x cot ( + ) x cot . . . (i)


from APC, we get
(x + x) cot = x cot x cot . . . (ii)
dividing (i) by (ii), we get
3 2 cot cot 4cot . cot 1
= or 3 cot cot =
2 cot cot cot cot
or 3 cot2 cot cot + 3 cot . cot cot . cot = 4 cot . cot 4
or 4 + 4 cot2 = cot2 + cot . cot + cot . cot + cot .cot

Page 29 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

or 4(1 + cot2 ) = (cot + cot )(cot + cot )

1 1 1 1 1
or 4 1 2 t t t t
t 2 1 2 2 3

Hence the result.


Example 8:
Perpendiculars are drawn from the angular points A, B and C of an acute angled ABC on the
oposite sides and produced to meet the circumscribing circle. If these produced parts be , and
respectively, show that
a b c
= 2 (tan A + tanB + tan C).

Solution :
Let AD be perpendicular from A on BC. When AD is produced, it meets the circumscribing circle at
E.
From question, DE = .
Since, angle in the same segment are equal,

.in
A
AEB = ACB = C and AEC = ABC = B
ps
From the right angled triangle BDE,
BD
tan C = . . . (i)
te

DE
From the right angled triangle CDE,
yS

D
B C
CD
tan B = . . . (ii) C B
DE
ud

a
St

Adding (i) and (ii) we get, tan B + tanC =



b C
Similarly tan C + tan A = and tan A + tan B =

a b c
Hence, = 2 (tan A + tan B + tan C)

Example 9:
If x, y, z are the distance of the vertices of the ABC respectively from the orthocentre then prove
a b c abc
that .
x y z xyz
Solution:
Let H be the orthocentre. Then
BHC = 180 HBC HCB
0

= 1800 (900 C) (900 B)


= B + C = A.

Page 30 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

1
ar( BHC) = BH. CH sin BHC
2
1 1
= yz sin ( A) = yzsinA. A
2 2
x
1
Similarly, ar( CHA) = zx sin B
2 H
z
y
1
ar( AHB) = xy sin C B C
2
1 1 1
ar( ABC) = yz sin A + zx sin B + xy sin C
2 2 2

1 sin A sin B sin C



=
2
xyz
x y z

1 1 a b c
= 2 xyz. 2R x y z . . . (i)

abc
, i.e., =
abc
.in
ps
Also, we know that R =
4 4R

a b c a b c abc
te

abc 1
(i) gives, = xyz x y z
x y z xyz .
4R 4R
yS

Example 10:
ud

Prove that in a ABC, R 2r..


Solution:
St

We have
r = 4R sin A/2 sin B/2 sin C/2
r
= sin A/2 sin B/2 sin C/2
4R
1
Also we know that sin A/2 sin B/2 sin C/2 ,
8
r 1
R 2r..
4R 8

Example 11:
Prove that in a triangle the sum of exradii exceeds the inradius by twice the diameter of the circumcircle.
Solution:
Let the exradii be r1, r2, r3 inradius be r and circumradius be R.
Then we have to prove that r1 + r2 + r3 = r + 4R.

Page 31 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles


Now, r1 + r2 + r3 r =
sa sb sc s

1 1 1 1
= s a s s b s c

a a
= ss a s b s c

s 2 s b c bc s 2 as
= a
s s a s b s c

2s 2 sa b c bc
= a
2

=
a


. 2s 2 2s 2 bc abc


4R R

abc
4

r1 + r2 + r3 = r + 4R.

Example 12:
.in
ps
If a, b, c are in A.P., prove that cos A cot A/2, cosB. cot B/2, cosCcot C/2 are in A.P.
Solution:
te

a, b, c are in A.P.
cotA/2, cot B/2, cotC/2 are in A.P.
yS

Now, cosA cotA/2, cosB cotB/2, cosC cotC/2 are


(1 2 sin2A/2) cotA/2, (1 2sin2 B/2) cotB/2, (1 2 sin2 C/2). cot C/2
ud

Now, cot A/2 sinA, cotB/2 sin B, cotC/2 sin C are in A.P. as cotA/2, cotB/2, cotC/2 are in
A.P. and sinA, sin B, sin C are in A.P.
St

So, cos A cot A/2, cosB. cot B/2, cosCcot C/2 are in A.P.

Example 13:
If r and R are radii of the incircle and circumcircle of a ABC, prove that
8r R {cos2A/2 + cos2 B/2 + cos2 C/2} = 2bc + 2ca + 2ab a2 b2 c2.
Solution:
abc
L.H.S. = 8 .
s 4

cos A / 2 =
2 abc
s

2 cos 2 A / 2
1 cos A
abc
=
s

abc b 2 c 2 a 2
= s 1 2bc

Page 32 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

abc 2bc b 2 c 2 a 2
= s 2bc

abc b c 2 a 2
= s 2bc

abc a b c b c a
=
s
2bc
,

where a + b + c = 2s

abc 2s b c a
=
s
2bc = a b c a ab bc a 2
= 2bc 2ca 2ab a 2 b 2 c 2
8rR{cos2A/2 + cos2 B/2 + cos2C/2}
= 2bc + 2ab + 2ca a2 b2 c2 .

Example 14:

.in
If t1, t2 and t3 are the lengths of the tangents drawn from centre of ex-circle to the circum circle of
the ABC, then prove that
ps
1 1 1 abc

t12 t2 2
t3 2 abc
te

Solution:
yS

Let S and I1 be respectively the centres of the circumcircle and the excircle touching BC. It can be
shown that
ud

SI1 R 2 2Rr1 In SI1 P , SI12 = R2 + t12


A
St

1 1
R2 + 2Rr1 = R2 + t12 ,
t12 2Rr1
S
R P

B C

Similarly 1 1 , 1 1
t 22 2Rr2 t 32 2Rr3
I1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2
2 2
t1 t2 t3 2R r1 r2 r3

1 s a s b s c 1 s s
=
2R = 2R 2R

abc
= proved
abc

Example 15:
If a, b and A are given in a triangle and c1, c2 are the possible values of the third side, prove that

Page 33 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

c12 c 22 2c1 c 2 cos A = 4a2 cos2 A


Solution:

b2 c2 a 2
We have cosA =
2bc
c 2bc cos A + b a2 = 0, which is quadratic in c
2 2

c1 c 2 2b cos A
. . . (i)
and c1c 2 b 2 a 2

c12 c 22 2c1c 2 cos 2A


(c1 + c2)2 2c1c2 2c1c2 cos 2A [using (i)]
2
(c1 + c2) 2c1c2 (1 + cos 2A)
4b2 cos2A 2(b2 a2). 2cos2A = 4a2 cos2A
c12 c 22 2c1c 2 cos A 4a 2 cos 2 A

.in
ps
te
yS
ud
St

Page 34 of 35 www.StudySteps.in
Solutions of Triangles

.in
ps
te
yS
ud
St

Page 35 of 35 www.StudySteps.in