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Introduction to

Mechanical Process Engineering

WS 2013/2014
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Rolf Gimbel

- FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY! -

Department
Institut of Process
fr Energie- Engineering /
und Umweltverfahrenstechnik (EUT)
Water Technology
Bereich Wassertechnik

IWW
IWW Rheinisch-Westflisches Institut for
Rhenish-Westfalian Institute fr Wasserforschung
Water

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Systematics of Basics in Process Engineering

Reaction chemical or biological


(partly with catalysts)

Agglomeration physical: mechanical

Separation physical: thermal or


mechanical

Controlled crushing physical: mechanical

Heat transfer physical: thermal

Storage, packing, physical: mechanical,


transport electromagnetical

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Basics of Mechanical Process Engineering

Knowledge of processes, which change the state of


substances:

Background for:

Planning, design, construction and operation of:

o Apparatus
o Machines
o Plants (production, separation, elimination of certain
substances)
o systems

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Introduction to Mechanical Process Engineering

Subject:

Mechanical effects on substances in order to


change their properties and behavior.

Special mechanical effects are macroscopic


forces like:

Momentum change
Flow resistance
Contact forces

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Five Basic Processes in Mechanical Process
Engineering (by Rumpf)
1.) Controlled crushing
(breaking, grinding, cutting, defibration, desagglomeration ...)
2.) Agglomeration / Flocculation
(Granulating, pelletizing, compacting, tabletting, briquetting ...)
3.) Separation
(Classification, sieving, sorting, separation, clarification, sedimentation,
flotation, filtration, centrifugation, removal of dust ...)
4.) Mixing
(Homogenization, stirring, solids mixing, kneading, dispersing, emulsifying,
aerating, spraying ...)

Special topic:

5.) Particle measurement / analysis


(incl. description of disperse systems)
disperse = (finely) distributed

1.) and 2.) Change in particle size or degree of dispersion


3.) and 4.) Particle size and degree of dispersion remain unchanged

Processes in mechanical process engineering are usually related to


collectives of many particles disperse systems 5
Particles and Disperse Systems
In mechanical process engineering systems of substances exist as:
1. Granular material, packed beds
2. Powders
3. Aerosols (particles or droplets in air )
4. Gas bubbles in fluids, foams, or emulsions

Disperse system = collectives of particles ( disperse phase )


surrounded by homogenous medium
(continuous phase )

Disperse phase as well as continuous phase could be:


Solid (s)
Liquid (l)
Gaseous (g)

Characterization of disperse systems:

Size particle size distribution


Shape
Chemical composition
Specific surface area
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Colour,
Density Distribution Function qr(x) as a Histogram

Interval i

xi

xi - 1 xi

x = particle size r indicates the type of quantity

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aus: Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik 1, Matthias Stie, Springer Verlag (1992)
Graphic Representation of a Cumulative Distribution
Function and corresponding Density Distribution Function

fraction

fraction

WP = Wendepunkt
(inflection point)

median value

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aus: Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik 1, Matthias Stie, Springer Verlag (1992)
Types and Measures of Quantity

Index Type of quantity Measure of quantity Application

r=0 Number q0, Q0 Very frequently

r=1 Length q1, Q1 Very unusual

r=2 Area q2, Q2 Frequently

r=3 Volume q3, Q3 Frequently

r=3* Mass q3*, Q3* Very frequently

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Example of a Number Density Distribution Function and
corresponding Volume Density Distribution Function

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aus: Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik 1, Matthias Stie, Springer Verlag (1992)
Interaction of Particles: Scheme of Major Adhesion
Mechanisms (in a Gaseous Continuum)

Distinction:
with material binders
without material binders
(due to interaction
of electrostatic,
electrodynamic,
(magnetic and
gravimetric fields)
Interlocking

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aus: Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik 1, Matthias Stie, Springer Verlag (1992)
Adhesion Forces in Liquids
(Completely Immersed System)

Major difference from those in a gaseous continuum


no capillary forces
v.d.W.- and electrostatic forces are generally weaker.

Potential energy of interaction between particles in fluids.


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aus: Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik 1, Matthias Stie, Springer Verlag (1992)
Examples of Aggregates of a Flocculation Process in Water

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Physical Principles of Mechanical Solid-Liquid Separation

Process Driving forces Examples


Sedimentation / Flotation Gravity field Sedimentation tanks
Magnetic field Sorting procedures
Centrifugal field Settling centrifuges
Filtration Gravity field Dewatering hopper
Excess pressure Pressure filter
Negative pressure Vacuum filter
Centrifugal field Centrifugal filter
Pressing / Squeezing Gravity field
Excess pressure in fluid Cake and
Deformation resistance sludge
Centrifugal field compression

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Mechanical Waste Water Treatment

Mechanical methods are used for removal of solid waste water


compounds (coarse matter, sand (grit), organic compounds with
the ability to settle,...)

Density Particle size in cm Method


Substance group
in g/cm3

Coarse matter or 1 > 0.5 Bar-Screens

or 1 < 0.5 Sieves

Settleable matter > 2.5 > 0.01 Grit chamber,


Hydrocyclons

>1 > 0.001 Sedimentation


basin

Flotable matter 1 < 0.5 Flotation systems

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Technology of Waste Water Treatment

Biological Physic. / chemical


Mechanical Waste Water Treatment
Waste Water Treatment Waste Water Treatment

Flocculation /
Screen Grit Chamber Primary Activated Precipitation
Sed. Basin Sludge
Basin Final Sed. Basin

Outlet

Inlet O2 - input
Primary
Settled Sand Sludge

Surplus Sludge Recycling


Sludge

Sludge Treatment

+ Flotation! Treated waste water


to receiving water
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The Principle of Sedimentation and Flotation
Stationary Conditions ( v = constant)

Drag
force

v v

Drag
force

for conditions (Re < 1):


for laminar flow

Flocks consisting of:


black = solid particles
grey = metal-hydroxide
white = air bubbles
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Basics of Sedimentation Processes in WWT

Principle:
Suspended particles in water with a density larger than the density of water
will sediment (settle) due to gravity.

Use of sedimentation processes in wastewater treatment (WWT):


Removal of mineral solids (sands) in grit chambers in order to avoid operating
trouble due to mechanical stress of pumps and to separate mineral solids from
solids which can be digested (use of sewage sludge, optimal use of space in
digestion tanks).

Removal of settleable (organic) matter in the primary sedimentation basin in


order to improve following biological treatment. (High concentration of organic
solids leads to decreasing oxygen concentration).

Removal of settleable organic matter in the final sedimentation basin (after


biological activated sludge treatment or flocculation respectively) in order to
recycle a part of settled activated sludge into the biological treatment basin
(sludge cycle) and for improvement of wastewater quality prior to discharge into
the receiving river.
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Basics of Sedimentation I

Description of the stationary (i.e. vs = const.!) settling behavior of a


single spherical particle in stagnant water bodies:

Forces acting on a particle:


r r
FA FW
r
FA = Fl VP g
r v 2s
v S = const .
FW = Fl c W (Re ) A
r 2
FG = P VP g
r
FG
FA = buoyancy (lift) force
FW = drag force, hydrodynamic resistance
FG = gravity force 19
Basics of Sedimentation II
Dependency of drag coefficient cw from Reynolds number

aus: Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik 1, Matthias Stie, Springer Verlag (1992) 20


Basics of Sedimentation III

Force balance for particle :


r
F =0
i
r r
FA FW v 2s
Fl c W (Re ) A = VP g (P Fl )
2

2 g (P Fl ) VP
v 2s =
c w (Re ) Fl A

r
FG

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Basics of Sedimentation IV
Force balance for particle :

2 g (P Fl ) VP
v 2s =
c w (Re ) Fl A

3 2 VP 2
VP = dP ; A = dP = dP
6 4 A 3

4 d P g ( P Fl )
v 2s =
3 c w (Re ) Fl

In general the equation is not explicitly solvable ,


due to cw= f (Re) and Re = f (vs).

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Basics of Sedimentation V
Special case: Re < 1

24 24
cw = =
Re v s dP

4 dP g (P Fl ) v s dP
v = 2
s
3 24 Fl

d g (P Fl )
2
vs = P

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= kinematic vis cos ity = dynamic vis cos ity


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Basics of Sedimentation VI

Simplified design of a settling tank

H
V& vH
vs

B
L
L H
vH = ; vs =
tH ts
L H vH H
t s = tH = vs =
vH v s L

V& V& Surface Loading!


vH = vs =
BH BL 24
Centrifugal Decanter

Rotor with cylindrical and conical centrifuge casing and slower rotating conveyor
screw in the inner part to transport deposited solids out of the centrifuge.

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