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Titration

June11,2014
Period2















PreLabQuestions:
1.Aneutralizationiswhenanacidandbasereacttogethertoformasalt.
2.Acolorimetricindicatorisusedtotesttheconcentrationofacoloredcompoundinasolutionby
measuringitsabsorbanceofaspecificwavelengthoflight.
3.Atitrationendpointreferstoasituationwheretheindicatorchangescolorwhereasthereaction
endpointitwhenexactlyequalstoichiometricquantitiesoftheacidandbaseshavebeenmixedand
reactedtogether.
4.Thechoiceofcolorimetricindicatorusedinanacidbasetitrationissoimportantbecauseitdepends
onthetypeofacidandbaseused.Forstrongacidvsstrongbase,phenolphthaleincanbeusedasan
indicator.Forweakacidsversusstrongbases,phenolphthaleincanbeusedasanindicator.Forstrong
acidsorweakbases,methylorangecanbeusedasanindicator.
5.Ifyouhaveanaccidentatyourlaboratorybenchandspilltitrantonthebenchtop,thebestwayto
cleanitupsafelyisbycleaningalltheequipmentandthoroughlywashinganddryingthebench.

Purpose
Thepurposeofthislabistodeterminetheconcentrationofaceticacidinvinegarbytitration.Theresult
willbeexpressedasaweighttoweightpercentage(w/w%)andcomparedtotheinformationgivenon
themanufacturerslabel.

Introduction
Vinegarisacommoningredientusedincooking.Althoughtherearemanydifferenttypesofvinegar,all
typesofvinegarcontainaceticacid.Indeed,inordertobearthenamevinegar,thesolutionmuchbe
5%aceticacidinwaterbyweight.Examinationoftheproductlabelonanybottleofvinegarwillshow
thatthemanufacturerstatesthattheacidcontentis5%.
Titrationisacommonlaboratorytechniqueusedtoverifyordetermineconcentration.Titrationisa
volumetrictechniquewhereinavolumeofasolutionofknownconcentrationisreactedwithasolutionof
unknownconcentrationinordertoestablishtheconcentrationofestablishtheconcentrationofthe
unknown.Inthisexperiment,standardsodiumhydroxide,astrongbase,willbeusedtoassayvinegar
fortheconcentrationofaceticacid.Sincetheresultsfromthetitrationarebasedonvolume,some
calculationwillberequiredtoestablishtheresultsoftheassayasweightpercent.

Materials
50mLburet
ringstandwithburetclamp
10mLgraduatedcylinder
125mLErlenmeyerflask
two100mLbeakers
(about)70mL0.50MNaOH
1%phenolphthaleinindicatorinadropperbottle
distilledwaterinasquirtbottle

Procedure
BesuretorecordalldataintheDATATABLE.
1. Rinsea50mLburetthreetimeswithseveralmLofdistilledwater.Useawashbottleof100
mLbeakertotransferthewater.
2. Obtain6070mLof0.50MNaOHina100mLbeaker.
3. RinsetheburettwicewithseveralmLoftitrant.Usea100mLbeaker
4. Filltheburetwith0.50MNaOH.DrainasmallamountoftheNaOHbackintothebeakerto
ensurenobubblesaretrapped.
5. Pipet10mLofvinegarintoagraduatedcylinder.Recordinthedatatable.
6. Transferinto125mLErlenmeyerflask.
7. Add2dropsphenolphthaleinindicator.
8. Recordtheinitialvolumeoftheburetinthedatatable.Buretsarereadfromtopdown.
9. CarefullyaddNaOHfromtheburetintotheflaskcontainingthevinegaruntilacolorchange
occurs.Addthetitrantdropwisewhentheendpointisnear.Thecolorchangewillbefrom
colorlesstopink.Thefirsttitrationshouldbedonequicklytogetanideaofthevolumeneeded
toreachtheendpoint.
10. Recordthefinalvolumeoftheburetinthedatatable.
11. Disposeofthepinksolutionintheflaskdownthedrain.
12. Repeattheprocedure.YoumaynotneedtorefilltheburetifenoughNaOHremainsto
completethetrial.Thegraduatedcylindershouldberinsedwithvinegartogetridofthewater
fromthefirsttransferbeforemeasuringthesecondsample.Thesecondtrialshouldbedone
verycarefully.TheendpointhasbeenreachedwhenasingledropofNaOHresultsin
permanentlightpinksolution.
13. Repeatuntilyouhave2trialswheretheendpointwasreachedwithasingledrop.
14. DisposeofanyexcessNaOHdownthedrainwhenyouhavecompletedyourlabwork.The
NaOHsolutionshouldnotbereturnedtothereagentbottle.






RESULTS/DATA

DATATABLE:
1stTrial 2ndTrial 3rdTrial

Volumeofvinegar 10mL 10mL 10mL


MolarityofNaOH 0.5mL 0.5mL 0.5mL

InitialBuretReading 0mL 10.5mL 9.7mL

FinalBuretReading 10.5mL 20.2mL 30mL

VolumeofNaOHused 10.5mL 9.7mL 9.8mL


CALCULATIONSTABLE(filloutaftercompletingcalculationssheet)

2ndTrial 3rdtrial

MolesofNaOH(#2) 0.00485moles 0.0049moles

Molesofaceticacid(#3) 0.00485moles 0.0049moles

Molarityofaceticacidin 0.485M 0.49<


solution(#4)

Massofaceticacidinsample 0.291grams 0.294grams


(#5)

%(mass)ofaceticacid(#7) 2.91% 2.94%

AVG:%massofaceticacid 2.925% 2.925%


(#8)

%error(#9) 41.5% 41.5%

1.HCHO+NaOH HO+NaCHO

moles
2. M olarity = volume
m
Trial2: 0.5 = 0.0097
m=0.00485

m
Trial3: 0.5 = 0.0098
m=0.0049

3.1:1ratiothereforesameas#2
Trial2:0.00485
Trial3:0.0049

moles
4. M olarity = volume
Trial2: M = 0.004850.01
M=0.485

Trial3: M = 0.00490.01
M=0.49

g
5. M olarity = gmuL
g
Trial2: 0.485 = 600.01
g=0.291

g
Trial2: 0.49 = 600.01
g=0.294

6.Mass=DensityVolume
Trial2,Trial3:110=10g

7.(Mass/TotalMass)100
Trial2:(0.291/10)100=2.91%

Trial3:(0.294/10)100=2.94%

8.Average=(a+b)/2
2.91+2.94=5.85
5.852=2.925%

9.%Error= ||#actual#theoretical
theoretical
| 100
|
| 2.0755 | 100
| 5 |
| 2.015 | 100
| 5 |
0.415 100
41.5%error

Observations
AtfirstwhenNaOHisaddedtothevinegarandindicator,thesolutiondidnotchangecolor.
Afterwardsthecolorchangestoalightpinkwhichfacesawaywhenmixed.Whentherightamountof
NaOHisadded,thesolutionstaysabrightpink.
Calculations:
1. Writetheexplanationfortheneutralizationofaceticacidbysodiumhydroxide.
2. DeterminethenumberofmolesofNaOHusedtoneutralizetheaceticacidinthe
vinegarinthetrialsthatendedwithasingledropattheendpoint(theseareacceptable
trials).
3. HowmanymolesofaceticacidwereneutralizedbytheNaOHineachacceptabletrial?
4. Determinethemolarityoftheaceticacidinthesolutionineachacceptabletrial.
5. Calculatethemassofaceticacidinthesampleofvinegarforeachacceptabletrial.
6. Foreachacceptabletrial,calculatethemassofthevinegarusedassumethedensityis
1.0gper1.0mL.
7. Calculatethemasspercentageofaceticacidfromtheacceptabletrials.
8. Findtheaveragethemasspercentageofaceticacidfromtheacceptabletrials.
9. Theaceticacidmasspercentageonthevinegarlabelis5%.Assumingthisiscorrect,
whatisthepercenterrorofyourexperimentalresult?Youranswerhaveonsignificant
figure.

PostLabQuestions:
1. Thephenolphthaleinchangeincolorfromclearandcolorlesstopinkattheendofeachtitration
tellsyouthereactionbetweenthesodiumhydroxidesolutionandtheaceticacidinthevinegar
hasreacheditsendpoint.
2. Itwasimportanttoperformseveraltrialsduringthisexperimenttoreceiveaccurateresultsand
calculations.Thefirsttrialwasusedtoobtainanideaofapproximatelyhowmuchvolumeis
neededtoreachtheendpoint.Thetrialsafterthatshouldbeaccurate.
3. If0.5MCa(OH)wereusedinsteadof0.5MNaOH,thevolumeneededtoreachthe
endpointineachtitrationwouldhavechangedsinceCa(OH)containsonemoreOHionthan
NaOH.Theseionsareresponsibleforcausingtheneutralizationprocess,thereforelesstitrant
wouldhavebeenrequiredtoreachtheendpoint.


CONCLUSION
Theexperimentteachesstudentshowtodeterminetheconcentrationofaceticacidthroughthe
laboratorytechniqueoftitration.Studentslearnhowtouseandreadaburet.Theexperimentreinforces
knowledgeonhowtoexpressresultswithinequationslikeweight/weightpercentandpercenterror.