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Control Systems I

Lecture 6
Compensation

Emam Fathy
email: emfmz@aast.edu

1
Introduction
A feedback control system that provides an optimum
performance without any necessary adjustment is rare.

In building a control system, we know that proper


modification of the plant dynamics may be a simple way to
meet the performance specifications.

This, however, may not be possible in many practical


situations because the plant may be fixed and not
modifiable.

Then we must adjust parameters other than those in the


fixed plant.
Introduction
It is then required to reconsider the structure of the
system and redesign the system.

The design problems, therefore, become those of


improving system performance by insertion of a
compensator.

Compensator: is an additional component or circuit


that is inserted into a control system to equalize or
compensate for a deficient performance.
Introduction
Necessities of compensation
A system may be unsatisfactory in
Stability.
Speed of response.
Steady-state error.

Thus the design of a system is concerned with the alteration


of the frequency response or the root locus of the system in
order to obtain a suitable system performance.
Compensation via Root Locus
Performance measures in the time domain:
Peak time;

Overshoot;

Settling time for a step input;

Steady-state error for test inputs

These performance specifications can be defined in


terms of the desirable location of the poles and zeros of
the closed-loop.
Root locus method can be used to find a suitable
compensator Gc(s) so that the resultant root locus results
in the desired closed-loop root configuration.
Compensation via Root Locus
The design by the root-locus method is based on reshaping
the root locus of the system by adding poles and zeros to
the systems open-loop transfer function and forcing the
root loci to pass through desired closed-loop poles in the s
plane.

The characteristic of the root-locus design is its being


based on the assumption that the closed-loop system has a
pair of dominant closed-loop poles.

This means that the effects of zeros and additional poles


do not affect the response characteristics very much.
Compensator Configurations
Compensation schemes commonly used for feedback
control systems are:

Series Compensation

Parallel Compensation
Compensator Configurations
The choice between series compensation and parallel
compensation depends on
the nature of the signals

the power levels at various points

available components

the designers experience

economic considerations and so on.


Commonly Used Compensators
Among the many kinds of compensators, widely
employed compensators are the
lead compensators

lag compensators

laglead compensators
Lead Compensation
Lead Compensation
Lead Compensation essentially yields an appreciable
improvement in transient response and a small change
in steady state accuracy.

There are many ways to realize lead compensators and


lag compensators, such as electronic networks using
operational amplifiers, electrical RC networks, and
mechanical spring-dashpot systems.
Lead Compensation
Generally Lead
compensators are
represented by
following transfer
function

+1
= , (0 < < 1)
+1
or
1
+

= 1 , (0 < < 1)
+

Electronic Lead Compensator
Following figure shows an electronic lead compensator using
operational amplifiers.

() 2 4 1 1 + 1
=
() 1 3 2 2 + 1
Electronic Lead Compensator
() 2 4 1 1 + 1
=
() 1 3 2 2 + 1
This can be represented as
1
() 4 1 + 1 1
=
() 3 2 + 1
Where, 2 2
4 1
= 1 1 = 2 2 =
3 2
Then, +
1

= 1 , (0 < < 1)
+

>
Electronic Lead Compensator
Pole-zero Configuration of
Lead Compensator

1 1 > 2 2
Lead Compensation Techniques Based
on the Root-Locus Approach.
The root-locus approach to design is very powerful
when the specifications are given in terms of time-
domain quantities, such as

damping ratio
undamped natural frequency
desired dominant closed-loop poles
maximum overshoot
rise time
settling time.
Lead Compensation Techniques Based
on the Root-Locus Approach.
The steps for designing a lead compensator using root-
locus:
Step-1: Analyze the given system via root locus.
Step-2: From the performance specifications,
determine the desired location for the dominant
closed-loop poles.
Step-3: design the compensator.
Step-4: check your design.
Example-1
Consider the position control system shown in following
figure.

It is desired to design an Electronic lead compensator Gc(s)


so that the dominant closed poles have the damping ratio
0.5 and undamped natural frequency 3 rad/sec.
Step-1 (Example-1)
Draw the root Locus plot of the given system.

10
G( s) H ( s)
s( s 1)

The closed loop transfer function


of the given system is:

C ( s) 10
2
R( s) s s 10

The closed loop poles are


s 0.5 j 3.1225
Example-1
Determine the characteristics of given system using root loci.

C ( s) 10
2
R( s) s s 10
The damping ratio of the closed-loop
poles is 0.158.
The undamped natural frequency of
the closed-loop poles is 3.1623
rad/sec.
Because the damping ratio is
small, this system will have a large
overshoot in the step response and
is not desirable.
Example-1
From the performance specifications, determine the
desired location for the dominant closed-loop poles.

Desired performance Specifications are:


It is desired to have damping ratio 0.5 and undamped natural
frequency 3 rad/sec.

C ( s) n2 9
2 2
R( s) s 2 n s n s 3s 9
2

s 1.5 j 2.5981
Example-1
Alternatively desired location of closed loop poles can also
be determined graphically
Desired n= 3 rad/sec
Desired
Desired damping ratio= 0.5 Closed Loop
Pole

cos 1
60

cos 1 (0.5) 60
Exampl-1
calculate the angle deficiency.
To calculate the angle of deficiency apply Angle Condition at desired
closed loop pole.

Desired Closed Loop Pole

s 1.5 j 2.5981

d 180 120 100 -2

-1
d 40
100o 120o

-2 -1
Note
The solution to such a problem is not unique.
There are infinitely many solutions.
Exampl-1 (solution 1)

-2

40
-1

90o

-3 -2 -1.5 -1

+ 1.5
= 1.03
+ 3.6
Example-1 (solution 2)

First, draw a horizontal line passing through point P (line PA).


Draw also a line connecting point P and the origin O.

P
A
-2

-1

O
-3 -2 -1
Example-1 (solution 2)
Bisect the angle between the lines PA and PO.

P
A

-2
2
2 -1

O
-3 -2 -1
Example-1 (solution 2)

Draw two lines PC and PD that make angles with the the
2
bisector PB.
The intersections of PC and PD with the negative real axis give the
necessary locations for the pole and zero of the lead network.

P
A
-2

d
d -1
2
2

O
-3 -2 -1
C
B
D
Example-1 (solution 2)
The lead compensator has zero at s=1.9432 and pole at s=4.6458.

P
A
-2

d
d -1
2
2

O
-3 -2 -1
C
B
D

Thus, Gc(s) can be given as

1
+ +1.9432
= 1 =
+ +4.6458
Example-1 (solution 2)
The Kc is calculated as

= 1.2287
Hence, the lead compensator Gc(s) just designed is given
by
+ 1.9432
= 1.2287
+ 4.6458
Example-1 (solution 2)

Desired Desired
Closed Loop Closed Loop
Pole Pole

Uncompensated Compensated
System System
Example-1 (solution 2)
It is worthwhile to check the static velocity error
constant Kv for the system just designed.

= lim ()
0

+ 1.9432 10
= lim 1.2287 = 5.139
0 + 4.6458 ( + 1)

Steady state error is


1 1
= = = 0.194
5.139
Example-1 (solution 2)
Step Response
1.4
Actual System
1.2 Solution-3

1
Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Time (sec)
Step Response
1.4
Actual System
1.2 Solution-1
Solution-3
1
Amplitude

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Example-2
Consider the model of space vehicle control system
depicted in following figure.

Design an Electrical lead compensator such that the


damping ratio and natural undamped frequency of
dominant closed loop poles are 0.5 and 2 rad/sec.
Lag Compensation

39
Lag Compensation
Lag compensation is used to improve the steady state error
of the system.
Generally Lag compensators are represented by following
transfer function
+1
= , ( > 1)
+1
Or 1
+

= 1 , ( > 1)
+

Where is gain of lag compensator.

40
Example-4
Consider the system shown in following figure.

The damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles is


0.491. The undamped natural frequency of the dominant
closed-loop poles is 0.673 rad/sec. The static velocity error
constant is 0.53 sec1.
It is desired to increase the static velocity error constant Kv to
about 5 sec1 without appreciably changing the location of
the dominant closed-loop poles.
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Example-4
The dominant closed-loop poles of given system are

s = -0.3307 j0.5864

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Example-4
The static velocity error constant of the plant ( ) is

1.06
= lim() = lim = 0.53 1
0 0 +1 +2
The desired static velocity error constant ( ) of the
compensated system is 5 1 .

5
= =
0.53 = 10

1
+

= 1 =
+
50
Example-4 (solution 1)
Let the zero s=0.05 so the pole s=0.005.

The transfer function of the lag compensator becomes


+0.05
=
+0.005
Open loop transfer function is given as

+0.05 1.06
()=
+0.005 (+1)(+2)

1.06(+0.05)
()=
(+0.005)(+1)(+2)
51
Example-4 (solution 1)
Root locus of uncompensated and compensated systems.

New Closed Loop poles


are

= 0.31 0.55

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Example-4 (Design Check)
The compensated system has following open loop transfer
function.
1.0235(+0.05)
()=
(+0.005)(+1)(+2)

Static velocity error constant is calculated as


= lim ()
0
1.0235 + 0.05
= lim [ ]
0 + 0.005 + 1 + 2

1.0235 0.05
= = 5.12 1
0.005 1 2
55
Example-4 (solution 2)
Place the zero and pole of the lag compensator at s=0.01
and s=0.001, respectively.

The transfer function of the lag compensator becomes


+0.01
=
+0.001
Open loop transfer function is given as
+0.01 1.06
()=
+0.001 (+1)(+2)
(+0.01)
()=
(+0.001)(+1)(+2)

= 1.06 56
Example-4 (Step-5) Solution-2

Root locus of uncompensated and compensated systems.

Root Locus
6
New Closed Loop poles Actual System
are 4 Compensated System

= 0.33 0.55 2
Imaginary Axis

-2

-4

-6
-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4
Real Axis 57
Example-5
Design a lag compensator for following unity
feedback system such that the static velocity error
constant is 50 sec-1 without appreciably changing the
closed loop poles, which are at = 2 6.

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End of Lec