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- A Modified SEPIC Converter for High power factor Rectifier and Universal Input Voltage Applications
- Buck Converter Schematic
- AFE Basics Danfoss
- 2D Eddy Current Guide
- Alcon Electrolytic Capacitors
- 34063 Ad Car Act
- Determination of the Ampacity
- Mean Well SD-100 series
- Performance of Buck-Boost Converter with Mode Select Circuit and Feed Forward Technique
- Unit1 Doc-Versi Bi
- An AC–DC LED Driver With a Two-Parallel Inverted Buck Topology for Reducing the Light Flicker in Lighting Applications to Low-Risk Levels
- Thanseela Resume
- volume52-number1
- EE305
- Unit 3
- DPC_ Final Exam
- lclfilterdesign-160806210229.pdf
- PWM Converters
- TME Series.pdf
- 00973238

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Universidad Politcnica de Madrid (UPM)

Divisin de Ingeniera Electrnica (DIE)

Jos Gutirrez Abascal, 2

28006 Madrid SPAIN

Tel: 34-91-411 75 17 Fax: 34-91-564 59 66

email: rprieto@upmdie.upm.es

ABSTRACT measurement of the actual sample. However, the

modeling stage is a terrific tool in order to validate the

Commonly, the magnetic component designer focuses

design at device and converter levels. An accurate

the design on the performance of the magnetic

model avoids the construction of the magnetic

component without a detailed analysis of the whole

component until the expected results are obtained. The

circuit. However, a complete design process should

combination of the model with the circuit simulator

cover different stages, from the analytical design to the

provides the whole solution to complete a virtual

circuit simulation using accurate models. This paper

prototyping of the magnetic component based on

presents a design example where it is highlighted the

computer simulation. Obviously, this procedure

importance of designing inductors not just from the

becomes efficient if the designer is able to apply a set of

point of view of the device itself but from the point of

tools easy to use. In other words, if the transition

view of the circuit where the component is working. It is

between design, model and simulation tools is easy, and

shown that the optimum design depends on the working

there is not a need to learn different and complicate

mode of the converter and therefore, the design should

tools in order to generate models valid for circuit

be analyzed applying circuit simulations in order to

simulators.

verify the selected configuration.

This work presents a design case where all these issues

are illustrated. The design example is the inductor of a

I. INTRODUCTION buck converter for an automotive application.

There are many topologies of power converter

Section II presents the different design stages that are

containing inductors (Buck, Boost, Buck-Boost,

proposed to be completed in any magnetic component

Forward, Push-Pull, Half-Bridge, Full-Bridge,...). The

design.

efficiency, size and behavior of the converter depend

drastically on the design of this inductor. The inductor Section III describes the application of the previously

design is commonly oriented to optimize the device mentioned design stages to one specific design case.

using the voltage and current waveforms as design input The difference among the different design stages will be

data. However, the real design goal should be oriented highlighted. The importance of cover all the stages will

to the converter behavior, and not the inductor behavior. be shown with this specific case.

Furthermore, the design of the inductor must be

Finally, a summary of the work will be presented in

carefully selected depending on the working points of

section IV.

the converter, because the optimum design could be

different for each working point.

II. DESIGN STAGES

A complete design process should cover different

stages. The first and common one is the application of The design of a magnetic component is a task that

analytical expressions in order to obtain the optimum should be completed in different stages. However, most

design in terms of losses. This design should be oriented of the magnetic component designers only cover part of

to the worse operating point of the inductor in terms the whole process. A complete design process should

of saturation. The output data of this stage is usually the cover the stages described in the following sections.

core shape and size, the core material, the conductor

size, the number of turns and the gap length. Commonly, 2.1. Analytical design

this is the only stage covers by many designers. The This stage covers the selection of:

generation of a model of the selected design is

something that usually is difficult for many designers, Core shape (EE, POT, RM, EP,), size (RM8,

and the information that is supposed to extract from RM14,) and material (3F3, N87,)

Conductor type (Solid, foil, litz,) difficulties to extract a model become a reason to skip

Number of turns and number of parallel wires this stage. However, for most of the cases, the use of the

Gap length model in the circuit simulator will help the designer to

be able to design at converter level, and not just at

The selection of all those constructive parameters is

device level. If the model is accurate enough, the

usually performed applying analytical expressions using

simulation of the whole circuit with different designs of

as input data several of the following parameters:

magnetic components, will be a very useful tool in order

Switching frequency to show the impact of the magnetic component design

Inductance value or current ripple on the circuit behavior. It is important to highlight that

Voltage and current waveforms the model should be accurate enough. This means that

Maximum flux density it should not be more or less accurate than needed. For

example, if the designer is generating the model of a two

The quality of the design depends on the expressions winding transformer composed by two layers of round

that have been applied for the calculations, especially conductors filling the whole window height, an

the modeling of the losses. There is a trade-off between analytical model based on 1D field distribution

accuracy of the results and time to design. It should be assumption is more than enough. It has no sense to

highlighted that in terms of design purposes it is more apply Finite Element Techniques in order to generate a

important to obtain better qualitative results than model for these simple components because the

quantitative results. In other words, it is more results are approximately the same than the ones that

important to know that one design is better than another can be obtained applying analytical methods, but the

one (for example in term of losses), even if the absolute time to generate the model will be several magnitude

value of the losses for both designs are not extremely orders higher. Figure 1 shows a comparison between a

accurate. Therefore, the design process and the model based on Finite Elements and an analytical one

expressions applied should guarantee that the obtained based on transmission lines for a simple transformer.

results yield to these conclusions. It can be seen that the results are approximately the

There are two main difficulties to get the optimum same.

design for a magnetic component:

Resistance

1. There are many degrees of freedom to be considered

(core size, core shape, core material, conductor type,

conductor dimensions, number of parallel wires, )

2. The wire losses and core losses are geometry and

Reactance

1D model

complicate task that could make ineffective

(time/results ratio) the design process. Therefore, 2D model

commonly, the designer uses simplified expressions

in order to make more efficient the design process in

terms of time. However, the designer should be

caution about the expressions because the Frequency

simplifications could make useless the design

Figure 1. Comparison of 1D and FEA based models

process. Therefore, a computer aided design is a

good alternative for designing magnetic components.

However, if there are two dimensional effects that could

In the following section it will be highlighted that a

affect on the design, the analytical approaches could

wrong design process could yield to select a wrong

become insufficient. For example, if the magnetic

design.

component contains an air gap, the effect of the fringing

flux around the gap could be a critical design parameter.

2.2. Modeling In this case, the application of Finite Elements

The modeling stage provides a model of the previously Techniques is a very good alternative to take into

designed magnetic component in order to be used for account this effect. Figure 2 shows a comparison

device and system optimization. The combination of the between a model based on Finite Elements and an

model with the circuit simulator is a powerful tool in analytical one based on transmission lines for a gapped

order to optimize the constructive parameters of the component. It can be seen that the differences between

component. Many times, with a wrong criterion, the the analytical approaches, where the fringing flux effect

designer assumes that the model stage does not provide is not considered, and the Finite Element based model is

useful information for the design. Other times, the now very important.

Resistance particular example. The lower the ripple, the higher the

inductance. Therefore, applying the expressions that

2D model command the buck converter behavior, the waveform

applied to the buck inductor presents the specifications

shown in table 2.

Reactance

25 A 4.29 A 10 H 28.6 %

1D model Table 2. Input variables for the inductor

As mentioned before, the design stage is usually based

Frequency on analytical expressions in order to make it effective

Figure 2. Comparison of 1D and FEA based models from the point of view of the time/accuracy trade-off.

Simple analytical expressions will be applied in this

In the next section, a practical example will be used in example in order to illustrate the results of the design

order to illustrate how the model can be useful in order stage. Alternatively, a CAD tool specially tailored for

to select the proper design. magnetic component designs [1] will also be applied in

this specific example in order to compare these two

2.3. Circuit simulation design approaches.

Finally, the magnetic component design should be There are several steps that should be covered during

oriented to the converter level. In other words, it is the design stage:

convenient to simulate the whole circuit with the model

of the magnetic component in order to validate the

design. At this point it is possible to modify the working 3.1.1. Core selection

conditions of the converter in order to validate the Among the multiple design variables that should be

design under different working conditions. The selected in order to design a magnetic component, the

implementation of the model in a circuit simulator core is one of the key elements. The efficiency and size

netlist, is a very efficient way to carry out this stage. of the design depends strongly on the core selection.

Once again, the use of a CAD tool [1] that aids the

Usually, the core shape is selected accordingly to the

designer to create the model netlist from the design

application (power inductor, current transformer, RF

stage is the easier and more effective way to finish the

filter,). For this application, a POT shape seems

design loop.

reasonable.

The core size selection is based on the power that

III. DESIGN EXAMPLE

should be handled by the component. The area

In order to illustrate different alternatives designing a product (product of the window area by the effective

magnetic component, an inductor for a buck converter area of the core) is a very common rule applied in order

has been selected as design example. The specifications to select the core size. This parameter takes into account

of the converter correspond to a typical automotive the maximum apparent power that the device is able to

application. The specifications of the selected buck handle. Following the data-book recommendations, four

converter are shown in table 1. sizes will be considered for this design example:

POT26/16, POT30/19, POT36/22 and POT42/29.

The core material selection is usually based on the

operating frequency. However, the operating

frequency should be carefully selected accounting for

the harmonic content of the waveform, and not only

based on the fundamental harmonic. It is very different a

current waveform operating at 200 kHz with a large

ripple than another one with a small ripple, because the

Input Voltage(Vi) Output Voltage (Vo) Frequency Output Power last one could be assumed as a constant current. In other

42 V 14 V 200 kHz 300 W

Table 1. Buck converter specifications

words, the DC/AC ratio of the waveforms should be the

real parameter that should be used in order to select the

The converter specifications can be translated into material for the core. In this particular example the

waveform specifications. The current ripple is another material that has been selected is Ferroxcube 3F3.

degree of freedom that has been selected as 72% for this

3.1.2. Wire Selection 2. The expression (2) is only valid if the skin and

proximity effects are negligible. This could be

The diameter of the wires should be selected in order to

commonly true for the first harmonics, but not for

minimize the losses as much as possible. The diameter

the high order harmonics. Therefore, it is convenient

should be selected accounting for the harmonic content

to take into account the AC resistance in order to

of the current waveform. As mentioned above, the

calculate accurately the copper losses. The problem

DC/AC ratio of the current is the parameter that should

is that there are not simple equations to calculate the

be used as reference for the diameter selection. For

resistance considering the skin and proximity effects.

example, if the waveform applied to the inductor is a

Probably, the most commonly applied equations to

sinusoidal one operating at f Hz, the maximum diameter

consider the AC resistance are the Dowell [2]

should be two times the skin depth () in order to take

equations. These equations are not very complex to

advantage of the whole wire section. The equation (1)

be solved with the aid of a computer software, but it

shows the value of the skin depth, where f is the

is not very efficient (in terms of time) to solve them

frequency, 0 is the permeability of the air and is the

by hand for each design iteration. Dowell

conductivity of the copper.

equations take into account the skin and proximity

effects, but they are only applicable for 1D field

1

= distributions. If Dowell equations are applied to

f 0 (1) calculate the resistance at each harmonic frequency,

the total copper losses can be calculated as shown in

However, if the waveform is a typical saw-tooth shape, equation (3).

with an important DC level, it is not convenient to select

the diameter accounting only for the skin depth of the

fundamental harmonic. The DC losses could become P = I2DC*RDC + I2rms_1*RAC_1 +

+ I2 rms_2*RAC_2 + I2 rms_3*RAC_3 + (3)

more important than the AC losses contribution.

Obviously, the larger the diameter, the lower the DC

Where Irms_i is the rms value of the harmonic i and

losses. The ratio between AC and DC losses should be

RAC_i is the resistance at the frequency of the

considered for the diameter selection. Commonly, for

harmonic i. It can be demonstrated that the total

saw-tooth waveforms, the diameter should be something

copper losses can be calculated as the addition of

above two times the skin depth in order to reduce total

these terms.

losses (AC and DC).

In this particular example, and considering the skin 3.1.4. Core losses

depth at the fundamental harmonic (200 kHz, = 0.15

mm), a 0.3 mm diameter wire should be selected There are different approaches valid to calculate the

(AWG30). However, since there is a DC level, a 1 mm core losses with different accuracy levels [5][6]. In the

diameter wire (AWG19) has been selected for the design stage it is convenient to use a simple enough core

analysis. model appropriate to calculate the core losses without

the application of very complex expressions. There are

Once the diameter has been fixed with the AC/DC models that account for Foucault, hysteresis and residual

losses criteria, the way to limit the maximum losses is looses, but they are very complicate to be applied in a

increasing the total wire section adding parallel wires. A design iterative process. One of the most common

rule of thumb that is commonly applied in order to limit models applied to calculate the core losses is based on

the copper losses and temperature rise is limiting the the application of Steinmetz equation (4), where Ve is

current density. In this example, the current density has the core volume, f is the frequency, B is the variation

been limited to 10 A/mm2 adding 10 parallel wires. of flux density and k, and are material parameters.

3.1.3. Copper losses B

P = Ve k f (4)

Copper losses can be also calculated using expressions 2

with different accuracy levels.

Table 3 shows three different designs for several core

1. The simplest expression to calculate copper losses is

sizes in order to compare the losses that have been

considering the DC resistance (RDC) of the wire and

obtained using the analytical design. The core losses

the RMS value of the current (Irms).

have been calculated applying Steinmetz expression.

The copper losses are calculated using the RMS current

P = I2rms * RDC (2)

value and the DC resistance value.

Number Parallel Gap Copper Core Total

Core Size Material Wire

of Turns Turns Length Losses Losses Losses

POT 26/16 3F3 AWG 19 12 2 1.93 mm 4.6 W 8.2 mW 4.6 W

POT 30/19 3F3 AWG 19 8 3 1.13 mm 2.23 W 15.5 mW 2.25 W

POT 36/22 3F3 AWG 19 6 6 912 m 1W 21 mW 1.02 W

POT 42/29 3F3 AWG 19 4 10 444 m 439 mW 49.2 mW 488 mW

Table 3. Comparison of four designs using simple analytical expressions.

In order to illustrate that the application of this design It can be seen in table 4, that using all the parameters as

approach does not provide the optimum design, a CAD degrees of freedom, the losses can be drastically

tool tailored for magnetic component designs [1] has reduced (from 520 mW to 126 mW). Obviously, the use

been used in order to design the same component. The of these degrees of freedom is not a feasible option

main differences between the design procedure applied using hand calculations. Another point to consider is

in table 3 and the one using the CAD tool are as the global design, and not only the losses. As shown in

follows: table 4, the air gap and the core size of the lower losses

design are larger. The designer should introduce in the

The CAD tool is able to calculate many

design process constrains (core size, gap length,) that

combinations of core size, wire diameter and core

should be considered in the design flow. The use of the

material in order to find the lower losses design

CAD tool simplifies these design iterations accounting

Core losses are calculated applying Steinmetz

for those constrains.

expression in both approaches, but copper losses

are calculated in the CAD tool by means of Dowell

3.2. Modeling

expressions and FFT decomposition, as shown in

(3). Therefore, copper losses should be more In order to illustrate the benefits of the modeling task

accurate with the CAD tool application. for magnetic component designing, an inductor design

Since the CAD tool is able to calculate any combination will be modeled and simulated. It will be shown the

of core and wire sizes, three different design processes impact of the winding strategy in the component

have been carried out in order to illustrate the approach. behavior. An alternative design, different than the

ones shown in table 4, has been selected for this

1. Design 1 has been obtained with core shape (POT), purpose. This design has been selected for three

core size (POT42/29), core material (3F3) and wire reasons:

diameter (AWG 19) fixed as design constrains. It

can be seen that the result is the same as obtained A simple winding strategy with two layers of

before. turns in parallel

The whole window height is filled with turns

2. Design 2 has been obtained using wire diameter as

Enough room available in the window in order to

degree of freedom. Core shape (POT), core size

be able to move the windings across the window

(POT42/29) and core material (3F3) have been fixed

width.

as design constrains.

The inductor design characteristics are shown in the

3. Design 3 has been obtained using both, the core size table 5.

and wire diameter as degrees of freedom. Core shape

(POT) and core material (3F3) have been fixed as Core Size POT42/29

design constrains. Core Material 3F3

Wire Diameter AWG10 (1.56 mm)

Design # Design 1 Design 2 Design 3 Number of Turns 5

Core Size POT42/29 POT42/29 POT66/56 Number of parallel turns 2

Core Material 3F3 3F3 3F3

Wire Diameter AWG19 AWG15 AWG10

Gap 737.3 m

(1 mm) (1.56 mm) (2.73 mm) Table 5. Characteristics of the modeled inductor

Number of 4 4 3

Turns Two winding strategies have been modeled in order to

Number of 10 8 10

parallel turns illustrate the effect of the position of the conductors in

Gap 444 m 444 m 685 m the window from a point of view of losses. The situation

Winding 471 mW 243.4 mW 83 mW of the winding in the window is shown in figure 3.

Losses

Core Losses 49.2 mW 49.2 mW 43 mW Design A is the one with the winding close to the air gap

Total Losses 520.2 mW 292.6 mW 126 mW and Design B presents the wires separated 1.33 mm

Table 4. Results using CAD design. from the air gap.

At this point, only the device level design and

modeling have been covered. However, the selection of

the optimum design should be carried out in

combination with the circuit level. It is not possible to

determine which design, between A and B, is better if

the circuit is not considered in the final decision.

Depending on the magnetic component working

"Design A" "Design B" conditions, that are determined by the circuit, the design

Figure 3. Winding strategies that have been modeled selection could be different. In the next section this

point is highlighted.

The modeling task is not a simple stage, because an

accurate model should be applied in order to extract 3.3. Circuit simulation

useful conclusions. There are many proposals to model Both inductor models have been included in the buck

magnetic components [3][4]. Since the effect that is converter schematic and looses have been obtained

pretended to analyze in this case is bi-dimensional (air using Simplorer [1], as it is shown in figure 5.

gap fringing flux), a model based on Finite Elements

Analysis (FEA) has been selected [7]. Therefore, the

two situations shown in figure 3 have been modeled

ref

Type 3 Controller

WP_LIN1

tY t

vout

V

VM2

ET1

+

both inductors. EMWorkShop

A

+ +

Macro1

EMWorkShop1

V

E2 VM1

AM1 C2 R1

Macro11

Model 1: Model 2:

no with

margin margin

tape tape

conditions. The high load is 50 A and the low load is

5A. The current waveform for both load conditions is

shown in figure 6. The simulation results are shown in

table 7 for two load conditions.

Iout = 50 A 40.00

30.00

Iout = 5 A

higher for the case with the conductors close to the air

10.00

1.800m 1.850m 1.875m 1.900m 1.925m 1.950m 2.000mT

lower placing the conductors close to the air gap, Figure 6.Two load conditions have been simulated

because the length of the wires is smaller.

Case "Design A" "Design B"

Design DC Resistance Power losses Power losses

A 0.734 m High Load 2W 3.5 W

B 0.663 m Low Load 450 mW 350 mW

Table 6. DC Resistance of both inductors. Table 7. Simulation results.

As shown in table 7, depending on the load condition, These results confirm the conclusions extracted in the

one or the other design could be better. If the DC level previous point. The efficiency of the converter can be

of the current is very important compared with the AC improved one point if the appropriate design is selected.

level (high load), the design with lower DC resistance

should present lower loses. This is the reason to obtain "Design A" "Design B"

Load

1.5 W lower losses in Design A than in Design B Efficiency Eficiency

"Design A" is better

for the high load case. However, if the AC level of the High 89 % 87 %

than "Design B"

current presents the same magnitude order than the DC "Design B" is better

level (low load), the air gap effect should be reduced as Low 91 % 92 %

than "Design A"

much as possible in order to reduce the AC resistance. Table 8. Measured efficiency with both designs and

Therefore, the Design B is better for the low load case both load conditions

because the conductors are separated from the gap, and

the AC resistance is reduced.

V. CONCLUSIONS

This example illustrates that the magnetic component

This work describes a procedure to design magnetic

design should be oriented to optimize the whole circuit,

components based on three main steps: analytical

and the final design depends on the circuit working

design, modeling and simulation. A design example has

conditions.

been presented in order to highlight that the use of CAD

tools is a recommended option for magnetic component

IV. VALIDATION design. Since the number of degrees of freedom is very

In order to validate the previous results, a 120W and high, the calculation power of the CAD tool provides a

150 kHz version of the buck converter was built and great help for the designer. It has been shown that the

measured. The same converter has been operated with modeling task provide a deep insight into the design.

two inductors with different separation of the Using accurate models it is possible to optimize the final

conductors to the air gap. Figure 6 shows a photograph design from the point of view of the winding strategy.

of the inductors and the actual prototype. Finally, the simulation stage is very useful to optimize

the design at converter level. The simulation stage

provides information about the impact of the design on

the converter behavior.

VI. REFERENCES

[1] PEmag and PExprt. Ansoft Corporation Web Site,

http://www.ansoft.com

[2] Effect of eddy currents in transformer

windings. P. L. Dowell. Proceedings of the IEE.

[3] Additional losses in high frequency magnetics

due to non ideal field distributions Severns, R.

Applied Power Electronics Conference and

Exposition, 1992. APEC '92.

[4] Improved analytical modeling of conductive

losses in magnetic components Ferreira, J.A.

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics.

[5] Theory of Ferromagnetic Hysteresis Jiles, D.C.,

Atherton, D. L. Journal of magnetism and

magnetic materials. N 61, p.48-60, 1986

[6] Generalized Preisach model of hysteresis

Mayergoyz, I.D.; Friedman, G. IEEE Transactions

on Magnetics, Volume: 24 Issue: 1 , Jan. 1988

Figure 6.Photograph of the inductors (up) and [7] A full procedure to model high frequency

converter (down) transformer windings Asensi, R.; Cobos, J.A.;

Garcia, O.; Prieto, R.; Uceda, J.. Power

Electronics Specialists Conference, PESC '94

The efficiency under two load conditions was measured. Record., 25th Annual IEEE , 1994.

The results are summarized in table 8.

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