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Algebra

Algebraist redirects here. For the novel by Iain M. is called an algebra, and the word is used, for example,
Banks, see The Algebraist. in the phrases linear algebra and algebraic topology.
For the kind of algebraic structure, see Algebra over a
A mathematician who does research in algebra is called
eld. an algebraist.

1 Etymology
The word algebra comes from the Arabic ( al-jabr
restoration) from the title of the book Ilm al-jabr wa'l-
mubala by al-Khwarizmi. The word entered the En-
glish language during the fteenth century, from either
The quadratic formula expresses the solution of the degree two
Spanish, Italian, or Medieval Latin. It originally referred
equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 in terms of its coecients a, b, c ,
to the surgical procedure of setting broken or dislocated
where a is not zero.
bones. The mathematical meaning was rst recorded in
the sixteenth century.[7]
Algebra (from Arabic al-jabr meaning reunion of
broken parts[1] ) is one of the broad parts of mathematics,
together with number theory, geometry and analysis. In 2 Dierent meanings of algebra
its most general form, algebra is the study of mathe-
matical symbols and the rules for manipulating these
symbols;[2] it is a unifying thread of almost all of The word algebra has several related meanings in math-
mathematics.[3] As such, it includes everything from ele- ematics, as a single word or with qualiers.
mentary equation solving to the study of abstractions such
as groups, rings, and elds. The more basic parts of alge- As a single word without article, algebra names a
bra are called elementary algebra, the more abstract parts broad part of mathematics.
are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elemen- As a single word with article or in plural, al-
tary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any gebra denotes a specic mathematical structure,
study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as whose precise denition depends on the author.
such applications as medicine and economics. Abstract Usually the structure has an addition, multiplica-
algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied tion, and a scalar multiplication (see Algebra over
primarily by professional mathematicians. Much early a eld). When some authors use the term algebra,
work in algebra, as the Arabic origin of its name sug- they make a subset of the following additional as-
gests, was done in the Middle East, by mathematicians sumptions: associative, commutative, unital, and/or
such as al-Khwrizm (780 850) and Omar Khayyam nite-dimensional. In universal algebra, the word
(10481131).[4][5] algebra refers to a generalization of the above con-
Elementary algebra diers from arithmetic in the use cept, which allows for n-ary operations.
of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for num-
With a qualier, there is the same distinction:
bers that are either unknown or allowed to take on many
values.[6] For example, in x + 2 = 5 the letter x is un- Without article, it means a part of algebra,
known, but the law of inverses can be used to discover such as linear algebra, elementary algebra (the
its value: x = 3 . In E = mc2 , the letters E and m are symbol-manipulation rules taught in elemen-
variables, and the letter c is a constant, the speed of light tary courses of mathematics as part of primary
in a vacuum. Algebra gives methods for solving equa- and secondary education), or abstract algebra
tions and expressing formulas that are much easier (for (the study of the algebraic structures for them-
those who know how to use them) than the older method selves).
of writing everything out in words. With an article, it means an instance of
The word algebra is also used in certain specialized ways. some abstract structure, like a Lie algebra,
A special kind of mathematical object in abstract algebra associative algebra, or vertex operator algebra.

1
2 4 HISTORY

Sometimes both meanings exist for the same 4.1 Early history of algebra
qualier, as in the sentence: Commutative al-
gebra is the study of commutative rings, which
are commutative algebras over the integers.

3 Algebra as a branch of mathe-


matics
Algebra began with computations similar to those of
arithmetic, with letters standing for numbers.[6] This al-
lowed proofs of properties that are true no matter which
numbers are involved. For example, in the quadratic
equation

ax2 + bx + c = 0,

a, b, c can be any numbers whatsoever (except that a can-


not be 0 ), and the quadratic formula can be used to
quickly and easily nd the value of the unknown quan-
tity x .
As it developed, algebra was extended to other non-
numerical objects, such as vectors, matrices, and
polynomials. Then the structural properties of these
non-numerical objects were abstracted to dene algebraic
structures such as groups, rings, and elds.
Before the 16th century, mathematics was divided into
only two subelds, arithmetic and geometry. Even though
some methods, which had been developed much earlier, A page from Al-Khwrizm's al-Kitb al-mutaar f isb al-
may be considered nowadays as algebra, the emergence abr wa-l-muqbala
of algebra and, soon thereafter, of innitesimal calculus
as subelds of mathematics only dates from the 16th or The roots of algebra can be traced to the ancient
17th century. From the second half of 19th century on, Babylonians,[9] who developed an advanced arithmeti-
many new elds of mathematics appeared, most of which cal system with which they were able to do calculations
made use of both arithmetic and geometry, and almost all in an algorithmic fashion. The Babylonians developed
of which used algebra. formulas to calculate solutions for problems typically
solved today by using linear equations, quadratic equa-
Today, algebra has grown until it includes many branches tions, and indeterminate linear equations. By contrast,
of mathematics, as can be seen in the Mathematics Sub- most Egyptians of this era, as well as Greek and Chinese
ject Classication[8] where none of the rst level ar- mathematics in the 1st millennium BC, usually solved
eas (two digit entries) is called algebra. Today alge- such equations by geometric methods, such as those de-
bra includes section 08-General algebraic systems, 12- scribed in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, Euclids El-
Field theory and polynomials, 13-Commutative algebra, ements, and The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.
15-Linear and multilinear algebra; matrix theory, 16- The geometric work of the Greeks, typied in the Ele-
Associative rings and algebras, 17-Nonassociative rings ments, provided the framework for generalizing formu-
and algebras, 18-Category theory; homological algebra, lae beyond the solution of particular problems into more
19-K-theory and 20-Group theory. Algebra is also used general systems of stating and solving equations, although
extensively in 11-Number theory and 14-Algebraic ge- this would not be realized until mathematics developed in
ometry. medieval Islam.[10]
By the time of Plato, Greek mathematics had under-
gone a drastic change. The Greeks created a geomet-
4 History ric algebra where terms were represented by sides of
geometric objects, usually lines, that had letters associ-
Main articles: History of algebra and Timeline of algebra ated with them.[6] Diophantus (3rd century AD) was an
Alexandrian Greek mathematician and the author of a se-
4.2 History of algebra 3

ries of books called Arithmetica. These texts deal with equation. Yet another Persian mathematician, Sharaf al-
solving algebraic equations,[11] and have led, in number Dn al-Ts, found algebraic and numerical solutions to
theory to the modern notion of Diophantine equation. various cases of cubic equations.[22] He also developed
[23]
Earlier traditions discussed above had a direct inuence the concept of a function. The Indian mathematicians
on the Persian Muammad ibn Ms al-Khwrizm (c. Mahavira [24] and Bhaskara II, the Persian mathematician
780850). He later wrote The Compendious Book on Cal- Al-Karaji, and the Chinese mathematician Zhu Shi-
culation by Completion and Balancing, which established jie, solved various cases of cubic, quartic, quintic and
algebra as a mathematical discipline that is independent higher-order polynomial equations using numerical meth-
[12] ods. In the 13th century, the solution of a cubic equation
of geometry and arithmetic.
by Fibonacci is representative of the beginning of a re-
The Hellenistic mathematicians Hero of Alexandria and vival in European algebra. As the Islamic world was de-
Diophantus[13] as well as Indian mathematicians such clining, the European world was ascending. And it is here
as Brahmagupta continued the traditions of Egypt and that algebra was further developed.
Babylon, though Diophantus Arithmetica and Brah-
maguptas Brahmasphutasiddhanta are on a higher
level.[14] For example, the rst complete arithmetic solu- 4.2 History of algebra
tion (including zero and negative solutions) to quadratic
equations was described by Brahmagupta in his book
Brahmasphutasiddhanta. Later, Persian and Arabic
mathematicians developed algebraic methods to a much
higher degree of sophistication. Although Diophantus
and the Babylonians used mostly special ad hoc meth-
ods to solve equations, Al-Khwarizmi contribution was
fundamental. He solved linear and quadratic equations
without algebraic symbolism, negative numbers or zero,
thus he has to distinguish several types of equations.[15]
In the context where algebra is identied with the theory
of equations, the Greek mathematician Diophantus has
traditionally been known as the father of algebra but
in more recent times there is much debate over whether
al-Khwarizmi, who founded the discipline of al-jabr,
deserves that title instead.[16] Those who support Dio-
phantus point to the fact that the algebra found in Al-
Jabr is slightly more elementary than the algebra found
in Arithmetica and that Arithmetica is syncopated while
Al-Jabr is fully rhetorical.[17] Those who support Al-
Khwarizmi point to the fact that he introduced the meth-
ods of "reduction" and balancing (the transposition of
subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that
is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the
equation) which the term al-jabr originally referred to,[18]
Italian mathematician Girolamo Cardano published the solutions
and that he gave an exhaustive explanation of solving
to the cubic and quartic equations in his 1545 book Ars magna.
quadratic equations,[19] supported by geometric proofs,
while treating algebra as an independent discipline in Franois Vite's work on new algebra at the close of the
its own right.[20] His algebra was also no longer con- 16th century was an important step towards modern alge-
cerned with a series of problems to be resolved, but an bra. In 1637, Ren Descartes published La Gomtrie, in-
exposition which starts with primitive terms in which the venting analytic geometry and introducing modern alge-
combinations must give all possible prototypes for equa- braic notation. Another key event in the further develop-
tions, which henceforward explicitly constitute the true ment of algebra was the general algebraic solution of the
object of study. He also studied an equation for its cubic and quartic equations, developed in the mid-16th
own sake and in a generic manner, insofar as it does century. The idea of a determinant was developed by
not simply emerge in the course of solving a problem, Japanese mathematician Kowa Seki in the 17th century,
but is specically called on to dene an innite class of followed independently by Gottfried Leibniz ten years
problems.[21] later, for the purpose of solving systems of simultane-
Another Persian mathematician Omar Khayyam is cred- ous linear equations using matrices. Gabriel Cramer also
ited with identifying the foundations of algebraic geome- did some work on matrices and determinants in the 18th
try and found the general geometric solution of the cubic century. Permutations were studied by Joseph-Louis La-
grange in his 1770 paper Rexions sur la rsolution al-
4 6 ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA

gbrique des quations devoted to solutions of algebraic Many mathematical structures are called algebras:
equations, in which he introduced Lagrange resolvents.
Paolo Runi was the rst person to develop the theory Algebra over a eld or more generally algebra over
of permutation groups, and like his predecessors, also in a ring.
the context of solving algebraic equations. Many classes of algebras over a eld or over a ring
Abstract algebra was developed in the 19th century, have a specic name:
deriving from the interest in solving equations, ini-
Associative algebra
tially focusing on what is now called Galois theory, and
on constructibility issues.[25] George Peacock was the Non-associative algebra
founder of axiomatic thinking in arithmetic and alge- Lie algebra
bra. Augustus De Morgan discovered relation algebra Hopf algebra
in his Syllabus of a Proposed System of Logic. Josiah
Willard Gibbs developed an algebra of vectors in three- C*-algebra
dimensional space, and Arthur Cayley developed an alge- Symmetric algebra
bra of matrices (this is a noncommutative algebra).[26] Exterior algebra
Tensor algebra
5 Areas of mathematics with the In measure theory,
word algebra in their name Sigma-algebra
Algebra over a set
Some areas of mathematics that fall under the classica-
tion abstract algebra have the word algebra in their name; In category theory
linear algebra is one example. Others do not: group the-
F-algebra and F-coalgebra
ory, ring theory, and eld theory are examples. In this
section, we list some areas of mathematics with the word T-algebra
algebra in the name.
In logic,

Elementary algebra, the part of algebra that is usu- Relational algebra: a set of nitary relations
ally taught in elementary courses of mathematics. that is closed under certain operators.
Boolean algebra, a structure abstracting the
Abstract algebra, in which algebraic structures such
computation with the truth values false and
as groups, rings and elds are axiomatically dened
true. The structures also have the same name.
and investigated.
Heyting algebra
Linear algebra, in which the specic properties of
linear equations, vector spaces and matrices are
studied.
6 Elementary algebra
Commutative algebra, the study of commutative
rings. Main article: Elementary algebra
Elementary algebra is the most basic form of alge-
Computer algebra, the implementation of algebraic
bra. It is taught to students who are presumed to have
methods as algorithms and computer programs.
no knowledge of mathematics beyond the basic princi-
Homological algebra, the study of algebraic struc- ples of arithmetic. In arithmetic, only numbers and their
tures that are fundamental to study topological arithmetical operations (such as +, , , ) occur. In al-
spaces. gebra, numbers are often represented by symbols called
variables (such as a, n, x, y or z). This is useful because:
Universal algebra, in which properties common to
all algebraic structures are studied. It allows the general formulation of arithmetical laws
Algebraic number theory, in which the properties of (such as a + b = b + a for all a and b), and thus is the
numbers are studied from an algebraic point of view. rst step to a systematic exploration of the properties
of the real number system.
Algebraic geometry, a branch of geometry, in its
primitive form specifying curves and surfaces as so- It allows the reference to unknown numbers, the
lutions of polynomial equations. formulation of equations and the study of how to
solve these. (For instance, Find a number x such
Algebraic combinatorics, in which algebraic meth- that 3x + 1 = 10 or going a bit further Find a num-
ods are used to study combinatorial questions. ber x such that ax + b = c". This step leads to the
6.2 Education 5

raised to whole number powers. For example, x2 + 2x


3 is a polynomial in the single variable x. A polyno-
mial expression is an expression that may be rewritten
as a polynomial, by using commutativity, associativity
and distributivity of addition and multiplication. For ex-
ample, (x 1)(x + 3) is a polynomial expression, that,
properly speaking, is not a polynomial. A polynomial
function is a function that is dened by a polynomial, or,
equivalently, by a polynomial expression. The two pre-
ceding examples dene the same polynomial function.
Two important and related problems in algebra are the
Algebraic expression notation: factorization of polynomials, that is, expressing a given
1 power (exponent) polynomial as a product of other polynomials that can
2 coecient
not be factored any further, and the computation of
3 term
4 operator
polynomial greatest common divisors. The example
5 constant term polynomial above can be factored as (x 1)(x + 3). A
x y c variables/constants related class of problems is nding algebraic expressions
for the roots of a polynomial in a single variable.

conclusion that it is not the nature of the specic


numbers that allows us to solve it, but that of the 6.2 Education
operations involved.)
See also: Mathematics education
It allows the formulation of functional relationships.
(For instance, If you sell x tickets, then your prot
It has been suggested that elementary algebra should be
will be 3x 10 dollars, or f(x) = 3x 10, where
taught to students as young as eleven years old,[27] though
f is the function, and x is the number to which the
in recent years it is more common for public lessons to
function is applied.)
begin at the eighth grade level ( 13 y.o. ) in the United
States.[28]
6.1 Polynomials Since 1997, Virginia Tech and some other universities
have begun using a personalized model of teaching al-
gebra that combines instant feedback from specialized
computer software with one-on-one and small group tu-
toring, which has reduced costs and increased student
achievement.[29]

7 Abstract algebra
Main articles: Abstract algebra and Algebraic structure

Abstract algebra extends the familiar concepts found in


elementary algebra and arithmetic of numbers to more
general concepts. Here are listed fundamental concepts
in abstract algebra.
Sets: Rather than just considering the dierent types
of numbers, abstract algebra deals with the more gen-
eral concept of sets: a collection of all objects (called
elements) selected by property specic for the set. All
The graph of a polynomial function of degree 3.
collections of the familiar types of numbers are sets.
Other examples of sets include the set of all two-by-two
Main article: Polynomial matrices, the set of all second-degree polynomials (ax2 +
bx + c), the set of all two dimensional vectors in the plane,
A polynomial is an expression that is the sum of a - and the various nite groups such as the cyclic groups,
nite number of non-zero terms, each term consisting of which are the groups of integers modulo n. Set theory is
the product of a constant and a nite number of variables a branch of logic and not technically a branch of algebra.
6 7 ABSTRACT ALGEBRA

Binary operations: The notion of addition (+) is ab- of S, there exists a member a1 such that a a1 and
stracted to give a binary operation, say. The notion of a1 a are both identical to the identity element.
binary operation is meaningless without the set on which
the operation is dened. For two elements a and b in The operation is associative: if a, b and c are mem-
a set S, a b is another element in the set; this con- bers of S, then (a b) c is identical to a (b c).
dition is called closure. Addition (+), subtraction (-),
multiplication (), and division () can be binary oper- If a group is also commutativethat is, for any two mem-
ations when dened on dierent sets, as are addition and bers a and b of S, a b is identical to b athen the group
multiplication of matrices, vectors, and polynomials. is said to be abelian.
Identity elements: The numbers zero and one are ab- For example, the set of integers under the operation of
stracted to give the notion of an identity element for an addition is a group. In this group, the identity element is
operation. Zero is the identity element for addition and 0 and the inverse of any element a is its negation, a. The
one is the identity element for multiplication. For a gen- associativity requirement is met, because for any integers
eral binary operator the identity element e must satisfy a, b and c, (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)
a e = a and e a = a, and is necessarily unique, if it
exists. This holds for addition as a + 0 = a and 0 + a = a The nonzero rational numbers form a group under mul-
and multiplication a 1 = a and 1 a = a. Not all sets tiplication. Here, the identity element is 1, since 1 a =
and operator combinations have an identity element; for a 1 = a for any rational number a. The inverse of a is
example, the set of positive natural numbers (1, 2, 3, ...) 1/a, since a 1/a = 1.
has no identity element for addition. The integers under the multiplication operation, however,
Inverse elements: The negative numbers give rise to the do not form a group. This is because, in general, the mul-
concept of inverse elements. For addition, the inverse of a tiplicative inverse of an integer is not an integer. For ex-
is written a, and for multiplication the inverse is written ample, 4 is an integer, but its multiplicative inverse is ,
a1 . A general two-sided inverse element a1 satises the which is not an integer.
property that a a1 = e and a1 a = e, where e is the The theory of groups is studied in group theory. A major
identity element. result in this theory is the classication of nite simple
Associativity: Addition of integers has a property called groups, mostly published between about 1955 and 1983,
associativity. That is, the grouping of the numbers to be which separates the nite simple groups into roughly 30
added does not aect the sum. For example: (2 + 3) + 4 basic types.
= 2 + (3 + 4). In general, this becomes (a b) c = a (b Semigroups, quasigroups, and monoids are structures
c). This property is shared by most binary operations, similar to groups, but more general. They comprise a
but not subtraction or division or octonion multiplication. set and a closed binary operation, but do not necessar-
Commutativity: Addition and multiplication of real ily satisfy the other conditions. A semigroup has an as-
numbers are both commutative. That is, the order of the sociative binary operation, but might not have an iden-
numbers does not aect the result. For example: 2 + 3 = tity element. A monoid is a semigroup which does have
3 + 2. In general, this becomes a b = b a. This prop- an identity but might not have an inverse for every ele-
erty does not hold for all binary operations. For example, ment. A quasigroup satises a requirement that any ele-
matrix multiplication and quaternion multiplication are ment can be turned into any other by either a unique left-
both non-commutative. multiplication or right-multiplication; however the binary
operation might not be associative.
All groups are monoids, and all monoids are semigroups.
7.1 Groups
Main article: Group (mathematics) 7.2 Rings and elds
See also: Group theory and Examples of groups
Main articles: Ring (mathematics) and Field (mathemat-
Combining the above concepts gives one of the most im- ics)
portant structures in mathematics: a group. A group is See also: Ring theory, Glossary of ring theory, Field
a combination of a set S and a single binary operation theory (mathematics) and Glossary of eld theory
, dened in any way you choose, but with the following
properties: Groups just have one binary operation. To fully explain
the behaviour of the dierent types of numbers, struc-
An identity element e exists, such that for every tures with two operators need to be studied. The most
member a of S, e a and a e are both identical important of these are rings, and elds.
to a.
A ring has two binary operations (+) and (), with dis-
Every element has an inverse: for every member a tributive over +. Under the rst operator (+) it forms an
7

abelian group. Under the second operator () it is asso- [8] 2010 Mathematics Subject Classication. Retrieved 5
ciative, but it does not need to have identity, or inverse, so October 2014.
division is not required. The additive (+) identity element
[9] Struik, Dirk J. (1987). A Concise History of Mathematics.
is written as 0 and the additive inverse of a is written as New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-60255-9.
a.
[10] Boyer 1991
Distributivity generalises the distributive law for num-
bers. For the integers (a + b) c = a c + b c and c [11] Cajori, Florian (2010). A History of Elementary Mathe-
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The integers are an example of a ring. The integers have [12] Roshdi Rashed (November 2009). Al Khwarizmi: The
additional properties which make it an integral domain. Beginnings of Algebra. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-
430-5
A eld is a ring with the additional property that all the el-
ements excluding 0 form an abelian group under . The [13] Diophantus, Father of Algebra. Retrieved 5 October
multiplicative () identity is written as 1 and the multi- 2014.
1
plicative inverse of a is written as a . [14] History of Algebra. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
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trieved 25 November 2012.

[16] Boyer, Carl B. (1991). A History of Mathematics (Second


8 See also ed.). Wiley. pp. 178, 181. ISBN 0-471-54397-7.

[17] Boyer, Carl B. (1991). A History of Mathematics (Second


Outline of algebra
ed.). Wiley. p. 228. ISBN 0-471-54397-7.
Outline of linear algebra [18] (Boyer 1991, The Arabic Hegemony p. 229) It is not
certain just what the terms al-jabr and muqabalah mean,
Algebra tile but the usual interpretation is similar to that implied in
the translation above. The word al-jabr presumably meant
something like restoration or completion and seems to
9 Notes refer to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other
side of an equation; the word muqabalah is said to refer
to reduction or balancing that is, the cancellation of
[1] algebra. Online Etymology Dictionary.
like terms on opposite sides of the equation.
[2] I. N. Herstein, Topics in Algebra, An algebraic system can [19] (Boyer 1991, The Arabic Hegemony p. 230) The six
be described as a set of objects together with some oper- cases of equations given above exhaust all possibilities for
ations for combining them. p. 1, Ginn and Company, linear and quadratic equations having positive root. So
1964 systematic and exhaustive was al-Khwarizmis exposition
that his readers must have had little diculty in mastering
[3] I. N. Herstein, Topics in Algebra, "...it also serves as the
the solutions.
unifying thread which interlaces almost all of mathemat-
ics. p. 1, Ginn and Company, 1964 [20] Gandz and Saloman (1936), The sources of al-
Khwarizmis algebra, Osiris i, p. 263277: In a sense,
[4] Omar Khayym
Khwarizmi is more entitled to be called the father of
[5] Omar Khayyam. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 algebra than Diophantus because Khwarizmi is the rst
October 2014. to teach algebra in an elementary form and for its own
sake, Diophantus is primarily concerned with the theory
[6] (Boyer 1991, Europe in the Middle Ages p. 258) In of numbers.
the arithmetical theorems in Euclids Elements VII-IX,
[21] Rashed, R.; Armstrong, Angela (1994). The Development
numbers had been represented by line segments to which
of Arabic Mathematics. Springer. pp. 112. ISBN 0-
letters had been attached, and the geometric proofs in
7923-2565-6. OCLC 29181926
al-Khwarizmis Algebra made use of lettered diagrams;
but all coecients in the equations used in the Algebra [22] O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., Sharaf al-Din
are specic numbers, whether represented by numerals or al-Muzaar al-Tusi, MacTutor History of Mathematics
written out in words. The idea of generality is implied in archive, University of St Andrews.
al-Khwarizmis exposition, but he had no scheme for ex-
pressing algebraically the general propositions that are so [23] Victor J. Katz, Bill Barton; Barton, Bill (October
readily available in geometry. 2007). Stages in the History of Algebra with Impli-
cations for Teaching. Educational Studies in Mathe-
[7] algebra. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University matics (Springer Netherlands) 66 (2): 185201 [192].
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8 11 EXTERNAL LINKS

[24] (Boyer 1991, The Arabic Hegemony p. 239) Abu'l 11 External links
Wefa was a capable algebraist as well as a trigonometer.
... His successor al-Karkhi evidently used this translation Khan Academy: Conceptual videos and worked ex-
to become an Arabic disciple of Diophantus but with-
amples
out Diophantine analysis! ... In particular, to al-Karkhi is
attributed the rst numerical solution of equations of the Khan Academy: Origins of Algebra, free online mi-
form ax2n + bxn = c (only equations with positive roots cro lectures
were considered),
Algebrarules.com: An open source resource for
[25] "The Origins of Abstract Algebra". University of Hawaii learning the fundamentals of Algebra
Mathematics Department.
4000 Years of Algebra, lecture by Robin Wilson, at
[26] "The Collected Mathematical Papers".Cambridge Uni- Gresham College, October 17, 2007 (available for
versity Press. MP3 and MP4 download, as well as a text le).
[27] Hulls Algebra (pdf). New York Times. July 16, 1904. Algebra entry by Vaughan Pratt in the Stanford En-
Retrieved September 21, 2012. cyclopedia of Philosophy

[28] Quaid, Libby (September 22, 2008). Kids misplaced in


algebra (Report). Associated Press. Retrieved September
23, 2012.

[29] Hamilton, Reeve (7 September 2012). THE TEXAS


TRIBUNE; U.T.-Arlington Adopts New Way to Tackle
Algebra. The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September
2012.

10 References
Boyer, Carl B. (1991), A History of Mathematics
(Second ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 0-471-
54397-7

Donald R. Hill, Islamic Science and Engineering


(Edinburgh University Press, 1994).

Ziauddin Sardar, Jerry Ravetz, and Borin Van Loon,


Introducing Mathematics (Totem Books, 1999).

George Gheverghese Joseph, The Crest of the Pea-


cock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics (Penguin
Books, 2000).

John J O'Connor and Edmund F Robertson, History


Topics: Algebra Index. In MacTutor History of
Mathematics archive (University of St Andrews,
2005).

I.N. Herstein: Topics in Algebra. ISBN 0-471-


02371-X

R.B.J.T. Allenby: Rings, Fields and Groups. ISBN


0-340-54440-6

L. Euler: Elements of Algebra, ISBN 978-1-899618-


73-6

Asimov, Isaac (1961). Realm of Algebra. Houghton


Miin.
9

12 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


12.1 Text
Algebra Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebra?oldid=710199407 Contributors: AxelBoldt, Brion VIBBER, Mav, Bryan Derksen,
Zundark, Tarquin, Ed Poor, Andre Engels, Oliverkroll, David spector, Heron, Netesq, Stevertigo, Spi~enwiki, Frecklefoot, Boud, Xavic69,
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Tcop, Lantonov, RedKlonoa, Ncmvocalist, Nymphomaniac~enwiki, Nemo bis, Samtheboy, TylerDorsanoTJmans, Gurchzilla, AntiSpam-
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Ezh, Paolo.dL, Ur ugly face, JuanFox, Oxymoron83, Editor91, Weston.pace, JackSchmidt, RSStockdale, Hornetchuck, Skull eyes, Macy,
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Iraq-Irak~enwiki, BANMENOWPLZ, Thingg, Franklin.vp, Puranjan Dev, Heatmizer323, BlueDevil, NERIC-Security, Masterjake1295,
Arc112, Sgunteratparamus.k12.nj.us, Pichpich, WikHead, Makmac22, RyanCross, Markerdancerboy, Nabuchadnessar, Flatbush756, Ad-
dbot, Morriswa, Metagraph, SpellingBot, Aaronthegr8, Kpthanuman, CanadianLinuxUser, Eleinax0x0, WFPM, Sweetkidjoey, Bumdah,
Joel Butts, CarsracBot, Vega2, Z. Patterson, Tumadreescaliente, Saycgthm999, AgadaUrbanit, Youlittlehandsomeguy, VASANTH S.N.,
Gail, Zorrobot, TeH nOmInAtOr, Jarble, Kamek900, Jim, Undeadwarlock, Luckas-bot, Yobot, 2D, Senator Palpatine, Kan8eDie, THEN
WHO WAS PHONE?, Dale S. Satre, AnomieBOT, Manouchehr78~enwiki, Rjanag, Galoubet, JackieBot, AllUrBseRB3l0ngToM3, NickK,
Thebrat132, The High Fin Sperm Whale, Citation bot, Lolololh4x, Stargazer84, Dagger20, Xqbot, TinucherianBot II, Timir2, S56k,
Drilnoth, Gigemag76, Poetaris, Bubbles16 22, Xedret, Srich32977, GrouchoBot, Gott wisst, GhalyBot, Zytroft, GliderMaven, FrescoBot,
Tobby72, Citation bot 1, Iterate, Ebony Jackson, Historyscholar123, 1to0to-1, Jujutacular, AustralianMelodrama, Gamewizard71, FoxBot,
, TobeBot, Buddy23Lee, Alokprasad, JLincoln, Diannaa, RjwilmsiBot, EmausBot, John of Reading, Martin OGrady Blue Is-
land IL, GoingBatty, ZxxZxxZ, Leslie.Hetherington, Mz7, DonToto, Bryce Carmony, AOC25, Quondum, D.Lazard, Aarp65, EdoBot,
10 12 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Wcherowi, JimsMaher, SusikMkr, Yourmomblah, Rurik the Varangian, Lincoln Josh, Miracle dream, Helpful Pixie Bot, Curb Chain,
John Cummings, Northamerica1000, Benefac, Mysterytrey, Eective Light, ShellPond, Teika kazura, Brad7777, DrLewisphd, Cengime,
BattyBot, Kodiologist, Class Avesta, Mark L MacDonald, Hmainsbot1, Jamietwells, Tary123, YvelinesFrance, William2001, HistoryofI-
ran, Wikifan2744, Jackmcbarn, WikiEnthusiastNumberTwenty-Two, Omphalosskeptic, Raymond37, JMP EAX, KasparBot, MNBVCXZ,
NuturalObserver and Anonymous: 608

12.2 Images
File:Algebraic_equation_notation.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Algebraic_equation_notation.
svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: PC generated image Original artist: Iantresman / Iantresman at English Wikipedia
File:Arithmetic_symbols.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Arithmetic_symbols.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: This vector image was created with Inkscape by Elembis, and then manually replaced.
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contribu-
tors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-by-
sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Gerolamo_Cardano_(colour).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/2f/Gerolamo_Cardano_%28colour%29.
jpg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Image-Al-Kitb_al-mutaar_f_isb_al-abr_wa-l-muqbala.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/2/23/Image-Al-Kit%C4%81b_al-mu%E1%B8%ABta%E1%B9%A3ar_f%C4%AB_%E1%B8%A5is%C4%81b_al-%C4%
9Fabr_wa-l-muq%C4%81bala.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: John L. Esposito. The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0195107993. Original artist: Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
File:People_icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/37/People_icon.svg License: CC0 Contributors: Open-
Clipart Original artist: OpenClipart
File:Polynomialdeg3.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a3/Polynomialdeg3.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Polynomialdeg3.png Original artist: N.Mori
File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Quadratic_formula.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Quadratic_formula.svg License: Public do-
main Contributors: Wolfram Mathworld Original artist: Jamie Twells
File:Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Wikibooks-logo-en-noslogan.
svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.
File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk contribs),
based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber

12.3 Content license


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