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Sistem Informasi Manajemen

Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-7


Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi
Program Pasca Sarjana, Magister Ilmu Komunikasi
Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama)
Dosen: Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi., MPP

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Topik Pembahasan

Konsep, Trend dan Issue


Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi
Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem Informasi
Strategi Sistem Informasi
Aplikasi Sistem Informasi
Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem Informasi

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Konsep, Trend dan Issue

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Mengapa Perlu Mempelajari SI?


Getting the right information to the right people at the right time at
the right
cost;
Key to effective business processes;
Business process change;
The way organisations compete;
Creation of new services, markets;
Learning, Knowledge. E-commerce, E-Health, E-Government

Why? How? Is it efficient? Effective?


What are the risks?
What are the skills?
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Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi

Perubahan dalam teknologi informasi :


Tersedianya jaringan info global, untuk
menyalurkan berbagai format info (multimedia)
Tersedianya berbagai perangkat keras dan
lunak untuk mengolah, menyimpan dan
mengirim info.
Tersedianya berbagai perangkat untuk
melakukan transformasi media yang digunakan

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Orientasi Informasi

IT Practices
IT for operational support
IT for business process support
IT for inovation support
IT for management support

Information management practices


Sensing information
Collecting information Information orientation
Organizing information
Processing information
Maintaining information

Information behaviour and values


Information integrity
Information formality
Information control
Information sharing
Information transparency
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Information proactiveness

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SI, CBIS, dan TI


Information Systems (IS)
involve more than just computers
an successful application of an IS requiring an understanding of the business
and its environment that is supported by the IS
in learning about IS, not sufficient just to learn about computers

Computer-Based Information Systems (CBIS)


an information system that uses computer technology to perform some or all
of its intended tasks
may include hardware, software, database, network, procedures, or people

Information Technology (IT)


include the hardware, databases, software, networks, and other information
devices (in narrow definition)
usually interchangeably with information systems
a collection of several information systems, users, and management
for an entire organization (in broad sense)

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Isu di dalam SI

Large variety of organisation and individual information


processing needs
Fast evolving information technologies - languages
operating systems and the like
Legacy investments
Costs and resource management
Complexity ? Where is the complexity coming from ?
Maintenance, Support and Training - Leveraging systems
Design and Analysis related issues

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Evolusi Peran SI/TI Dalam Organisasi

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Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi -1


Information
System
Management
IS Role in
the enterprise Review IS/IT roles, dont focus
on particular issues only

Relationship with Users awareness of the role of


computers determine effectiveness
other department
of relationship
Computer
Management
Managing the IS Department is managed as co-ordinated
department set of resources which are planned to
meet expected future requirements

Managing the Operations, programming,


IS/IT activities data collection, etc.

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Transisi komputer menuju manajemen informasi -


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Delivery

Internal focus
Improving the ability to deliver and support systems and technology
Not necessarily providing users with what they need
Re-orientation
Establishing good relationship with the main business functions,
Supporting business demands through provision of variety of services
Provide valued service to all business functional management
Re-organisation
Need for redesign integration of IS investment with business strategy and across business
functions.
Best way of satisfying each of differing business needs through coalition of responsibilities
for managing information and systems

Hirschheim Model (1988)

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Model-2 SI Dalam Organisasi


Model Anthony (1965)
Sales forecasting, operating plans, capacity
Planning Systems
planing, profit/earnings forecast, business mix
analysis, manpower planning, financial modelling

Sales analysis, budgetary control, management accounting,


Control Systems
inventory management, quality analysis, expense reporting, market
research/analysis, WIP control, requirement planning, supplier analysis, etc.

Operational Order entry/processing, tracking shipping documents, vehicle scheduling/loading


Systems invoicing, sales and purchase ledgers, cost accounting, stock control, shop floor

scheduling, bill of materials, purchase orders, receiving, employee records, payroll,


word processing, etc.

Hirarki perencanaan, pengendalian, dan sistem operasional,


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Perbedaan DP dan MIS

TPS/DP MIS
Objectives Efficient transaction Effective problem resolution &
decision making support

Information Internal & external Internal & external transaction +


sources transaction research data

Information time Recent history, current & Historical data, current & future
frame near future

Process Algorithmic (very Sometimes need human


predefined) intervention (esp. for decision
making)

Users Operators Professionals & middle managers

Technology Mainframe/mini computers Local processing linked to


information resources
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Strategic Information Systems

Wiseman Model (1985)


Use
Automatic basic Satisfy Affect business
(objective)
processes information needs strategy
Function (efficiency) (effectiveness) (competitiveness)

Transaction and
DATA
exception
PROCESSING STRATEGIC
processing
INFORMATION
Information MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
enquiry and INFORMATION
analysis SYSTEMS

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Trend evolusi SI/TI

Galliers & Somogyl, (1987)


DP MIS SIS
Aspects

Computers Distributed process networks


Nature of the technology fragmented interconnected integrated
(hardware limitation software limitation people/vison limitation)

Remote from users Regulated by Available and


Nature of operations controlled by DP management supportive
services to users

Technical issues Support business Relate to


Issues in systems (programming/ usersneeds business
development project managemen) information management strategy

Reducing costs Supporting the Enabling the business


Reason for using (especially business (manager) - business driven
technology administrative) - user driven
technology driven

Regimented/ Accommodating/ Flexibility/


Characteristic of systems operational control strategic
(internal) (external)
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Organisasi dan Manajemen Sistem
Informasi

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Lingkungan Informasi

Paper records

Paper records

Private
Management records
External
information
information
Operational
database

Official
Personal information
database records

Unrecorded

Lingkup memungkinkan
Total lingkungan Lingkungan yang untuk informasi yang dapat
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Nilai Informasi Bagi Bisnis

High
STRATEGIC HIGH POTENTIAL
Value
of
information Critical to business Potential value to
to and of greatest business may be high,
future potential value but not confirmed
strategy
Essential for core Needed for supporting
process and value enhaced Business, but little
by horizontal integration strategic value

Low KEY OPERATIONAL SUPPORT


High Low
Value of information to current strategy 18
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Pertanyaan Kunci Dalam Membangun
dan Mengelola SI
People involved
Many technologies.
How do we decide what to build..? for one person..for a dept..for
the entire organization
How much is it going to cost..?
How long is it going to take.?
How do we consider all the systems we have so far..?
How do we maintain and upgrade?

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Hubungan Aplikasi SI dan Tingkatan


Manajemen

Perencanaan Strategis

Pengendalian Manajemen

Pengendalian Operasional

Pengolahan Transaksi

Sistem Manajemen Data base

Data base

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Pemakai dan Penggunaan SI


Pemakai Pengunaan
Petugas Administrasi Mengerjakan transaksi, mengolah data, dan menjawab pertanyaan
Mendapatkan data operasi. Membantu perencanaan, penjadualan,
Manajer Tingkat Bawah
mengetahui situasiyag tak terkendali, dan mengambil keputusan

Informasi untuk analisis. Membantu dalam analisis,Pperencanaan


Staf Ahli K
dan pelaporan. en M
eu an
LaporanPemasrn tetap, Permintaan informasi khusus, go
an Analisa khusus,
P ga la aj
Manajemen o
P
Laporan khusus, membantu s
u
d
r i
k
Lo dalam ermengenali
n persoalan
ha dan e
peluang. Membantu dalam gi analisis
sopengambilan
& keputusan.m
n
sti na Ak Inf en
k lia un or Pu
tin m nc
g as ak
i

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Segitiga Pengambilan Keputusan
Sistem Informasi Manajemen

SIM
perencanaan SIM: sistem manusia/mesin yang terpadu,
Strategis & untuk menyajikan informsasi guna mendukung
pengambilan kptsan fungsi operasi, manajemen, dan pengambilan
keputusan dalam sebuah organisasi.
Informasi manajemen
Untuk perencanaan taktis
Menggunakan hardware & software komputer,
Dan pengambilan keputusan prosedur, model manajemen dan keputusan,
data base.
Informasi manajemen untuk
Perencanaan operasional, pengambilan
Keputusan dan pengendalian

Pengolahan transaksi
Pemberian informasi (tanggapan atas pertanyaan)

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Tiga Tahapan Dalam Penggunaan


Sistem Informasi

Productivity: a measure of the


output achieved divided by
the input requirement,
something like (Output/Input)
x 100%
Competitive Advantage: a
significant and (ideally) long-
term benefit that enables
company to perform better
than its competitors
Quality: the ability of a
product (including services) to
meet or exceed customer
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Aplikasi
Sistem Informasi Manajemen

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Type Sistem Informasi


GROUPS SERVED
KIND OF SYSTEM
SENIOR
STRATEGIC LEVEL MANAGERS

MIDDLE
MANAGEMENT LEVEL MANAGERS

KNOWLEDGE &
KNOWLEDGE LEVEL DATA WORKERS

OPERATIONAL
OPERATIONAL MANAGERS
LEVEL
MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING HUMAN
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SALES &

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Type Sistem Informasi

Executive Support Batch vs Online


Systems Processing
Management Information Sistem Informasi
Systems Fungsional
Decision Support Distributed Systems vs
Systems Client/Server Systems
Knowledge Work Enterprise Resources
Systems Planning System
Office Automation Dukungan Pengambilan
Systems Keputusan
Transaction Processing Sistem Dukungan
Systems Inteligen

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Subsistem dari Sistem Informasi

SI (dapat) terdiri atas


Subsistem:
Penjualan dan pemasukan Subsistem dibagi atas
pesanan subsistem, sebagai contoh
Personalia dan Payroll:
Produksi Penyiapan data masukan
Sediaan barang catatan personalia
Personalia dan payroll Penyesuaian daftar gaji
Pembelian Penyiapan data masukan
daftar gaji
Perencanaan Daftar gaji harian
Kecerdasan lingkungan Daftar gaji bulanan
Laporan dafatar gaji untuk
manajemen
Audit personalia dan dafatar
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gaji

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Data base

Kumpulan data terdiri dari Contoh


File Data base Pegawai

Record File: Pegawai

Field Record: Sukamto

Karakter Field: Nama, Alamat, NIP

Character: a, b,c 1,2, dll.

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Type Sistem Informasi

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Batch vs Realtime Processing

Batch
Pengolahan data secara tidak seketika
Entry data dikumpulkan dalam satu file secara serial
Ada perbedaan waktu yangcukup signifikan antara
entry dan eksekusi data
Real Time Processing
Entry dan eksekusi data dilakukan seketika

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Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

Dimulai pada zaman Data Processing


OPERATIONAL LEVEL
INPUTS: TRANSACTIONS, EVENTS
PROCESSING: UPDATING
OUTPUTS: DETAILED REPORTS
USERS: OPERATIONS PERSONNEL

EXAMPLE: ACCOUNTS PAYABLE


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TPS
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Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

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TPS
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Distributed Systems vs Client/Server Systems

Distributed System
Entry dan pengolahan data secara tersebar,
Masing masing komputer memiliki fasilitas jaringan dengan
fasilitas yang sama
Client/Server
Sedikitnya satu komputer berfungsi sebagai server,
sementara komputer lain yang terhubung menjadi client,
Server menyediakan NOS,
Aplikasi dapat ditempatkan di Server atau masing masing
nodes
Nodes memilii kemampuan pengolahan lokal

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Management Information Systems -1

MANAGEMENT LEVEL
INPUTS: HIGH VOLUME DATA
PROCESSING: SIMPLE MODELS
OUTPUTS: SUMMARY REPORTS
USERS: MIDDLE MANAGERS

EXAMPLE: ANNUAL BUDGETING


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Management Information Systems -2

STRUCTURED & SEMI-STRUCTURED


DECISIONS
REPORT CONTROL ORIENTED
PAST & PRESENT DATA
INTERNAL ORIENTATION
LENGTHY DESIGN PROCESS*

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TPS Data For MIS Applications

MIS
TPS
SALES
Order Processing DATA
System
UNIT
ORDER FILE PRODUCT
Materials Resource COST REPORTS
MIS
Planning System
PRODUCT
CHANGE
PRODUCTION MASTER FILE
DATA
General Ledger MANAGERS
EXPENSE
System DATA

ACCOUNTING FILES MIS FILES

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Contoh Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Dalam


Fungsi Pemasaran

Sistem Deskripsi Level Organisasi


Order Processing Entry, proses, dan track order Operasional
Identifikasi pelanggan dan
Analisa Pasar pasar menggunakan data Knowledge
demografi, pasar, perilaku
konsumen, dan trend
Menentukan harga produk dan
Analisa Harga Manajemen
layanan
Ramalan dan Tren Penyiapan ramalan penjualan
Stratejik
Penjualan 5 tahun

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Pendekatan Tradisional

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Enterprise System

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Pengendalian dan Keamanan Sistem


Informasi

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Isu Di Dalam Pengelolaan TI

Acquisition: pengadaan/penyediaan TI
need (kebutuhan),

resources (sumber-daya),

time-frame (jangka waktu), dan

design of IS (rancangan sistem informasi).

Organization: prosedur pengelolaan,


Motivation: sumberdaya manusia, serta
Relationship: hubungan antara bagian Sistem
Informasi dengan bagian-bagian lain di dalam
organisasi

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Acquisition (pengadaan TI)

Need (kebutuhan) dari:


Size of the organization: besar kecilnya
organisasi/perusahaan yang memerlukan TI.
Structure of the organization: struktur dari
perusahaan.
Nature of operational: sifat dari operasional
perusahaan, misalnya organisasi pemerintah, bisnis,
dll.
Type of informationn needed (jenis informasi yang
diperlukan),misalnya informasi mengenai keuangan,
kepegawaian, dll.

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Strategi Sistem Informasi

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The Role of Information Technology

Add Value
customers and markets
Wisdom

Knowledge

Business
Minimize Risks Value of Reduce Costs
market, financial, legal,
Information
operational risks Information transactions and processes

Technology

Data

Create New Realities


Facts
intelligence (social, political, technological, etc.)

Organize Select Synthesize Distribute


Gather

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The Balanced of Resources has Changed

Materials

Money
Machines

Four Ms Plus

Me Information
n
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Strategic Systems

Connection to supplier & customer


Effective use of information in the value adding
process
Enable to deliver new product/service
Provide executive with strategic information

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Business, IS & IT Relationship


Business Strategy
External & Business decisions Where is the business
Internal Objectives and direction going & why?
Factors Change

Direction for
Economy Supports
business
business
Society
Politics
Law What is required?
IS Strategy
Ecology
Technology Business based
Culture Demand orientation
Application focused
Stakeholders
Needs &
Infrastructure & priorities
service

IT Strategy
Activity Based How can it be
Supply oriented
realized?
Technology focused
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IT Roles in Business Process Reengineering

SIMPLIFY

INTEGRATE
ELIMINATE

AUTOMATE

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MIT Theory of IT Evolution & Revolution

Business Scope Redefinition


HIGH

Business Network Redesign

Business Process Redesign Revolutionary

Evolutionary
Integration

Localized Exploitation
LOW
LOW HIGH
Range of Potential Benefits

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Internal Evolution of Information Technology

MANAGEMENT FOCUS
FUNCTIONAL USE Business Scope Redefinition
5

REMAIN IN BUSINESS
DegorfBusin BusinessReaching
Network theRedesign
ORGANIZATIONAL
aTonsrmfti
5 People Systems, Home Consumer EFFECTIVENESS
Computers 4
5 Restructuring of the
Industry
Business Process
EnhancingRedesign
Executive 4 Restructuring of the
MAKE MONEY
Decision Making Organization
3 3 Growth and Increase in
4 Mega Decisions
Market Share
3 Marketing, Distribution,
Customer Service Integration
Enhancing Products
and Services
Above the Line
Localized Exploitation Below the Line
2
Leveraging Investment
SAVE MONEY 1
OPERATIONAL CONTROL

2 Financial, Manufacturing,
Services Reducing Costs 2 Asset Management
1 Process Management
1 Administrative
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Nature of IT Center

Cost Profit
Center Center

I/T

Investment Service
Center Center

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IT Benefits Measurement

Staff Reduction
Better Information

HIGH Improved Security Lower Assets


Lower Risk More Sales

Market Reaction Faster Information


Access to New Staff Positive Staff Reaction
LOW

HIGH
LOW

MEASURABLE
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IT and Business Alignment

Mission Value
Vision

Objectives
TANGIBLE
Critical Success Factor s

Key Performance Indicators

I/T Strategy
Business Strategy

Business Process and Tactical Procedures

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Boeing Strategic Architecture

What business
Business Process processes
Architecture should be used?

drives
What
Information Standards information is
Architecture needed to
Product Groups accomplish
prescribes those processes?
Information Services
How are the
Information System processes and
Architecture information
related?
identifies
How is the
Data Architecture data
managed?
Feedback support by
Which hardware,
Delivery System Architecture software, and
Hardware, Software, Communications network are required? 5
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Information System Strategic Planning

ANALYSIS PROCESS
BLUE PRINT
INPUT
& P
K A
INTERNAL R R THREE DOMAINS
W O T N
Corporate History Information System
T E
Business Plan TECHNOLOGY Requirements
ORGANIZATION INFRASTRUCTURE
STRUCTURE R Information Technology
Existing Information
Supply
Technology

N COMPANY COMPANY S Information Management


Constraints and Opportunities GEOGRAPHICAL ASSETS
TOPOLOGY VISION
Strategy
Strength and Weakness MISSION FINANCIAL
CSFs RESOURCES
Approach and Methodology KPIs
STRATEGIC PLANNING

BUSINESS STRATEGY List of Scenarios


EXTERNAL PROCESS
CULTURE
Risk Management
PROCEDURES
Industry Trend
POLICIES PEOPLE Cost/Benefit Analysis
VALUE
Information Technology STANDARD
Technical Design
Development S
LEGAL Project Management
Competitor Analysis ASPECT

H R R S Priorities Level and Schedule


Benchmarking A
E
E D Implementation Plan
H L
Best Practice O
Human Resource Skills and
Competencies
Requirements
Macro Environment
Change Management
Ideology, Political Agenda, Economic Environment, Social
and Culture, International Relationship, National
Defense, Religion, Behaviors,
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New Type of Corporation

KNOWLEDGE COMPANY

Market Strategy Customer Management


Demand-Chain
Product Design Value Network Management
Components
Marketing

E-Forms E-Bulleting Boards


E-Catalogues

Application ERP WWW Chat Rooms


Enablers Email EDI Financial EDI
E-Collaboration Electronic Funds

Wide Area Networks


Value-Added Networks

Technology Internet E-Marketplaces


Vehicles Extranet Intranet
Web TV Private Network

Procure Transportation
Inbound Logistics Distribute
Supply-Chain
Manufacturing Delivery
Components
Customer

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Y

Success Indicators

New Business (products/services)


1.
New Market (customers)
2.
New Revenue (business model)
3.
New Company (business transformation)
4.
New Image (business community)
5.
New Wealth (paradigm shift)
6.

Etc.

Key Points:
From nothing to existing
From existing to creating
From creating to improving
From improving to growing
From growing to performing

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