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LTE eRAN6.

0 Handover Feature P-1

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-2

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-3

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-4

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-5

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-6

As shown above,the handover process consists of three phases: handover


measurement,handover decision, and handover execution. A blind handover does not
require handover measurement.
In the handover measurement phase, the eNodeB uses the RRC Connection
Reconfiguration message to deliver the measurement configuration to the UE and
waits for a measurement report from the UE.
In the handover decision phase, the eNodeB checks the measurement results
reported by the UE and determines whether to initiate a handover.
In the handover execution phase, the eNodeB controls the procedure of UE
handover to the target cell based on the decision, to perform the handover.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-7

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-8

When a UE establishes a radio bearer, the eNodeB delivers the intra-frequency


measurement configuration to the UE through an RRC Connection Reconfiguration
message by default. Then, the UE performs intra-frequency measurements by default.
When measurement gaps need to be set up, the eNodeB delivers the inter-frequency
and/or inter-RAT measurement configuration to the UE. After that, the UE performs gap-
assisted inter-frequency and/or inter-RAT measurements. Inter-frequency and inter-RAT
measurements can use the same gap pattern, but the eNodeB is able to differentiate
between the gap configurations for inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-9

For intra- frequency neighbor, we dont need defined the frequency information, it will
use the same configuration as current cell.
For the inter-frequency or inter-RAT frequencies, we must add these frequencies
separately.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-10

eNodeB complies with all 3Gpp events to trigger UE report.


After an event is reported for the first time, the measurement results associated with the
event are reported periodically. This reporting mode is called event-triggered periodical
reporting. The UE sends the measurement results to the eNodeB in event-triggered
periodical reporting mode. The periodical reporting is stopped when the leaving condition
is met or after the UE receives feedback from eNdoeB.
Event-triggered periodical reporting has the following benefits:
Reduces the impact of loss of measurement reports or failures in internal
processing on handovers.
Enables retries of access in case of admission rejection
Provides complete measurement results by updating cell information in periodical
reports, since a single measurement report may not contain information about all
neighboring cells that meet an event triggering condition and neighboring cells
meeting the condition may change with UE movement.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-11

A measurement gap is a time period during which the UE performs measurements on a


neighboring frequency of the serving frequency. Measurement gaps are applicable to
inter-frequency and inter-RAT measurements. The UE performs inter-frequency or inter-
RAT measurements only within the measurement gaps. One UE normally has only one
receiver, and consequently one UE can receive the signals on only one frequency at a
time.
When inter-frequency or inter-RAT measurements are triggered, the eNodeB delivers the
measurement gap configuration, and then the UE starts gap-assisted measurements
accordingly. As shown above, Tperiod denotes the repetition period of measurement gaps,
and TGAP denotes the gap width, within which the UE performs measurements.
Gap-assisted measurements for the following types of handover may co-exist: coverage-
based, load-based, and service-based handovers. When two or all of the preceding
types of gap-assisted measurement co-exist, the eNodeB records the measurements
based on these types. These different types of measurement are called member gap-
assisted measurements. The member gap-assisted measurements can share the
measurement gap configuration. A UE releases measurement gaps only when all
member measurements are stopped.
There are two measurement gap patterns available: pattern 1 and pattern 2. In pattern 1,
TGAP is 6 ms and Tperiod is 40 ms. In pattern 2, TGAP is 6 ms and Tperiod is 80 ms. The
pattern to be used is specified through the GapPatternType parameter.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-12

Before evaluating the reporting criteria and sending measurement reports, the UE
performs layer 1 (L1) filtering and L3 filtering on the measurement results. The L1
filtering is performed by the UE at the physical layer to eliminate the impact of fast fading
on the measurement results. No user configuration is required for the L1 filtering. The L3
filtering aims at eliminating the impact of shadow fading and certain fast fading. In this
way, better measurement data can be provided for the evaluation of the reporting criteria.
Based on the triggering quantity, two L3 filtering coefficients are applicable: one for
RSRP measurements and the other for RSRQ measurements.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-13

A neighboring relation is a relation between the serving cell and each candidate cell involved in a
handover. Neighboring relation management covers the following aspects:
Whether to allow automatic removal of a neighboring relation by ANR or not
Whether to allow handovers of UEs between two cells or not
Whether to allow handovers over an X2 interface or not
Neighboring relations are planned in the network design stage. They can be automatically
adjusted by ANR. The ANR function reduces the risk of missing neighboring cells and solves the
problems of inappropriate neighboring relations caused by collisions of physical cell IDs or by
physical positions. In this way, the call drop rate is reduced and the handover success rate is
increased.
Intra-frequency neighboring cell
An intra-frequency neighboring cell is a neighboring cell whose DL E-UTRA Absolute
Radio Frequency Channel Number (EARFCN) is the same as the DL EARFCN of the
serving cell. An E-UTRAN cell can be configured with a maximum of 32 intra-frequency
neighboring cells.
Inter-frequency neighboring cell
An inter-frequency neighboring cell is a neighboring cell whose DL EARFCN is different
from the DL EARFCN of the serving cell. An E-UTRAN cell can be configured with a
maximum of 64 inter-frequency neighboring cells, which can be located on a maximum of
8 neighboring E-UTRAN frequencies. TDD cells can also be configured as inter-frequency
neighboring cells of FDD cells. Huawei eNodeB supports interoperability between LTE
FDD and LTE TDD.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-15

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-16

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-17

If intra-frequency handover switch is set ON, then eNodeB will deliver intra-frequency
measurement message by default.
Relevant switch:

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-18

If we configure the specific neighbors as high measurement priority, then eNodeB will
deliver theses cells information in measurement control message, and after that UE will
prior to measure theses cells
Relevant configuration

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-19

In intra-frequency measurement control message, A3 event configuration will be


delivered by default, and A1, A2 events are optional if inter-frequency or inter-RAT
handover is enabled.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-20

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-21

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-22

Mn: The measurement result of the neighboring cell


Ofn: The frequency-specific offset for the frequency of the neighboring cell, it is not valid
during intra-frequency handover.
Ocn: The cell-specific offset (CIO) for the neighboring cell, related command: MOD
EUTRANINTERFREQNCELL
Ms: The measurement result of the serving cell
Ofs: The frequency-specific offset for the serving frequency
Ocs: The cell-specific offset for the serving cell
Hys: The hysteresis for event A3. It is specified through the IntraFreqHoA3Hyst
parameter and contained in the delivered measurement configuration.
Off: The offset for event A3. It is specified through the IntraFreqHoA3Offset parameter.
If the entering condition of the event is continuously met during the time specified
through IntraFreqHoA3TimeToTrig, the UE reports event A3 and starts the event-
triggered periodical reporting. Then, if the leaving condition of the event is continuously
met during the time specified through IntraFreqHoA3TimeToTrig, the UE stops
reporting event A3.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-23

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-24

After receiving a measurement report from the UE, the eNodeB generates a list of
candidate cells, which meet the triggering condition of the specific event. As a second
step, the eNodeB filters the candidate cells. If the measurement result of an intra-
eNodeB cell is the same as that of an inter-eNodeB cell among the candidate cells, the
eNodeB prioritizes the intra-eNodeB cell to prevent signaling and data forwarding
required in an inter-eNodeB handover.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-25

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-26

In the handover execution phase, the UE and the eNodeB exchange signaling over the radio
interface according to 3GPP TS 36.331. During an inter-eNodeB handover, the source eNodeB
and the target eNodeB exchange signaling and data through X2/S1 adaptation. The LTE system
uses hard handover, that is, only one radio link is connected to a UE at a time. Therefore, to
prevent user data loss at the eNodeB during the handover, data forwarding is performed to ensure
eNodeB data integrity. The loss of data may cause a decrease in the data transfer ratio and an
increase in the data transfer delay.
In the case of an intra-MME inter-eNodeB handover, the source eNodeB checks whether the X2
interface is available between the source and target eNodeBs or not and then automatically
selects a path for the handover as follows:
If the X2 interface is available, the handover request is sent over the X2 interface. Data
forwarding is also performed over the X2 interface.
If the X2 interface is unavailable, the handover request is sent over the S1 interface. Data
forwarding is also performed over the S1 interface.
In the case of an inter-MME inter-eNodeB handover, the handover request is sent over the S1
interface. In addition, the source eNodeB checks whether the X2 interface is available between
the source and target eNodeBs or not and then automatically selects a path for data forwarding as
follows:
If the X2 interface is available, data forwarding is performed over the X2 interface.
If the X2 interface is unavailable, data forwarding is performed over the S1 interface.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-27

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-28

Each parameters are described as below:


Max report cell number: Indicates the maximum number of cells to be included in
the measurement report after an event for the intra- or inter-frequency handover
within the E-UTRAN is triggered.
Measurement report amount: Indicates the number of periodic measurement
reports to be sent after an event for the intra- or inter-frequency handover within
the E-UTRAN is triggered. It is used to prevent the impact of measurement report
loss and internal processing failure on the handover.
A3 measurement trigger quantity: Indicates the quantity used to evaluate the
triggering condition for the intra-frequency handover event. The quantity can be
RSRP or RSRQ. Recommended value: RSRP
A3 measurement report quantity: Indicates the quantity to be included in the
measurement report for the intra-frequency handover event
Intrafreq measurement report interval: Indicates the interval between each
periodic report
Measurement A4 report quantity: The same meaning as A3 measurement
A1A2 Measurement trigger quantity: The same meaning as A3 measurement
Interfreq measurement report interval: The same as itrafreq measurement report
interval

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-29

Specific Cell Individual Offset (CIO) values can be set for the serving cell and its
neighboring cells. (Ocs and Ocn described in the subsequent chapters denote the CIO
for the serving cell and the CIO for the neighboring cell respectively.) When the quality of
signals fluctuates, the probability of triggering handovers to or from a specific cell can be
adjusted by changing the value of CIO. This reduces the risk of call drops. The CIO
values can be adjusted automatically by the MRO function.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-30

In LTE, 9 QCI are defined as QoS level. Each QCI is mapped with a series handover
group. The related command is : MOD CELLSTANDARDQCI
The main parameters for intra-handover decision algorithm are shown as following
Intrafreq handover hysteresis: Indicates the hysteresis to be used in the triggering
condition for the intra-frequency handover event. This parameter helps reduce
the number of times the event is triggered because of radio signal fluctuation.
Thus, the probability of ping-pong handovers or wrong handover decisions is
reduced.
Intrafreq handover offset: Indicates the quality offset of the neighboring cell over
the serving cell to be used in the triggering condition of the intra-frequency
handover event.
Intrafreq handover time to trigger: Indicates the time-to-trigger for intra-frequency
handover event A3.When detecting that the signal quality in the serving cell and
that in at least one neighboring cell meet the entering condition, the UE does not
send a measurement report to the eNodeB immediately. Instead, the UE sends a
report only when the signal quality continuously meets the entering condition
during the time-to-trigger

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-31

The signaling procedure shown in above figure is described as follows:


When the UE establishes a radio bearer, the source eNodeB sends the UE an
RRC Connection Reconfiguration message that contains the measurement
configuration. The measurement configuration is set by the source eNodeB to
control the measurements of the UE in connected mode.
The UE sends measurement reports to the source eNodeB based on the
measurement results.
The source eNodeB makes a handover decision based on the measurement
reports.
After deciding that a handover is preferred, the source eNodeB sends a
Handover Request message to the target eNodeB, to request the target eNodeB
to prepare for the handover.
The target eNodeB makes admission decisions. If resources can be granted by
the target eNodeB, the target eNodeB performs admission control depending on
the QoS information about the Evolved Packet System (EPS) bearer.
The target eNodeB prepares L1/L2 resources for the handover and then sends a
Handover Request Acknowledge message to the source eNodeB.
The source eNodeB sends the UE an RRC Connection Reconfiguration message
that contains the mobilityControlInfo IE, indicating that the handover shall start.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-33

When a handover fails, the UE performs a cell selection procedure and then initiates a
procedure of RRC connection re-establishment towards the selected cell. The eNodeB
makes a decision based on whether the context of the UE is present. If the eNodeB
accepts the re-establishment request, the UE accesses the selected cell, avoiding a
dropped call caused by the handover failure. The eNodeB will the status of UE context, if
it exists, the procedure could be proceed, otherwise, eNodeB rejects reestablishment.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-34

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-35

Blind handover switch

Once blind HO is activated, eNodeB directly decide the HO target based on the priority
configuration of each neighbor

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-36

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-37

The switch for each scenario


eNodeB level switch: coverage based, service based, UL quality based

Cell level switch: frequency priority based and distance based

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-38

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-39

This execution is mandatory to for inter-frequency measurement, must be done by


manual configuration.
If it is configured, then A1/A2 event parameters will be delivered by eNB by default, thus
to trigger inter-frequency measurement.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-40

In a coverage-based inter-frequency handover, event A2 triggers inter-frequency


measurements. The triggering of this event indicates that the signal quality in the serving
cell is lower than a specified threshold.
Ms: The measurement result of the serving cell
Hys: The hysteresis for event A2
Thresh: The threshold for event A2, it can be defined separately with RSRP or RSRQ

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-41

A1 event is opposite as A2 event.


Note: A1 threshold must be larger than A2 threshold so that there is no overlapping area
for UE activate/deactivate measurement.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-42

UE has different service experience when stay in FDD or TDD network, and each
operators may have respective FDD/TDD resource. So eRAN6.0 offer flexible Inter-Freq
A2 configure policy.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-43

In coverage-based inter-frequency handovers, the eNodeB delivers a measurement


configuration related to event A2 for blind handover if the signal quality of the serving cell
deteriorates to a specified level and the UE has not been handed over. In addition to
delivering the measurement configuration related to event A2 for blind handover, the
eNodeB also delivers the measurement configuration related to event A1 used to stop a
blind handover in case that the signal quality in the serving cell further deteriorates. If the
eNodeB receives a report of event A1 used to stop a blind handover from the UE before
the blind handover starts, the eNodeB will not perform the blind handover.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-44

The triggering and stopping of inter-frequency measurements for load-based handovers


are determined by the MLB algorithm. When the load of the serving cell reaches the
threshold for inter-frequency load balancing, the MLB algorithm selects a number of UEs
based on the frequency capabilities of the UEs, ARPs, and resource usage and then
instructs the UEs to perform gap-assisted inter-frequency measurements for load-based
handovers. The MLB algorithm also determines the cells on which the measurements
need to be performed.
After load-based inter-frequency measurements are triggered, the eNodeB does not
process the outputs from the MLB algorithm if the eNodeB detects that measurement
gaps have been set up among which there are measurement gaps for other types of
handover. Otherwise, the eNodeB sets up the measurement gaps for the load-based
handovers. When the measurement gaps for load-based handovers are released, the
gap-assisted measurements for other types of handover are not affected. The
measurement gap configuration stops only when all gap-assisted measurements are
stopped.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-45

Note: This A1 threshold is dedicated, different from other A1 threshold.


Event A1 triggers measurements for frequency-priority-based handover.
The FreqPriInterFreqHoA1TrigQuan parameter specifies the event A1 triggering
quantity for frequency-priority-based measurement, which can be either RSRP or RSRQ.
If the triggering quantity is RSRP, the threshold for this event is specified by the
FreqPriInterFreqHoA1ThdRsrp parameter. If the triggering quantity is RSRQ, the
threshold for this event is specified by the FreqPriInterFreqHoA1ThdRsrq parameter.
Other parameters related to event A1 for frequency-priority-based measurement are the
same as those for coverage-based inter-frequency measurement.
After receiving an event A1 report from a UE, the eNodeB proceeds as follows:
If frequency-priority-based blind handover is enabled,the eNodeB selects the
neighboring cell with the highest blind-handover priority to perform a handover.
However, if load balancing from that neighboring cell to the serving cell is in
progress, the eNodeB selects the neighboring cell with the second highest priority.
If the eNodeB traverses all candidate cells but fails to find a cell that fulfills the
criteria, the eNodeB will decide not to perform a handover.
If frequency-priority-based blind handover is disabled, the eNodeB delivers the
inter-frequency measurement configuration to the UE. If the triggering condition of
event A4 is fulfilled, the UE sends a frequency-priority-based event A4 report to
the eNodeB. (The triggering of event A4 for frequency-priority-based handover is
similar to that for coverage-based inter-frequency handover
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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-46

Service-based inter-frequency handovers are applicable to two neighboring E-UTRAN


frequencies that cover the same area. Based on the QCIs of the services that are
running on a UE, the eNodeB can divert the UE to an appropriate co-coverage E-
UTRAN frequency by means of a service-based inter-frequency handover.
To implement service-based inter-frequency handovers, operators need to configure
service-based inter-frequency handover policies. Each service-based inter-frequency
handover policy has an ID (ServiceIfHoCfgGroupId) and specifies the frequency
(DlEarfcn) that is preferentially used to carry the services of a specific operator
(CnOperatorId). Since the services of each operator are further classified by QCIs, each
QCI can be associated with a service-based inter-frequency handover policy so that the
frequency specified by the policy preferentially carries the services with this QCI.
Service-based inter-frequency handovers are controlled by the corresponding switch
under the HoAlgoSwitch parameter. If this switch is turned on, the eNodeB triggers a
service-based inter-frequency handover for a UE based on the highest-priority QCI of the
services running on the UE. If the highest-priority QCI is associated with a service-based
inter-frequency handover policy with the InterFreqHoState parameter set to
PERMIT_HO, and there is at least one neighboring cell working on the frequency, the
eNodeB delivers the measurement configuration related to event A4 to the UE. The
triggering of event A4 in service-based inter-frequency handovers is the same as that in
coverage-based inter-frequency handovers.
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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-48

As shown above, F1 and F2 indicate two frequencies: Cell 1 uses F1, and Cells 2, 3, and
4 all use F2. The gray area in the figure (Cell 1) is covered by F1, while Cells 2, 3, and 4
is covered by F2. It is obvious that cell 1 exerts cross-cell coverage to the other three
cells. Assume that the UE moves along the direction indicated by the arrow. As the UE
moves, F1 provides sustained signal quality and therefore inter-frequency
measurements are not triggered for the UE even when the UE has been in the coverage
of F2 for a long time. Gradually, the UE enters the overlap coverage between Cell 1 and
Cell 4. Considering the long distance between the two cells, it is unlikely that Cell 4 is
configured as a neighboring cell of Cell 1. As a result, as soon as the UE leaves the
coverage of Cell 1, it experiences a call drop. To prevent such a call drop and ensure
service continuity, the UE should have been handed over to F2 earlier.
Related command:

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

UL-quality-based inter-frequency handovers are triggered based on the UL quality.


When the UL quality is unsatisfactory, call drops may occur if handovers are not
performed in time. Therefore, UL-quality-based inter-frequency handovers are introduced
to reduce call drops caused by poor UL quality. The eNodeB uses the modulation and
coding scheme (MCS) and initial block error rate (IBLER) to determine the UL quality.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-50

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-51

Related command:

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-53

Mn: The measurement result of the neighboring cell.


Ofn: The frequency-specific offset for the frequency of the neighboring cell.
Ocn: The cell-specific offset for the neighboring cell.
Hys: The hysteresis for event A4
Thresh: The threshold for event A4

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-54

Each parameters are described as below:


Max report cell number: Indicates the maximum number of cells to be included in
the measurement report after an event for the intra- or inter-frequency handover
within the E-UTRAN is triggered.
Measurement report amount: Indicates the number of periodic measurement
reports to be sent after an event for the intra- or inter-frequency handover within
the E-UTRAN is triggered. It is used to prevent the impact of measurement report
loss and internal processing failure on the handover.
A3 measurement trigger quantity: Indicates the quantity used to evaluate the
triggering condition for the intra-frequency handover event. The quantity can be
RSRP or RSRQ. Recommended value: RSRP
A3 measurement report quantity: Indicates the quantity to be included in the
measurement report for the intra-frequency handover event
Intrafreq measurement report interval: Indicates the interval between each
periodic report
Measurement A4 report quantity: The same meaning as A3 measurement
A1A2 Measurement trigger quantity: The same meaning as A3 measurement
Interfreq measurement report interval: The same as itrafreq measurement report
interval
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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-55

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-56

Parameter Description
FddIfHoA2ThdRsrpOf Indicates the offset of the RSRP threshold for LTE FDD
fset inter-frequency measurement event A2 relative to the
RSRP threshold for inter-frequency measurement event
A2 (which is specified by InterFreqHoA2ThdRsrp).

TddIfHoA2ThdRsrpOf Indicates the offset of the RSRP threshold for LTE TDD
fset inter-frequency measurement event A2 relative to the
RSRP threshold for inter-frequency measurement event
A2 (which is specified by InterFreqHoA2ThdRsrp).

BlindHoA1A2ThdRsr Indicates the RSRP threshold for events A1 and A2 that


p are used for inter-frequency and inter-RAT blind
handovers based on coverage.
BlindHoA1A2ThdRsr Indicates the RSRQ threshold for events A1 and A2 that
q are used for inter-frequency and inter-RAT blind
handovers based on coverage.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-57

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-58

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-59

If the InterRatHoState parameter is set to MUST_HO for a QCI, the eNodeB delivers the
service-based handover measurement configuration to a UE when the UE initiates a
service with that QCI.
If the InterRatHoState parameter is set to NO_HO for a QCI, the eNodeB does not
deliver the service-based handover measurement configuration to a UE on which a
service with that QCI is running, even if the UE initiates a service for which
InterRatHoState is set to MUST_HO
If the InterRatHoState parameter is set to PERMIT_HO for a QCI, the eNodeB does not
deliver the service-based handover measurement configuration to a UE when the UE
initiates a service with that QCI. When a service with that QCI isrunning on the UE, the
eNodeB delivers the service-based handover measurement configuration to the UE if the
UE initiates a service for which InterRatHoState is set to MUST_HO.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-60

Assume that an operator plans to use bearers with a QCI of 1 to carry voice over IP
(VoIP) services, bearers with a QCI of 5 to carry IMS signaling, and bearers with a QCI
of 9 as default bearers. The operator also hopes that UEs performing only VoIP services
are served by an inter-RAT system to ensure the service continuity while sparing E-
UTRAN resources
The value MUST_HO is recommended for QCI 1
The value NO_HO is recommended for QCI 2 to QCI 4, and QCI 6 to QCI 8.
The value PERMIT_HO is recommended for QCI 5 and QCI 9.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-61

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-62

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-63

Mn: The measurement result of the neighboring cell


Ofn: The frequency-specific offset for the frequency of the neighboring cell
Hys: The hysteresis for event B1. The hysteresis values for inter-RAT handovers to
UTRAN, GERAN, and CDMA2000

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-64

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-65

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-66

Parameter Description

UtranA2ThdRsrpOffset Indicates the offset of the RSRP threshold for UTRAN inter-RAT
handover event A2 relative to the RSRP threshold for inter-RAT
handover event A2 (which is specified by InterRatHoA2ThdRsrp).

GeranA2ThdRsrpOffset Indicates the offset of the RSRP threshold for GERAN inter-RAT
handover event A2 relative to the RSRP threshold for inter-RAT
handover event A2 (which is specified by InterRatHoA2ThdRsrp).

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-67

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-68

The following inter-RAT handover policies are applicable:


PS handover: is applicable to PS services. In PS handover, services are handed
over from the PS domain of the source system to the PS domain of the target
system to ensure continuous service provision.
Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC): is applicable to voice services. In
the case of SRVCC, the services are handed over from the LTE system to the CS
domain of the target system.
Cell Change Order with or without Network Assisted Cell Change (CCO/NACC):
is specific to the GSM cases. During the CCO/NACC, the UE is ordered to switch
to the GERAN idle mode, and consequently it can try to access the GSM network.
The procedure is simple but causes a long delay. In GSM, however, the
CCO/NACC mode is a substitute for PS handover. For the CCO with NACC, the
eNodeB needs to acquire the system information from the target system and then
send the information to the UE through a handover command, thereby
accelerating the UE access to the target GSM cell.
Redirection: It is the simplest method to transfer UEs to an inter-RAT system. The
3GPP protocols stipulate that UEs that can work in another RAT also support
redirections to the RAT.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

For SRVCC from E-UTRAN to UTRAN/GERAN, MME first receives the handover
request from E-UTRAN with the indication that this is for SRVCC handling, and then
triggers the SRVCC procedure with the MSC Server enhanced with SRVCC via the Sv
reference point if MME has SRVCC STN-SR information for this UE. MSC Server
enhanced for SRVCC then initiates the session transfer procedure to IMS and
coordinates it with the CS handover procedure to the target cell. MSC Server enhanced
for SRVCC then sends PS-CS handover Response to MME, which includes the
necessary CS HO command information for the UE to access the UTRAN/GERAN.

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature

In the case of CCO/NACC to GERAN, the eNodeB directly orders the UE to switch to the
GERAN, instead of sending a handover request over the S1 interface. In the procedure
shown in the figure, steps 3 to 8 are used to request the system information of the
GERAN. They are applicable only to CCO with NACC.

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Course Name P-76

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LTE eRAN6.0 Handover Feature P-77

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Course Name P-78

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