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SPREADSHEET

A spreadsheet is a group of values and other data organized into rows and
columns. In computers, spreadsheets are created using spreadsheet software.
Spreadsheet software is a computer application that enhances the users
productivity in capturing, storing and analysis tabular data. Spreadsheet
software is also called spreadsheet program, spreadsheet package or
spreadsheet application. Examples of spreadsheet software are Microsoft Excel,
Lotus 1-2-3, Google Sheet, Numbers, K-Spread, Libre Office.org Calc etc.
Spreadsheet software contains tools and features that make capturing, storing,
analyzing and sharing data easy.

Uses of Spreadsheet Software

Spreadsheet software has many uses, some of these are:

1. For analyzing statistical data


2. For creating school end-of-term report
3. For performing calculations
4. For preparing financial statements
5. For generating graphs
6. For inventory keeping
7. For generating payrolls
8. For preparing projected estimates of goods and services

Some Professionals that use Spreadsheet Software

1. Teachers
2. Accountants
3. Engineers
4. Sales Personnel
5. Marketers
6. Database Administrators
7. Financial Analysts
8. Scientists etc

Advantages of Spreadsheets

1. Formulae make calculations easier


2. Automatic recalculation makes data editing easy
3. Data can be easily shared over a network
4. Graphs can be easily generated
5. Spreadsheet files are small in size and occupy less space
6. They are easy to learn and use by beginners
7. Certain tasks can be automated

Disadvantages Of Spreadsheets

1. They can be attacked by viruses


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2. Without computers and electrical power they cannot be used
3. For extensive usage, skill training is required

Related Terminologies

1. Worksheet: A document in a spreadsheet program.


2. Workbook: A collection of worksheets saved as a single file.
3. Row: A horizontal stack of cells on a worksheet. Rows are identified by
numbers.
4. Column: A vertical stack of cells on a worksheet. Columns are identified
by alphabets.
5. Cell: A location at the intersection of a row and a column on a worksheet.
6. Cell Range: A group of adjoining cells treated as a unit on a worksheet.
E.g. A1:B5, A1:A10.
7. Gridlines: Are the thin lines that form the borders of rows, columns and
cells on a worksheet.
8. Formula: Is an expression that performs logical or arithmetic operations
on worksheet data and place the result in a cell. A formula begins with an
= or + sign.
9. Function: Is a named formula. E.g. Sum, Average, Min, Max, Frequency,
Count, If, Now, etc
10. Chart: Is a pictorial representation of spreadsheet data.
11. Constant Value: A numerical entry in worksheet cell.
12. Label: A text-based entry in a worksheet cell that identifies data on
the worksheet.
13. Cell Address: A combination of the column alphabet followed by
the row number of a cell. A cells address tells the location of that cell.
E.g. A1, C5, D7 etc
14. Active Cell: This is the cell that currently has the cell pointer in a
worksheet.

MICROSOFT EXCEL 2010


Microsoft Office Excel is the most popular spreadsheet software in use today.
Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Excel for short) is one of the software that form
the Microsoft Office Suite. The Microsoft Office Suite is designed, developed and
marketed by Microsoft Corporation. Some versions of Microsoft Excel include
Microsoft Office Excel 2000, Microsoft Office Excel XP, Microsoft Office Excel
2002, Microsoft Office Excel 2003, Microsoft Office Excel 2007, Microsoft Office
Excel 2010, and Microsoft Office Excel 2013.

Launching Microsoft Excel 2010

1. Click Start on the taskbar


2. Click Programs
3. Click Microsoft Office
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4. Click Microsoft Excel 2010

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Navigating Around A Worksheet

To navigate around a worksheet, use the following

METHOD POSITION OF CELL POINTER / USAGE


Mouse Click Click any cell with the mouse to move there
Cursor or Arrow keys on the Use the cursor keys to move in the direction of
keyboard the arrow one cell at a time
Enter key Moves one cell down and confirms an entry
Tab key Moves one cell to the right
Ctrl + Home Moves back to cell A1
Home Moves to the first cell in a row
Ctrl + End Moves to the last cell in a worksheet
Ctrl + PgDown Moves to the next worksheet in a workbook
Ctrl + PgUp Moves to the previous worksheet in a
workbook
F5 Moves to a designated cell

Excel Defaults
In Microsoft Excel 2010, the default
Font Type is Calibri
Font Size is 11pt
Font Colour is Black or Automatic
Alignment is Left for Labels and Right for Constant Values
Number of worksheets is three
Active Cell is A1
Active Worksheet is Sheet1

Entering Data
In spreadsheets, data is entered into a cell. A cell can contain three different
types of data, namely; Constant Value, Label and Formula.
To enter data, click on a cell to make it active and type the data then
press enter to confirm.
To delete data, select the cell that contains the data and press Delete on
the keyboard.
To edit the content of a cell, select the cell and then press F2 on the
keyboard to insert the cursor, then edit the data and press Enter on the
keyboard to confirm.
Active 1
ATI FRUITELLERS GHANA
LTD. Open Microsoft Excel 2010 and create the
Fruit Quantit Price(GH Total table below
y )
Mango 105 0.50
Pineapple 26 1.50
Orange 215 0.20
Banana 169 0.20
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Lemon 300 0.10
Coconut 50 2.00
Watermelon 30 5.00
Saving A New Workbook
1. Click File on the Tab List
2. Click Save As
3. Browse to the directory where the workbook would be saved
4. Type the name of the workbook in the File Name box
5. Click Save

Retrieving A Saved Workbook


1. Click File on the Tab List
2. Click Open
3. Browse to the directory where the workbook is located
4. Click the target workbook
5. Click Open

Saving Changes To An Existing Workbook


1. Click File on the Tab List
2. Click Save

WORKSHEET MANIPULATIONS
In order to create an understandable and professional document you will need
to make adjustments to the cells, rows, columns and text. Use the following
processes to assist when creating a spreadsheet.
Selecting A Cells, Columns and Rows
To select a cell, column, row Do this
or range
A single cell Click the cell, or press the arrow keys to move to
the cell.
A range of cells Click the first cell in the range, and then drag to
the last cell, or hold down SHIFT while you press
the arrow keys to extend the selection.
A large range of cells Click the first cell in the range, and then hold
down SHIFT while you click the last cell in the
range. You can scroll to make the last cell visible.
All cells on a worksheet Click the Select All button or press CTRL+A.
Nonadjacent cells or cell Select the first cell or range of cells, and then
ranges hold down CTRL while you select the other cells
or ranges.
NOTE: You cannot cancel the selection of a cell or
range of cells in a nonadjacent selection without
canceling the entire selection.
An entire row or column Click the row or column heading.
Row heading
Column heading
Adjacent rows or columns Drag across the row or column headings. Or
select the first row or column; then hold down
SHIFT while you select the last row or column.
Nonadjacent rows or columns Click the column or row heading of the first row or
column in your selection; then hold down CTRL
while you click the column or row headings of

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other rows or columns that you want to add to
the selection.
Cells to the last used cell on Select the first cell, and then press
the worksheet (lower-right CTRL+SHIFT+END to extend the selection of cells
corner) to the last used cell on the worksheet (lower-right
corner).
Cells to the beginning of the Select the first cell, and then press
worksheet CTRL+SHIFT+HOME to extend the selection of
cells to the beginning of the worksheet.
Adjusting A Column Width
To adjust the width of a column there are two methods.
Method 1
1. Position the mouse pointer on the right border of columns header
2. Click and drag left or right to reduce or increase the width respectively
Method 2
1. Position the mouse pointer on the right border of columns header
2. Double click to auto-fit the width of the column to its contents
Adjusting A Row Height
To adjust the height of a row there are two methods.
Method 1
1. Position the mouse pointer on the bottom border of rows number
2. Click and drag down or up to reduce or increase the height respectively
Method 2
1. Position the mouse pointer on the bottom border of rows number
2. Double click to auto-fit the height of the row to its contents

Inserting A Column
Method 1
1. Right Click on a cell in the column to the right of the column where you want to
insert the new column.
2. Click Insert on the context menu that is displayed
3. Click Entire Column on the dialogue box displayed
4. Click Ok

Method 2
1. Click on a cell in the column to the right of the column where you want to insert
the new column.
2. Click the small arrow under Insert on the Home tab
3. Click Insert Sheet Columns

Inserting A Row
Method 1
1. Right Click on a cell in the row to the below of the row where you want to insert
the new row.
2. Click Insert on the context menu that is displayed
3. Click Entire Row on the dialogue box displayed
4. Click Ok

Method 2

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1. Click on a cell in the row to the below of the column where you want to
insert the new row.
2. Click the small arrow under Insert on the Home tab
3. Click Insert Sheet Rows

Deleting A Column
Method 1
1. Right click on a cell in the column you want to delete
2. Click Delete on the context menu that appears
3. Click Entire Column
4. Click OK

Method 2
1. Click on a cell in the column you want to delete
2. Click the small arrow under Delete on the Home tab
3. Click Delete Sheet Columns

Deleting A Row

Method 1
1. Right click on a cell in the row you want to delete
2. Click Delete on the context menu that appears
3. Click Entire Row
4. Click OK

Method 2
1. Click on a cell in the row you want to delete
2. Click the small arrow under Delete on the Home tab
3. Click Delete Sheet Rows

Inserting A Worksheet
Method 1
1. Click the worksheet tab of the worksheet after which you want to insert
the new worksheet
2. Click the Insert Worksheet button to the right of your worksheet tabs.
(Shortcut: Shift+F11)

Method 2
1. Click the worksheet tab of the worksheet after which you want to insert
the new worksheet
2. Click the small arrow under Insert on the Home tab
3. Click Insert Worksheet

Method 3
1. Right Click the worksheet tab of the worksheet after which you want to insert
the new worksheet
2. Click the Insert on the context menu displayed
3. Click Worksheet
4. Click Ok

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Deleting A Worksheet
Method 1

1. Right click on the worksheet tab of the worksheet you want to delete
2. Click Delete on the context menu that appears

Method 2
1. Click on the worksheet tab of the worksheet you want to delete
2. Click the small arrow under Delete on the Home tab
3. Click Delete Worksheet

Renaming A Worksheet

1. Right click the worksheet tab of the worksheet you want to rename
2. Click Rename on the context menu displayed
3. Type the new name and press enter on the keyboard

CUT, COPY, AND PASTE DATA


You can use the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands in Microsoft Office Excel to
move or copy entire cells or their contents. NOTE: Excel displays an animated
moving border around cells that have been cut or copied. To cancel a moving
border, press ESC.

Move/Copy Cells
When you move or copy a cell, Excel moves or copies the entire cell, including
formulas and their resulting values, cell formats, and comments.
1. Select the cells that you want to move or copy.
2. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, do one of the following:
a. To move cells, click Cut .
b. To copy cells, click Copy .
3. Click in the center of the cell you would like to Paste the information too.
4. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click Paste.
NOTES: Excel replaces existing data in the paste area when you cut and paste
cells to move them.
When you copy cells, cell references are automatically adjusted. If the selected
copy or paste area includes hidden cells, Excel also copies the hidden cells. You
may need to temporarily unhide cells that you don't want to include when you
copy information.

Move/Copy Cells with Mouse


1. Select the cells or a range of cells that you want to move or copy.
2. To move a cell or range of cells, point to the border of the selection. When
the pointer becomes a move pointer, drag the cell or range of cells to
another location.

MERGE OR SPLIT CELLS


When you merge two or more adjacent horizontal or vertical cells the cells
become one larger cell that is displayed across multiple columns or rows. When

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you merge multiple cells, the contents of only one cell appear in the merged
cell.

Merge and Center Cells


1. Select two or more adjacent cells that you want to merge.
2. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click Merge and Center.
3. The cells will be merged in a row or column, and the cell contents will be
centered in the merged cell.

Merge Cells
To merge cells only, click the arrow next to Merge and Center,
and then click Merge Across or Merge Cells.

Split Cells
1. Select the merged cell you want to split
2. To split the merged cell, click Merge and Center. The cells will split and
the contents of the merged cell will appear in the upper-left cell of the
range of split cells.
Automatically Fill Data
To quickly fill in several types of data series, you can select cells and drag
the fill handle. To use the fill handle, you select the cells that you want to use
as a basis for filling additional cells, and then drag the fill handle across or
down the cells that you want to fill.

1. Select the cell that contains the formula that you want to be brought to
other cells.
2. Move your curser to the small black square in the lower-right corner of a
selected cell also known as the fill handle. Your pointer will change to a
small black cross.
3. Click and hold your mouse then drag the fill handle across the cells,
horizontally to the right or vertically down, that you want to fill.
4. The cells you want filled will have a gray looking border around them.
Once you fill all of the cells let go of your mouse and your cells will be
populated.

FORMATTING SHEETS
Formatting is the process of changing the appearance of text in a worksheet. In
spreadsheets, when cells are formatted their content inherit that formatting.
Formatting is done to enhance the appearance of the worksheet.
Changing the Alignment of a cell or range
1. Select the cell or range of cells
2. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click the alignment of your
choice (ie. Left, center, right or justify)
Changing the Orientation of text
You can rotate text in a cell at any angle by changing the cell orientation.
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1. Select the cell or range of cells
2. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click on Orientation
3. Select the Orientation of your choice
Wrap Text
You can display multiple lines of text inside a cell by wrapping the text.
Wrapping text in a cell does not affect other cells.
1. Click the cell in which you want to wrap the text.
2. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click Wrap Text.
3. The text in your cell will be wrapped.
NOTE: If the text is a long word, the characters won't wrap (the word
won't be split); instead, you can widen the column or decrease the font
size to see all the text. If all the text is not visible after you wrap the text,
you might have to adjust the height of the row. On the Home tab, in the
Cells group, click Format, and then under Cell Size click AutoFit Row

Format Numbers
In Excel, the format of a cell is separate from the data that is stored in the cell.
This display difference can have a significant effect when the data is numeric.
For example, numbers in cells will default as rounded numbers, date and time
may not appear as anticipated. After you type numbers in a cell, you can
change the format in which they are displayed to ensure the numbers in your
spreadsheet are displayed as you intended.

1. Click the cell(s) that contains the numbers that you want to format.
2. On the Home tab, in the Number group, click the arrow next to the
Number Format box, and then click the format that you want.
If you are unable to format numbers in the detail you would like that you can
click on the More Number Formats at the bottom of the Number Format drop
down list.
1. In the Category list, click the format that you want to use, and then adjust
settings to the right of the Format Cells dialog box. For example, if youre
using the Currency format, you can select a different currency symbol,
show more or fewer decimal places, or change the way negative numbers
are displayed.

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Cell Borders
By using predefined border styles, you can quickly add a border around cells or
ranges of cells. If predefined cell borders do not meet your needs, you can
create a custom border. NOTE: Cell borders that you apply appear on printed
pages. If you do not use cell borders but want worksheet gridline borders for all
cells to be visible on printed pages, you can display the gridlines.
Apply Cell Borders

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1. On a worksheet, select the cell or range of cells that
you want to add a border to, change the border style
on, or remove a border from.
2. Go to the Home tab, in the Font group
3. Click the arrow next to Borders
4. Click on the border style you would like
5. The border will be applied to the cell or cell range
NOTE: To apply a custom border style, click More
Borders. In the Format Cells dialog box, on the
Border tab, under Line and Color, click the line
style and color that you want.

Remove Cell Borders


1. Go to the Home tab, in the Font group
2. Click the arrow next to Borders
3. Click No Border.
NOTES: The Borders button displays the most
recently used border style. You can click the Borders button (not the
arrow) to apply that style
Cell and Text Coloring
You can also modify a variety of cell and text colors manually.
Cell Fill
1. Select the cells that you want to apply or remove a fill color from.
2. Go to the Home tab, in the Font group and select one of the following
options:
a. To fill cells with a solid color, click the arrow next to Fill Color, and
then under Theme Colors or Standard Colors, click the color that you
want.
b. To fill cells with a custom color, click the arrow next to Fill Color, click
More Colors, and then in the Colors dialog box select the color that
you want.
c. To apply the most recently selected color, click Fill Color
NOTE: Microsoft Excel saves your 10 most recently selected custom colors. To quickly
apply one of these colors, click the arrow next to Fill Color, and then click the color
that you want under Recent Colors.
Remove Cell Fill
1. Select the cells that contain a fill color or fill pattern.
2. On the Home tab, in the Font group, click the arrow next to Fill Color, and
then click No Fill.
Text Color
1. Select the cell, range of cells, text, or characters that you want to format
with a different text color.
2. On the Home tab, in the Font group and select one of the following
options:
a. To apply the most recently selected text color, click Font Color.
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b. To change the text color, click the arrow next to Font Color, and then
under Theme Colors or Standard Colors, click the color that you want
to use.

Bold, Underline and Italics Text


1. Select the cell, range of cells, or text.
2. Go to the Home tab, in the Font group
3. Click on the Bold (B) Italics (I) or Underline (U) commands.
4. The selected command will be applied.
Customize Worksheet Tab
1. On the Sheet tab bar, right-click the sheet tab that you want to customize
2. Click Rename to rename the sheet or Tab Color to select a tab color.
3. Type in the name or select a color you would like for your spreadsheet.
4. The information will be added to the tab at the bottom of the spreadsheet.

FORMULAE AND FUNCTIONS


FORMULA
A Formula is an expression that performs logical or arithmetic operations on
worksheet data and place the result in a cell. A formula begins with an = or +
sign. An example of a simple is =5+2*3 that multiplies two numbers and then
adds a number to the result. However, we mostly use the cell addresses of the
cells containing the figures in the formula instead of the figure itself. Example if
cell A1 contains 5 and B1 contains 10. To add the numbers we would type our
formula in this way; =A1 + B1. Formulae are typed in the cell where the answer
is expected. After typing a formula you press enter to confirm.

Formulas are used for all calculations in Excel. Formulae in Excel also follow the
BODMAS rule. The following symbols are used for the operations .

Operation Symbol Example


Addition + =A5+B6
Subtraction - =A5-B6
Multiplication * =A5*B6
Division / =A5/B6
Exponentiation ^ =A5^2

A formula can combine many of these operations. Example =(A5+B6)*B5

Create a Simple Formula

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FUNCTIONS
A function is a predefined formula built into a spreadsheet program. Using
functions make calculations easier than typing your own formula. Examples of
functions include Sum, Average, Min, Max, Now, Count, If, ABS, FV, PMT,
Frequency etc.

Functions can be categorized into;

1. Maths Functions, examples: ABS, SQRT, Sum, Product, Quotient, Power,


Round, Rand etc
2. Statistical functions, examples: Average, Min, Max, Frequency, Prob,
Count, etc
3. Financial functions, examples: FV, PMT, ACCRINT, IPMT, PV etc
4. Date and Time functions, examples: Now, DateValue, Days360, Day,
Hour, Minute etc
5. Logical functions, examples: If, Not, And, True, False, Or, Iferror etc

Some common functions and the uses

N Function Use
o.

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1 ABS() Returns the absolute value of a number
2 SQRT() Returns the positive square root of a number
3 Sum() Adds a group of numbers
4 Product() Multiples a group of numbers
5 Quotient() Returns the integer portion of a division
6 Power() Returns the result of a number raised to a power
7 Round() Rounds a number to a specified number of digits
8 Rand() Returns a random number between 0 and 1
9 Average() Returns the average of its range
10 Min() Returns the lowest value its range
11 Max() Returns the highest value its range
12 Frequency() Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array
13 Count() Counts how many numbers are in its range
14 ACCRINT() Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays
periodic interest
15 FV() Returns the future value of an investment
16 PMT() Returns the periodic payment for an annuity
17 IPMT() Returns the interest payment for an investment for a
given period
18 PV() Returns the present value of an investment
19 NOW() Returns the serial number of the current date and time
20 IF() Specifies a logical test to perform

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