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13.Whatarethekeyelementsofprotocols?
Thekeyelementsofprotocolsare
a.Syntax
Itreferstothestructureorformatofthedata,thatistheorderinwhichtheyarepresented.
b.Semantics
Itreferstothemeaningofeachsectionofbits.
c.Timing
Timingreferstotwocharacteristics:Whendatashouldbesentandhowfasttheycanbesent.
14.WhatarethekeydesignissuesofacomputerNetwork?
a.Connectivity
b.CosteffectiveResourceSharing
c.SupportforcommonServices
d.Performance
15.DefineBandwidthandLatency?
NetworkperformanceismeasuredinBandwidth(throughput)andLatency(Delay).Bandwidthofa
networkisgivenbythenumberofbitsthatcanbetransmittedoverthenetworkinacertainperiodoftime.
Latencycorrespondstohowlongitt5akesamessagetotravelfromoneendoffanetworktotheother.It
isstrictlymeasuredintermsoftime.
16.DefineRouting?
Theprocessofdeterminingsystematicallyhoetoforwardmessagestowardthedestinationnodesbasedon
itsaddressiscalledrouting.
17.Whatisapeerpeerprocess?
Theprocessesoneachmachinethatcommunicateatagivenlayerarecalledpeerpeerprocess.
18.Whenaswitchissaidtobecongested?
Itispossiblethataswitchreceivespacketsfasterthanthesharedlinkcanaccommodateandstoresinits
memory,foranextendedperiodoftime,thentheswitchwilleventuallyrunoutofbufferspace,andsome
packetswillhavetobedroppedandinthisstateissaidtocongestedstate.

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