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A major PROJECT REPORT

ON
national HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTIONS
Session 2009-13

Under guidance of
Er. S.K.Gupta

H.O.D (CIVIL ENGINEERING)


SUBMITTED BY
CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA (0307CE091017)

ABHINAV JAISWAL (0307CE091001)

AMAR DEEP GAUTAM (0307CE091006)

PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA (0307CE091030)

PAWAN GAUTAM (0307CE091029)

SUBMITTED TO

Er. S.K.Gupta
H.O.D (CIVIL ENGINEERING)
ADITYA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

SATNA (M.P.)
1
Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal(M.P)
Aditya College of Technology & Science
Satna (M.P)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled as national


HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTIONS which has been completed &
submitted by CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA , ABHINAV JAISWAL, AMAR DEEP
GAUTAM , PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA , PAWAN GAUTAM in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor
of Engineering in CIVIL ENGINEERING for the session 2009-
2013 is a bonafied work by them and has been completed under my
guidance and supervision. It has not been submitted elsewhere for any
other degree.

H.O.D Principal Guided By


Er.S.K.Gupta Dr.J.S. Parihar Er.S.K.GUPTA
(Civil Engg)

2
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, BHOPAL(M.P)
Aditya College of Technology & Science
Satna (M.P)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project entitled as national

HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTIONS which has been completed &


submitted by CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA , ABHINAV JAISWAL, AMAR DEEP
GAUTAM , PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA , PAWAN GAUTAM in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor
of Engineering in CIVIL ENGINEERING for the session 2009-
2013.

(External Examiner) (Internal Examiner)


3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A Project report like this one involves many people and would be
incomplete without the mention of all those people whose guidance and
encouragement helped in the successful completion of this report.
Our heartily thanks to all faculty members of Department of
CIVIL ENGINEERING ,Aditya College of Technology & Science,
Satna for their effort towards our report.
I would like to thanks our H.O.D ER. S.K. GUPTA who has been
a great source of inspiration for us and without whose humble guidance
the report was never to shape.
I am also thankful to many people whose timely help but paucity
of space is restricting us from mentioning their name. And finally we also
thank to all my colleagues who were constant support during the whole
report.

CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA (0307CE091017)

ABHINAV JAISWAL (0307CE091001)

AMAR DEEP GAUTAM (0307CE091006)

PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA (0307CE091030)

PAWAN GAUTAM (0307CE091029)

4
DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the work which is being presented in the


Training report entitled national HIGHWAY

CONSTRUCTIONSin partial fulfillment of the requirement of the


degree of Bachelor of Engineering in CIVIL ENGINEERING
branch is an authentic record of our work carried out under the
guidance of ER. S.K.GUPTA . The work has been carried out at
Aditya College of Technology & Science, Satna.

CHANDRADEEP SHUKLA (0307CE091017)

ABHINAV JAISWAL (0307CE091001)


AMAR DEEP GAUTAM (0307CE091006)

PRAKASH NARAYAN MISHRA (0307CE091030)

PAWAN GAUTAM (0307CE091029)

5
INTRODUCTION

6
In a National Highway project, the engineer has to

plan, design and construct either a network of new

roads or road link.

Once a highway is constructed, development takes along the

adjoining land and subsequent changes in alignment in geometric

standards become very difficult. A badly aligned highway is not

only a source of potential traffic hazard, but also causes a

considerable increase in transportation cost and strain on the

drivers and the passengers. Therefore, proper investigation and

planning are most important in a road project, keeping in view

the present day needs as well as the future development of the

region

7
NATIONAL HIGHWAY

PROJECT

DEFINITIONS

8
In the contract the following words and expressions shall

have the meanings here by assigned to them, except

where the context otherwise requires:

(i) A BOLLARD is a short vertical post typically found

where large ships docks. While originally it only meant a

post used on a quick for mooring, the word now also

describes a variety of structure to control or direct road

traffic. The term may be related to bole, meaning the

lower trunk of a tree.

9
(ii) A BYEPASS is a road or highway that avoids or

bypasses a built up area, town, or village, to let

through traffic flow without interference from local

traffic, to reduce congestion in the built up area, and to

improve road safety.

If there are no strong land use controls, buildings are

built a bypass, converting it into an ordinary town road,

and the bypass may eventually become as congested as

the local streets it was intended to avoid.

(iii) A CURB or KERB is the edge where a raised

pavement/footpath, road median, or road shoulder meets

an unraised street or other roadway. Typically made from

concrete, asphalt, or long stones, the purpose is twofold:

first as a gutter for proper drainage of the roadway, and

10
second for safety, to keep motorist from driving into the

shoulder, median, sidewalk, or pavement.

(iv) EMPLOYERS means the person named as such in

part II of these conditions and the legal successors in

title to such person. But not any assignee of such

person.

(V) CONTRACTOR means the person whose tender has

been accepted by the employer and the legal successors in

title to such person. But not any assignee of such

person.

Contract means the conditions, the specification,

the drawings, the bill of quantity, the tender, the

letter of acceptance; the contract agreement and

such further documents as may be expressly

11
incorporated in Letter of Acceptance or Contract

Agreement.

Specifications means the specification of the work

included in the contract and any modification

therefore or addition.

Drawings means all drawings, calculations and

technical information of a like nature provided by

the Engineer to the contractor under the contract

and all drawings, Calculations, Samples, Pattern,

Models, Operations and maintenance, manuals and

other technical information of a like nature

submitted by the contractor and approved by the

Engineer.

Bill of Quantities means the priced and completed

bill of quantities forming part of tender.

12
Section means a part of the works specifically

identified in the Contract as a section.

Site means the places provided by the Employer

where the works are to be executed and any other

places as may be specifically designated in the

Contract as forming part of the site.

13
SETTING OUT

14
The contractor shall establish working Bench marks tied

with the reference Bench Mark in the soon after taking

possession of the site. The reference Bench Mark for the

area shall be as indicated in the contract document of

the values of the same shall be obtained by the

Contractor from the Engineer. The working bench mark

shall be at rate of 4 per km and also at or near all

drainage structures, over bridges and under passes. The

working Bench Mark/levels should be got approved from

the Engineer. Check must be based on this Bench Mark

once every month and adjustments, if any, got agreed

15
with the Engineer and recorded. An up-to-date record of

all Bench Mark including approved adjustments, if any,

shall be maintained by the contractor and also a copy

supplied to the Engineer for his record.

The lines and levels of formation, side slopes, drainage

works, carriageways and shoulders shall be carefully set

out and frequently checked, care being taken to ensure

that correct gradients and cross sections are obtained

everywhere.

In order to facilitate the setting out of the works, the

centreline of the highway must be accurately established

by the contractor and approved by the engineer. It must

then be accurately referenced in a manner satisfactory to

the engineer, every 50m intervals in plain and rolling

terrains and 20m intervals in highly terrain and in all

curve point as directed by the engineer, with marker pegs

16
and chainage boards sets in or near the fence line, and

schedule of reference dimensions shall be prepared and

supplied by the Contractor to the Engineer. These

markers shall be maintained until the works reach finished

formation levels are accepted by the Engineer.

On construction reaching the formation level stage, the

centre line again be set out by the contractor and when

approved by the Engineer, shall be accurately referenced

in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer by markers pegs

set at the outer limits of the formation.

No marker pegs or markers shall be moved without the

approval of the Engineer and and no earth work shall be

commenced until the centre line has been referenced.

The contractor will be the sole responsible party for

safeguarding all survey monuments, bench marks, etc. The

Engineer will provide the Contractor necessary for setting

17
out of the centre line. All dimensions and levels shown on

the drawing or mentioned in documents forming part of

the or issued under the contract shall be verified by the

Contractor on the site and he shall immediately inform

the engineer of any apparent error in such dimensions.

The Contractor shall in connection with the staking out

of the canter line, survey the terrain along the road and

shall submit the engineer for his approval, a profile along

the road centre line and cross section at intervals as

required by the Engineer.

After obtaining approval of the engineer, work on

earthwork can commence and the profile and cross section

shall from the basis for measurements and payments.

The work of setting out shall be deemed to be a part of

general works preparatory to the execution of work and

no separate payments shall be made for the same..

18
19
TEST DONE IN

PROJECT

LABORATORY

TEST ON SUB GRADE SOIL

(I) GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION:

20
Most of the method for the soil identification and

classification are based on certain physical properties of

the soil. The commonly used properties for the

classification are the grain size distribution liquid limit

and plasticity index. These properties have also been used

in empirical design method for flexible pavement; and in

deciding the suitable of sub grad soil.

Grain size analysis also known as mechanical analysis of

soil is the determination of the percent of individual

grain size present in the sample. The results of the test

are of great value in soil classification. In mechanical

stabilization of soil and for designing soil aggregates

mixture the result of gradation test are used .correlation

have also made between the grain size distribution of soil

and the general soil behavior as the sub grade material

and the performance such as susceptibility to frost

21
action, pumping of rigid pavement etc.also permeability

characteristics, bearing capacity and some other

properties, are approximately estimated based on grain

size distribution of the soil. The soil is generally divided

into four parts on the particle size. The fraction of the

soil which is larger than 2.00 mm size is called gravel,

between 2.00 mm and 0.06 mm is sand 0.002mm silt

and that is smaller than 0.002 mm size is clay. Two

type of sieves are available, one type with square

perforation on plate to sieves course aggregate and

gravel, the other type being mesh sieves made of woven

wire mesh to sieves finer particle such fine aggregate and

soil fraction consisting of sand silt and clay. However the

sieves opening of the smallest mesh sieves commonly

available is about 0.075 mm, which is commonly known

as 200 mesh sieves therefore all soil particle consisting of

silt and clay which are smaller than 0.06 mm size will

22
pass through the fine mesh sieves with 0.075 mm

opening. Therefore the grain size analysis of course

fraction of soil is carried out using sieves the principle of

sedimentation in water.

The sieves analysis is a simple test consisting of sieving a

measured quantity of material through successively

smaller sieves. The weight retain on each sieves. The

weight retain on each sieve is expressed as a percentage

of the total sample. The sediment principle has been used

for finding the grain size distribution of fine fraction;

two methods are commonly used pipette method and the

hydrometer method.

The grain size distribution of soil particle of size greater

than 63 micron is determine by sieving the soil on set

of sieves of decreasing sieve opening placed one below the

other and separating out the different size ranges.

23
APPARATUS:

Various apparatus set of standard sieves of different

sieves size, balance, and rubber covered pestle mortar,

oven, riffle, sieves shaker.

Procedure

For the fraction retained on 2.0 mm sieves.

Sufficient quantity of dry soil retained on 2.0 mm

sieves is weighed out. The quantity of sample taken

may be increased when the maximum size of particle

is higher. The sample separated into various fraction

by sieving through the set of sieves of size100, 63,

20, 6, 4.75, and 2 mm is sieves. After initial

sieves, material retained on each sieves carefully

collected and weighed.

For fraction passing 2.0 mm sieves and retained on

0.63 mm size.

24
The required quantity of soil sample is taken by

riffling or quartering method, dried in oven at 105

to 110 c and is subjected to dry sieves analysis using

a set of sieves with sieves opening 2.0, 0.6, 0.425,

0.15, and 0.075 mm, pan lid. The material collected

on the each sieves and on the pan are separately

collected and weighed.

CALCULATION:

The weight of dry soil fraction retained on each sieve is

calculated as a percentage of the total dry weight of the

sample taken. The gravel, sand , silt ,and clay contain in

percentage.

RESULT:

25
The gravel, silt sand clay contents are marked as result.

26
(II) CONSISTENCY LIMITS &

INDICES

The physical properties of fine grained soil, especially of

clay differ much at different water content. Clay may be

almost in liquid state, or it may snow plastic behavior or

may be very stiff depending on the moisture content.

Plasticity is a property of outstanding importance for

clayey soil, which may be explained as the ability to

undergo changes in shape without rupture.

27
Liquid limit it may be defined as the minimum content

at which soil will flow under the application of a very

small shearing force. The liquid limit is usually determined

in the laboratory using mechanical device.

Plastic limit may define in general term, as minimum

terms, as minimum moisture content at which the soil

remain in a plastic state. The lower limit is arbitrarily

defined and determined in the laboratory by prescribed

test procedure.

Plastic index is defined as the numerical difference

between the liquid and plastic limit.

p.i thus indicates the range of moisture content over

which the soil in plastic condition.

28
Consistency limit and plasticity index vary for different

type. Hence properties are generally used in the

identification and classification of soil

LIQUID LIMIT TEST:

Liquid limit is the moisture content at which 25 blow in

standard liquid limit apparatus will just close a groove of

standardized dimension cut in the sample by grooving tool

by a specified amount.

APPARATUS:

Mechanical liquid limit device consists of a cup and

arrangement for raising and dropping through a specified

height, grooving tool. Other apparatus include spatula,

moisture containers, and balance of capacity 200g

sensitive to0.01 g oven to maintain 105 to110c.

29
PROCEDURE:

About 120 g of dry pulverized soil sample passing 425

micron sieve is weighted, and mixed thoroughly with

distilled water in the evaporating dish to from a uniform

thick paste. The liquid limit device is adjusted to have a

free fall of cup through 10mm.a portion of the paste is

placed above the lowest spot, and squeezed down with

the spatula to have a horizontal surface . the specimen is

trimmed by firm strokes of spatula in a such a way that

the maximum depth of soil sample in the cup is 10 mm.

the soil in the cup is divided along the diameter through

the center line pf the cam followed by firm strokes of

the grooving tool. So as to get a clean and sharp groove.

The crank is rotated at the rated at the rate of two

revolutions per second by hand so that the cup is lifted

and dropped. This continued till the two halves of the

30
soil cake come in to contact at the bottom of the

groove along a distance of 10 mm, and the number of

blows given is recorded . a representative soil is taken,

placed in moisture container, lid placed over it and

weighed. The container in dried in oven and the dry

weight determined the next day for finding the moisture

content of the soil. The operations are repeated for at

least three more trial with slightly increased moisture

content each time, nothing the number of blows so that

there at least four uniformly distribute reading of

number of blows between 10 and 40 blows.

CALCULATION:

the flow index The flow cure is plotted by taking the

number of blows in the log scale on the x-axis, and the

water content in arithmetic scale on the y-axis, of

format sheet .the flow curve is straight line drawn on

31
semi-logrithmetic plot. The moisture content

corresponding to 25 blow is read from this curve

rounding off the nearest whole number and is reported as

the liquid w1 of the soil. The slope of the straight line

flow cure is flow index. It may be calculated from the

following formula;

For index, If= = =w

Hence if the flow curve is extrapolated and moisture

w10 and w100 corresponding to 10and 100 blows

respectively are found, then the difference in these

water content would give of the soil.

32
PLASTIC LIMIT TEST

Plastic limit is the moisture content at which a soil when

rolled in to thread of smallest diameter possible, start

crumbling and has diameter of 3 mm.

APPARATUS:

Evaporating dish, spatula, glass plate, moisture

containers, rod of 3 mm diameter , balance sensitive to

0.01 g, drying oven controlled at temperature 105

to110c.

33
PROCEDURE:

About 20 g of dry, pulverized soil passing 425 micron IS

sieve is weighed out. The soil is mixed thoroughly with

distilled water in the evaporating dish till the soil paste

is plastic enough to be easily molded with fingers. A small

ball is formed glass plate to a thread. The pressure just

sufficient to roll into a thread of uniform diameter

should be used. The rate of rolling should be between 80

and 90 strokes per minute counting a stroke as one

complete motion of hand forward and back to starting

position again. The rolling is done till the diameterof thread is 3

mm . then the soil is kneaded together to a ball and

roller again to from therad this process of alternate

rolling and kneading is continude untill the thread. This

process of alternate rolling and kneading is continude until

34
th ethread crumbles under prassure required for rolling

and the soil can no longer to roll into a thread.

If the crumbling start at diameter less than 3 mm, then

moisture content is more than the plastic limit and if

the diameter is greater while crumbling starts, the

moisture content is lower.

CALCULATION:

The plastic limit (w0) is expressed as a whole number by

obtaining the mean of the moisture content of the

plastic limit.

Plastic index is calculated as the diffrence between liquid

limit and plastic limit.

Plastic index = liquid limit plastic limit

W1-wp

35
(III)

COMPACTION TEST

36
Compaction of soil is a mechanical process by which by

which the soil partical are constrained to be packed more

closley together by reducing the air void. Soil compaction

causes decreases ia air void and consequently an increase

in dry density. This may result in increase in shearing

strength., the possible of future settelment or

compressibility decrease. Degree of compaction is usually

measured quantitativily nby dry density.

APPARATUS:

(a) Cylindrical mould of capacity 1000 cc. with an

internal diameter of 10 cm and height 12.73 cm. the

mould is fitted with a detachable base plate and

removable collar extension of about 6 cm hight.

37
(b) For the light compaction, a metal rammer having 5

cmdiameter circular face, and weight 2.6 kg is used

which has drop oif 31 cm.

For heavy compaction, the rammer has 5 cm diameter

circular face, but havin g weight 4.89 kh free

drop of 45 cm.

(c) Steel straight edge having behaving beveled edge for

trimming top of the specimen.

(d) Other accessories include moisture container, balance

of capacity 10kg and 200kg, oven, sieves, mixing tools.

PROCEDURE:

In case of soil sample has particle bigger than 4075 mm

sieve, about 20 kg of the representstive soil is air dried,

mixed pulerized and sieved through 20 mm and 4.75 m

sieve is not use in the test the percentage passing 20

mm sieve and retained on 4075 mm sieve is noted and if

38
this is less than 20 percen this sample is used as such.

It is more than this phenomenon is repeated. In case the

sample passes 4075 sieves, than the bdry pulverized

sample is sieved through 4.75 mm sieve and the portion

passing this sievesis only used for the test. About 16 kg

of dry soil in total may be neccessery for the compaction

test in the 1000 cc mould. For compaction the soil in

the mould every time the required quantity quantity will

depend on the soil type, size of mould, moisture content

and amount of compaction. As arough guidance, for each

test 2.5 kg of soil may taken for light compaction. As

arough guidance, for each test 2.8 kg for heavy

compaction, and than the required water ia added. The

estimated weight to be added to the soil every time may

be measured in in a jet graduated in cc. enough water is

added to to the specimen to bearing the moisture

content to about 7% less than the estimated o.m.c. for

39
sandy soil and 10% less for clay soils. The processed soil

stored in an air tight container for about 10 to 20

enable moisture to spread uniform in the soil mass.

The mould with base fitted in is weighed. The process

soil water mixture throughly and divided into eight equal

part.

(1) For light compaction the wet soil is compacted

into the mould in three equal layers, each layer being

25 blow of the 2.6kg rammer.

(2) For heavy compaction the wet soil mix is

compacted in the mould in five equal layer being 25

bloq of 4.89 kg hammer.

The blow should be uniform ly disributed over the surface

of each layer. Each layer of the compacted soil is scored

with a spatula before placing the soil for the succeeding.

The amount of the soil used should be just sufficient to

40
fill the mould leaving about 5 mm to strike off on the

top after compacting the final layer.

The coller is removed and the compacted soil is leveled to

th top of the mould by mean of straight edge. The

mould and the soil are then weighed. The soil is then

ejected out of the mould and cut in the middle and a

representative specimen is determine by finding the wet

weight, keeping in the oven at 105c to 110c and finding

the dry weight the next day.

CALCULATION:

Let weight of mould copacted soil be = W1 g

Weight of empty mould =W2 g

Volume of mould = W

Wet density = g/cc

41
Then dry density = ( )

RESULT:

The result are dry density and wet density.

42
CALIFORNIA BEARING

RATIO TEST

INTRODUCTION:

The California bearing ratio (CBR) test was developed by

the California division of highway as a method of

classification and evaluating soil-subgrade and base course

material for flexible pavements. Just after world war-2,

the U.S.Crops of engineers adopted the C.B.R. test for

use in designing base course for air field pavement. The

test is empirical and result can not be related accurately

with any fundamental property of the material. The CBR

43
is a measure of resistance of a material to penetration of

a standard plunger under controlled density and moisture

conditions. The test procedure should be strictly adhered

if high degree of reproducibility is desired. The CBR test

may be conducted in remould or undisturbed specimen in

the laboratory. U.S. crops of engineers have also

recommended a test procedure for in-situ test. Many

methods exist today which utilize mainly CBR test value

for designing pavement structures. The test is simple and

has been extensive investigated for field correlation of

flexible pavement thickness requirement briefly, the test

consist of causing a cylindrical plunger of diameter 50

mm to penetrate component material at 1.25

mm/minute. The loads, for 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm are

recorded. This load is expressed as a percentage of

standard load value at a respective deformation level to

obtain CBR value.

44
APPARATUS:

Loading machine: Any compression machine which can

operate at a constant rate of 1.25 mm/minute can be

used for this purpose. If such machine is not available

then a calibrate hydraulic press with proving ring to

measure load can be used. A metal penetration piston or

plunger of a diameter 50 mm is attached to the loading

machine.

Cylindrical moulds: Mould of 150 mm diameter and 175

mm height provided with a collar of about 50 mm

length and detachable perforated and base are used for

this purpose. A spacer disc of 148 mm diameter and

47.7 mm thickness is used to obtain a exactly 127.3

mm height

45
Compaction rammer: The material is usually compacted

as specified for the work, either by dynamic

compaction or ISI are given in table bellow:-

TYPE OF NUMBER WEIGHT FALL, NUMBER

COMPACTION OF OF cm OF

LAYERS HAMMER, BLOWS

Kg

Light 3 2.6 31 56

compaction

Heavy 5 4.89 45 56

compaction

Adjustable stem, perforated plate, tripod and dial

gauge: the standard procedure require that the soil

sample before testing should be soaked in water to

measure swelling.

Annular weight: in order to stimulate the effect of

the overlying pavement weight, annular weight each of

2.5 kg and 147 mm diameter are placed on the top of


46
the specimen, both at the time of soaking and testing

the sample, as surcharge.

Beside above equipment, coarse filte r paper, sieves,

oven, balance, etc. Required

47
TEST ON

CEMENT

48
(1) FINENESS TEST:

INTRODUCTION:

The object of this is to check the proper grinding of

cement. The rate of hydration depends on the fineness

of cement. The finer is the cement, the earlier the

hydration and the faster and greater is the gaining of

strength. This because of hydration starts at the surface.

Larger the surface area (i.e. finer the cement), faster

will be hydration. However, very fine cement is

susceptible to air set and deteriorates earlier. The

grinding of cement shall be as fine as to conform to the

standard specification and also shall be uniformly fine .If

the cement is not uniformly fine, the concrete made out

of it will have poor workability and will require a large

quantity of water while mixing. Also bleeding of concrete

49
can occur i.e. even before the concrete is set , water will

come out of the surface due to the settlement of

concrete particle. To check the fineness of the cement

IS: 4031-1998 gives three methods:

By drying sieving.

1. Blaine air permeability method.

2. By wet sieving.

First method is used to find the fineness of cement in

the project laboratory.

DRY SIEVING METHOD:

The fineness of the cement depends on the particle size

distribution. A small mass of fine cement may have

surface area have large surface area than a large mass of

50
coarser particle of cement. It is therefore necessary to

reduce the percentage of coarse particles to get require

fineness of cement .In this test mass of coarser cement

particle is found out which is limited to specified

percentage for various cements as per respective Indian

standard. Take 100g of various cements from samples and

breakdown any air set lumps with finger. Place it on a

standard IS sieve no.9. Continuously sieve the sample

with a gentle wrist motion for 15 minutes. The mass of

residue shall not exceed 10g in case of ordinary Portland

cement and 5g in case of rapid hardening cement.

CALCULATION AND RESULT:

The weight of cement retained is divided by weight taken

and is multiplied by 100 so the percentage retained

cement on 90 micron sieve is calculated. Three trials are

51
done and the average of percentage.

Cement retained is calculated. The average

percentage of cement retained should not be more than

the specified limit.

52
(II) TEST FOR

CONSISTENCY, INITIAL &

FINAL SETTING TIME OF

CEMENT

CONSISTENCY OF CEMENT

PASTE:

INTRODUCTION:

This test determines the quantity of water required to

53
produce a cement paste of standard consistency for the

use of other test. The vicat apparatus is used for this

purpose. The consistency of standard cement paste is

defined as that consistency which will permit the vicat

plunger 50mm long and having 10mm diameter to

penetrate to a point 5mm to 7mm from the bottom of

the vicat mould. The unit of the consistency is

percentage of water by mass of dry cement and denoted

by P.

PROCEDURE:

Take 400g cement and add to it 30% water on a glass

plate or any non porous surface. Mix thoroughly and fill

54
the mould of vicat apparatus. The interval from the time

of adding water to the dry cement until commencing to

fill the mould is known as the time of gauging and must

be not less than 3 minutes and not more than 5

minutes. Lower plunger gently to touch the surface of

test block and quickly release it, allowing it to sink into

the paste. Note the settlement of the plunger. The

settlement of the plunger should be 5mm to 7 mm from

the bottom of the mould. If not, repeat the procedure

using fresh cement and other percentage of water until

the described penetration of the plunger is obtained.

The consistency of standard cement paste is expressed

as the amount of water as percentage by mass of dry

cement.

55
Let, m1= mass of cement taken

m2= mass of water added when the plunger

has a penetration of 5mm to

. 7mm from the bottom of the

mould.

Then the percentage of water or standard

consistency is

P = (m2/m1)x100

Usually standard consistency P lies between 26 to

33 percent.

56
TEST FOR SETTING

TIMES

57
INTRODUCTION:

The change of the cement paste from fluid to rigid state

may be referred to as setting. The gaining of strength of

a cement of a set cement paste is known as hardening.

During the setting, cement acquires some strength,

however it is not considered in definition to distinguished

setting from hardening, where hardening is gain of

strength of a set cement paste.

Objects of these tests are:-

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1. To find initial and final setting times of cement.

2. To distinguished between quick setting and normal

setting types of cement

3. To detect deterioration due to storage.

When water is added to cement and mixed properly. The

chemical reaction soon starts and the paste of cement

remains plastic for a short period. During this period, it

is possible to remix the paste for a short period. During

this period, it is possible to remix the paste. This period

is called initial setting time. It is assumed that no

hardening will starts in this period .As time lapses, the

reaction is continued and cement begins to harden. At

some stages it gardens also called finally set and the

time elapsed since the water was added is called final

setting time. It is not possible to express the exact

state of hardening and hence empirical measurements are

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taken.

This is purely a conventional one and does not relate to

the setting and hardening of actual concrete.

PROCEDURE:

Mix 400g of cement with 0.85 P percentage of water

where P is the consistency of standard cement paste.

Start the stop watch at the instant when water is

added to cement. Fill the vicat mould with this paste

and smooth of the surface of the paste making it level

with the top of the mould attach 1mm* 1mm square

cross section needle to the vicat rod. Lower the needle

gently near the surface of the block. Note whether the

needle pierces completely .If so, wait for a while drop

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the needle at a fresh place. Repeat the procedure till

the needle fails to pierce the block for 5 + 0.5mm

measured from the bottom of the mould. The interval

between the time when water was added to cement and

the time at which the needle fails to pierce the block by

5 + 0.5mm is known as initial setting time.

Replace the needle by the needle which has a sharp

pointing, projecting in the centre with a annular

attachment and release it on the same test block as

before. Note the time when needle makes an impression,

but the attachment fails to do so. The interval between

these time and the time when water was added is known

as the final setting time.

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The initial setting time for a ordinary Portland cement

should not be less than 30 minutes and the final setting

time should not more than 10 hours. For quick setting

cement, the initial setting time should not be less than

5 minutes and the final setting not more than 30

minutes.

The minimum limits on initial setting are specified

because:

Concrete once placed should not be distributed after the

initial setting has taken place.

There must be sufficient time for placing of second batch

which may be distribute the first batch of the concrete.

The transportation of concrete from the place where

concrete is prepared to the placing of concrete requires

some finite time.

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The maximum limits of the final setting time are

specified because the concrete should achieve the desired

strength as early as possible so that the shuttering can

be remove and reused.

(I) AGGREGATES IMPACT TEST

INTRODUCTION:

Toughness is the property of the materials to resist

impact. Due to traffic loads, the load stones are

subjected to the pounding action or impacts and there

possibility of stones breaking into smaller pieces. The road

stones should therefore be tough enough to resist

fracture under impact. A test designed to evaluate the

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toughness of the stones therefore the resistance of the

two fractures under repeated impacts may be called an

impact test for road stones. Impact test may either

carry out cylindrical stone specimens as in page impact

test or stone aggregates as in a aggregate impact test.

The aggregate test has been standardized by the British

Standard Institution and the Indian Standard Institution.

The aggregate impact value indicates the a relative

measure of the resistant of aggregate to sudden shock or

an impact, which in some aggregate differ from its

resistant to slow compressive load. The method of test

covers the procedure for determine the aggregate impact

value of coarse aggregates.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of an impact testing machine, a

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cylindrical measure temping rod, IS sieve, balance and

oven.

Impact Testing Machine : The machine consist of

a matter base with a plane lower surface supported

well on a firm flour, without rocking detachable

cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 10.2cm and

depth 5.0cm is rigidly fastened centrally to the base

plate. A matter hammer of weight between 13.5 and

14 kg having the lower and cylindrical in shape, 10cm

in diameter and 5.0 cm long, with 2.0 mm chamber

at the lower edge is capable of sliding freely between

vertical guides, and fall concentric over the cup. There

is an arrangement for raising the hammer and allowing

it to fall freely between vertical guides from a height

of 38 cm on the test sample in the cup, the height

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fall being adjustable up to 0.5 cm a key is provided

for supporting the hammer while fastening .

Measure: A cylindrical metal measure having internal

diameter 7.5 cm and depth 5.0 cm for measuring

aggregates.

Tamping rod: A straight metal tamping rod of

circular cross section, 1.0 cm in diameter and 23 m

long, rounded at one end.

Sieve: IS sieve of size 12.5mm, 10mm and

2.36mm for sieving the aggregates.

Balance: A balance of capacity not less than 500g

to weight accurate up to 0.1g.

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Oven: A thermostatically controlled drying oven

capable of maintaining constant temperature between

100oC and 110oC.

PROCEDURE:

The test sample consist of aggregates passing 12.5mm

sieves and retained on 10mm sieve and dried in an oven 4

hours at a temperature 100oC to 110oC and cooled. The

aggregates are filled up to about one third full in the

cylindrical measure and tamped 25 times with rounded

and of the tampering rod. Further quantity of aggregates

is then added up to about two third full in the

cylinder and 25 strokes of the tamping rod are given.

The measure is now filled with the aggregates to over

flow, tamped 25 times. The surplus aggregates are stuck

off using the tamping rod as straight edge. The net

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weight of the aggregates in the measures determined to

the nearest gram this weight of the aggregates is used

for carrying out duplicate test on the same materials.

The impact machine is placed with its bottom plate on

the flour so that the hammer guide columns are vertical.

The cup is mixed firmly in position on the base of the

test sample from the cylindrical measure is transferred to

the cup and compacted by tamping with 25 strokes.

The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38 cm above

the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup ,and

allowed to fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample

is subjected to a total 15 such blows, each being delivered

at an interval of not less than one second. The crushed

aggregates is then removed from the cup and whole of it

sieve on the 2.36mm sieve until no further significant

amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is also

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weighed accurate to 0.1gm.The fraction retained on the

sieve is also weighed and if the total weight of the

fraction passing and retained on the sieve is added, it

should not be less than the original by 1g, the result

should be discarded and a fresh test made

METHODOLOGY OF PQC.

SCOPE:

The work shall consist of construction of un-reinforced,

dowel jointed plain cement concrete pavements in

accordance with the requirements of MOST specification

and in conformity with the lines grades and cross sections

as shown on the approved drawings. The work shall

include furnishing of all plant and equipment, materials

and labour as directed by the Engineer.

MATERIALS:

CEMENT:
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Ordinary part land cement 43 grade confirming IS: 8112.

ADMIXTURES:

Admixtures used conforming to IS: 9625 and IS: 9103.

COARSE AGGREGATE:

The maximum size of aggregate is 20 mm. the coarse

aggregate complying with IS: 383

FINE AGGREGATE:

As approved in mix design confirm to IS: 383.

WATER:

It shall meet the requirement as stipulated in IS: 456.

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Bitumen testing

Bitumen is a mixture of organic liquids that is black,

highly viscous, sticky product used for paving roads,


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waterproofing products (used in sealing roofs). There are

many tests which are conducted to check the quality of

bitumen. Bitumen is very important component of many

construction sites like roads, highways. Many tests are

done to ensure the quality of bitumen. Some of these are

given below :-

1. Bitumen Content

2. Ductility Of Bitumen

3. Penetration of Bitumen

4. Specific Gravity of Bitumen

5. Softening Point Of Bitumen

6. Flash And Fire Point Of Bitumen

7. The Marshall Stability of Bituminous Mixture

This test is done to determine the bitumen content as

per ASTM 2172. The apparatus needed to determine

bitumen content are -

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i) Centrifuge extractor

ii) Miscellaneous bowl, filter paper, balance and

commercial benzene.

A sample of 500g is taken.

Procedure to determine bitumen content

i) If the mixture is not soft enough to separate with a

trowel,place 1000g of it in a large pan and warm upto

100oC to separate the particles of the mixture uniformly.

ii) Place the sample (Weight A) in the centrifuge

extractor. Cover the sample with benzene, put the filter

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paper on it with the cover plate tightly fitted on the

bowl.

iii) Start the centrifuge extractor, revolving slowly and

gradually increase the speed until the solvent ceases to

flow from the outlet.

iv) Allow the centrifuge extractor to stop. Add 200ml

benzene and repeat the procedure.

v) Repeat the procedure at least thrice, so that the

extract is clear and not darker than the light straw colour

and record the volume of total extract in the graduated

vessel.

vi) Remove the filter paper from the bowl and dry in the

oven at 110 + 5oC. After 24hours, take the weight of

the extracted sample (Weight B).

REPORTING OF RESULTS
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Bitumen content = [(A-B)/B]100 %

Repeat the test thrice and average the results.

Determining the Ductility Of Bitumen

This test is done to determine the ductility of distillation

residue of cutback bitumen, blown type bitumen and other

bituminous products as per IS: 1208 1978. The principle

is : The ductility of a bituminous material is measured by

the distance in cm to which it will elongate before

breaking when a standard briquette specimen of the

material is pulled apart at a specified speed and a

specified temperature.

The apparatus required for this test:

i) Standard mould

ii) Water bath

iii) Testing machine

iv) Thermometer Range 0 to 44oC, Graduation 0.2oC

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Procedure to determine the Ductility Of Bitumen

i) Completely melt the bituminous material to be tested

by heating it to a temperature of 75 to 100oC above the

approximate softening point until it becomes thoroughly

fluid. Assemble the mould on a brass plate and in order

to prevent the material under test from sticking,

thoroughly coat the surface of the plate and the interior

surfaces of the sides of the mould with a mixture of

equal parts of glycerine and dextrin. While filling, pour the

material in a thin stream back and forth from end to end

of the mould until it is more than level full. Leave it to

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cool at room temperature for 30 to 40 minutes and

then place it in a water bath maintained at the specified

temperature for 30 minutes, after which cut off the

excess bitumen by means of a hot, straight-edged putty

knife or spatula, so that the mould is just level full. ii)

Place the brass plate and mould with briquette specimen

in the water bath and keep it at the specified

temperature for about 85 to 95 minutes. Remove the

briquette from the plate, detach the side pieces and the

briquette immediately.

iii) Attach the rings at each end of the two clips to the

pins or hooks in the testing machine and pull the two

clips apart horizontally at a uniform speed, as specified,

until the briquette ruptures. Measure the distance in cm

through which the clips have been pulled to produce

rupture. While the test is being done, make sure that the

water in the tank of the testing machine covers the

specimen both above and below by at least 25mm and the

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temperature is maintained continuously within 0.5oC of

the specified temperature.

REPORTING OF RESULTS

A normal test is one in which the material between the

two clips pulls out to a point or to a thread and rupture

occurs where the cross-sectional area is minimum. Report

the average of three normal tests as the ductility of the

sample, provided the three determinations be within

0.5 percent of their mean value.

If the values of the three determinations do not lie

within 0.5 percent of their mean, but the two higher

values are within 0.5 percent of their mean, then

record the mean of the two higher values as the test

result.

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Determining Penetration of Bitumen

This test is done to determine the penetration of

bitumen as per IS: 1203 1978. The principle is that

the penetration of a bituminous material is the distance

in tenths of a mm, that a standard needle would

penetrate vertically, into a sample of the material under

standard conditions of temperature, load and time. The

apparatus needed to determine the penetration of

bitumen is

i) Penetrometer

ii) Water bath

iii) Bath thermometer Range 0 to 44oC, Graduation

0.2oC

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SAMPLE

Bitumen should be just sufficient to fill the container to a

depth of at least 15mm in excess of the expected

penetration.

Procedure to determine the penetration of bitumen

i) Soften the bitumen above the softening point

(between 75 and 100oC). Stir it thoroughly to remove

air bubbles and water.

ii) Pour it into a container to a depth of at least 15mm

in excess of the expected penetration.

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iii) Cool it at an atmospheric temperature of 15 to 30oC

for 11/2 hours. Then place it in a transfer dish in the

water bath at 25.0 + 0.1oC for 11/2 hrs.

iv) Keep the container on the stand of the penetration

apparatus.

v) Adjust the needle to make contact with the surface of

the sample.

vi) Adjust the dial reading to zero.

vii) With the help of the timer, release the needle for

exactly 5 seconds.

viii) Record the dial reading.

ix) Repeat the above procedure thrice.

REPORTING OF RESULTS

The value of penetration reported should be the mean of

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not less than three determinations expressed in tenths of

a mm.

MACHINERY USED IN

CONSTRUCTION

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LIST OF PLANT & MACHINERY

DEVELOPED AT SITE:

WMM Mixing plant

Tailor

Stone Crusher unit 100TPH

Tipper (6/8)

GSB Crusher unit 100 TPH

Tipper (14cum)

Weight Bridge

Tractor

Concrete Batching Plant


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Plate Compactor

Transit Mixer

Concrete Mixer

Motor Grader

Generator set 250KVA

Front end loader

Generator set 180KVA

Generator set 125KVA

Generator set 100KVA

Generator set 22KVA

Generator set 17.5KVA

Generator set 5KVA

Excavator

J.C.B

Soil Compactor

Sensor Pavers

WMM Pavers

Vibratory Tandem Roller

Static Roller

Hydra

Air Compressor

Needle Vibrator

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Water Pump

Bitumen Spryer

Welding set with Generator 8KVA

Mechanical Boomer

Vehicles

Water Tanks

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SUGGESTION AND

CONCLUSION

1. Civil engineer should perform the work at their

level best so that it will give better result and

improve the production of the company.

2. Infrastructure of Civil Contractor Cell should be

more developed for giving the contract to the

best contractor.

3. Welfare facilities should be increase in for civil

engineers of Construction Company.

4. For the safety of civil engineers at the

construction, company should give the best

equipments of safety to the civil engineers.

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5. The hostel facility and amenities should be

improved so that the civil engineers could work

with more efficiency.

6. The civil engineers are advised to do their work

in slot as they do it bulk which create adverse

problems for example the road was dug during the

rainy season in one flow which resulted in heavy

loss of material, money and machinery of the

company. The work should have been done in small

phases and according to the circumstances. The

clipping can be seen on the next page as to how

destruction was made during the time when I was

undergoing my training.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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1. I.S. specification book on highway.

2. Highway material testing book by

3. S.K. Khanna, C.E.G Justo.

4. Organizations Laboratory.

5. Organizations Engineers.

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