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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

ORGANS&ORGANSYSTEMS
Recallthatorganismsarehighlyorganizedfromatomsto________totissuesto
_________andorgansystems.Cellsdifferentiateandgrouptogethertocreatetissuesto
performspecifictasks.Similartissuesworktogetheras_________toperformspecific
taskstokeeporganismsfunctioning.

Thetermorganmeans________________.Eachorganperformsspecificfunctions
andismadeupofseveraltypesof____________andthereforeseveraltypesofcells.
Forexample,theheartcontainsmuscletissuethatcontractstopumpblood,fibrous
(connective)tissuethatmakesuptheheartvalvesandspecialcellsthatmaintaintherate
andrhythmofheartbeats.

Organsystemsarecollectionsoforgansthatperforma majorfunctionfortheorganism.
Thehealthyfunctioningoforgansystems,organs,andtissuesdependsonthehealthof
thecellsinthetissues.Cellsthatreceivethematerialstheyneedthroughtheorgan
systemssustaintheorganism.

ANIMALORGANSYSTEMS
Thereare____organsystemsthatfunctionwithinanimals,althoughsomeanimalslack
oneormoreofthem.Theseorgansystemsalthoughhavetheirownspecificfunction,are
interrelatedandworktogethertomeettheneedsoftheorganism.

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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

1.THEDIGESTIVESYSTEM
Extendingfromthemouthtotheanus,this
systemhas4steps:ingestion,____________,
____________,andexcretion.Itbreaksfood
intotinymolecules(nutrients)andabsorbs
themintothebloodstream.Italsoplaysavital
roleineliminatingsolidwastesintothe
environment.Thissystemincludesthe
___________,smallandlarge_____________,
rectum,andotherassociatedorganslikethe
pancreas,liver,andgallbladder,whichproduce
digestiveenzymes,removetoxinsandstore
substancesnecessaryfordigestion.

2.THECIRCULATORYSYSTEM
Likelythemostimportantsystemin
animals,thecirculatorysystemisan
important____________systemwithin
anorganism.Itconsistsofthe
________andmajorbloodvessels
(_______,____________and
________________).Ittransports
bloodaroundthebody,whichisthe
mediumthatcarriesoxygennecessary
forrespiration,carbondioxide,
nutrients,wasteproducts,immune
components,andhormones.

3.THERESPIRATORYSYSTEM
Responsibleforbreathing,therespiratory
systemhasthe________,trachea,andother
airtubes(bronchi).Theseorgansaidinthe
exchangeofoxygenandcarbondioxide,
necessarycomponentsofcellularrespiration.
Thissystemalsohasavitalrolein
maintainingthepHoftheblood.

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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

4&5.THEMUSCULOSKELETALSYSTEM
Thesetwosystemsworktogethertoachieve_____________and____________.
Comprisedof3typesofmuscle,aswellasbones,tendonsandligaments,this
tandemsystemalsosupportsandprotectsthebody.

6.THENERVOUSSYSTEM
Thissystemconsistsofthe________,spinalcord,
nervesandothersensoryorgansthatcoordinateand
controlactionsofinternalorgansandbodysystemsby
sendingandreceiving_____________inresponseto
stimuli.Memory,learning,andconsciousthoughtareall
partofthenervoussystem,aswellasmaintaining
autonomicfunctionssuchasourheartbeat,breathing,
andthecontrolofinvoluntarymuscleactions.

7.THEINTEGUMENTARYSYSTEM
Theintegumentarysystemistheoutermostprotectivelayer,whichcomesintheformof
______,hair,nails,scales,feathersandsweatglandsdependingontheorganism.It
preventswaterlossandtheinvasionofforeignparticlesintothebody.

8.THELYMPHATIC(IMMUNE)SYSTEM
Thissystemiscomprisedoflymphaticvesselswhicharevitalinthetransportof
extracellularfluidandfattothecirculatorysystem.__________________,thymus,
tonsilsandthespleenareallorganswithrolesinthisorgansystem.

9.THEEXCRETORY(URINARY)SYSTEM
Theurinarysystemiscomprisedofthe
___________,bladderandureters
whichremovemetabolicwastesfrom
thebloodstream.Thekidneysfilter
bloodandtakeoutwastewhichis
temporarilystoredinthe
_____________untilitisreadytobe
excreted.

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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

10.THEENDOCRINESYSTEM
Theendocrinesystemworkswiththe
nervoussystemtocontroltheactivityof
internalorgansaswellascoordinating
longrangeresponsetoexternalstimuli.
Comprisedofthepituitary,adrenal,
thyroidandotherglands,thissystem
secreteshormonesthatregulate
metabolism,growth,andreproduction.
Theseorgansarenotincontactwitheach
other,althoughtheycommunicateby
chemicalmessagesviathecirculatory
system.

11.THEREPRODUCTIVESYSTEM
Thereproductivesystemcarriesoutreproductionandcontrolhormonesthataidinsexual
development.Themajororganinmaleorganismsisthetestes,whileinfemalesitis
ovaries.Bothoftheseorgansworkcloselywithassociatedreproductivestructures.

PLANTORGANS
Plantshave4majororgans:roots,stems,leaves,andflowers.Theseorgansmakeupthe
twomajororgansystemsfoundinplants,therootsystemandtheshootsystem.

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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

THELEAF
Theleafisanorganspecializedfor
photosynthesis.Duetothisprocess,
leavesaretypicallyflat(laminar)andvery
________,exposingthepallisadecells
(whichhavelotsof_________________)
tosunlight(whichmaximizestheir
______________________),allowinglight
topenetratefullyintothetissues.Leaves
arealsothesitesinmostplantswhere
transpirationtakesplaceandcanalsoact
asastorageforfoodandwater.

THESTEM
Thestem,usuallyfoundabovethesoilhasthreemain
functions:itprovides___________support(toholdits
flowersandfruits),transportsfluidsin_________(water
andminerals)and___________(sugars)tissue
betweentheleavesandroots,andstoresnutrients.

THEFLOWER
Flowersareresponsiblefor
plant__________________,
throughpollinationor
fertilization.Someflowers
usesexualreproductionwhile
othersuseasexual.

THEROOT
Invascularplants,therootofaplantbody
typicallyliesbelowthesurfaceofthesoil.
Rootsareprimarilyresponsibleforthe
absorptionof___________andinorganic
nutrientsviatheroothairsandtheyarealso
responsibleforanchoringtheplantbodyin
thesoil.Rootsoftenfunctioninstorageof
sugarandnutrientsaswell.

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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

PLANTSYSTEMS

THEROOTSYSTEM
Therootsystemincludespartsoftheplantthatare
belowtheground,suchastheroots,tubers,and
rhizomes.Itsfunctionsincludeanchoringtheplant
inthesoil,absorbingwaterandnutrients,
conductingwaterandnutrientsviathexylemand
phloem,andfoodstorage.

THESHOOTSYSTEM
Theshootsystemisabovethegroundand
includestheleaves,stems,flowers(ifany),
andfruits(ifany).Thissystemhasavariety
offunctions,asitisvitalinphotosynthesisin
theleaves,reproduction&dispersalwith
flowers,andtransportationofwaterand
nutrientsviathexylemandphloem.

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B10PlantandAnimalOrgans&OrganSystems April02,2013

HOMEWORK
1.Describehowanorganismisbrokendownintosmallercomponents.Usean
example.

2.Describethechainofeventsthatwouldoccurinanorganismiftherewasa
malfunctionineitherthecirculatoryornervoussystem.

3.Fillinthefollowingtable:

MajorOrgans PrimaryFunction

RespiratorySystem

DigestiveSystem

SkeletalSystem

NervousSystem

CirculatorySystem

4.Describetheimportanceofsizeasitrelatestoplantorgans.Whatstructures
doplantshavethatallowthemtocarryouttheirlifefunctions?

5.List3differentfunctionsforeachplantorgan(excludingflowers).