Anda di halaman 1dari 4

St. Anthony's

Canossian Secondary School

Sec 3NA Science (Physics) Notes

General Wave Properties

At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:

  • (a) describe what is meant by wave motion as illustrated by vibrations in ropes and springs and by waves in a ripple tank

  • (b) show understanding that waves transfer energy without transferring matter

  • (c) define speed, frequency, wavelength, period and amplitude

  • (d) state what is meant by the term wavefront

  • (e) recall and apply the relationship velocity = frequency x wavelength to new situations or to solve related problems

  • (g) compare transverse and longitudinal waves and give suitable examples of each

A wave is a vibration or disturbance that transfers

..e.I'\~f..!?l~

without transferring

.'X'f(\.-:lt.e,( .' .... .. • There are two kinds of wave, tf0:!,$.'!.~ and ~!:tY.J:\~~ . Transverse
.'X'f(\.-:lt.e,( .' ....
..
There are two
kinds of wave, tf0:!,$.'!.~
and ~!:tY.J:\~~
.
Transverse Wave
Longitudinal Wave
Definition: ~ih«LvuJ wttve 1,clIJd
Definition: Ifl\ns\lOft.D l,.UaV~ trQV.e I
~tA.l:lAl~_jp---=Lhe_dl .hm~:LP.cYall(J_jp 4k JI~C.~ ~
e,:
-6])-~t!rr~ 6b-~-ra-rh(.~ _v"h!,,-n.O'I
~ -+k. f_JThd
eA
-'-I) +k2~llun
1;~LULI1'
11
direction of
>direck
wave travel
61Wcwl2
-trolA'ZI
J~rUhon 0(
direction of
vibration of
pOJhc.\4.1.
particles in medium
Vi\tfCAnM
Examples: Li~l,t J fOre wew€ J
wc<-k.-r Example:
~
W6-Ue
)( _ I't>-j
•.•.• ~lIe
f A-ll etu.-lvo 1'\'\
Ul aile)
. L'c
..

~

When the wave travels, the particles do not move with the wave. They only vibrate about their

equilibrium position.

Page 1 014

.

Depending on the direction of vibration, the same slinky can be used to produce both the longitudinal and the transverse wave

On: Locate the crests, troughs, rarefaction and compression in the diagrams below.

push

_

pull-

direction of vibration

direction oi I

left

vibr,ltion of

particles of

medium

direction of wave motion

••

crest

rest

A

,~

position (of

 

undisturbed

 

'm\i~';"n;;;r~_d_e'_A_-.

 

distance along the rope/m

particles of

 

the ropes)

 

\

\.,-")amPlitude.

A

 

-A

J,

~Itrough

Terms I unit

   

Explanation

Amplitude,

A

 

The maximum displacement of the particles.

 
 

( m

)

 

Wavelength,

1-,.

 

The distance between two consecutive points that are in phase.

 

(e.g. distance between 2 consecutive crests, troughs or compressions)

( rY\

)

 

Frequency,

f

 

The number of complete waves produced per second or

 

( H-z.)

 

The number of waves that pass through a point in one second.

Period, T

 

The time taken to produce one complete wave or

 
 

( S

)

 

The time taken by one particle of the wave to make a complete oscillation.

Wave Speed, v

The distance travelled by the wave in one second.

 
     

( m15)

   

(It tells us how fast the wave is moving).

 

Wavefront

 

An imaginary on a wave that joins all the points that are in phase.

       

d lS+""'CQ ..

~

2

 

W~~ts

 

~

i)

   

- WR.~#.

-

I~

Page 2 of 4

 

."

LA)

~,. IVt:lVtl~-IJ

Wave Equation Iv = f I Iwhere v = velocity of the wave (m/s), f =
Wave Equation
Iv
=
f I Iwhere v = velocity of the wave (m/s), f = frequency (Hz) and I is the wavelength (m).
..
..
IT = 1 I f I where T = period (s), f = frequency
(Hz).
Practice Questions
(1) Complete the table below
Frequency of wave
5 Hz
20 Hz
Period
Wavelength of wave
0.2 m
Speed of wave
0-2 S
Iml s
0.5 mls
0-055
O'O).Srn
o.51-h
2s
1.5 mls
3m
(2)
A certain radio wave has a frequency
What is the speed of the radio wave?
Of€ x 1tH~and a wavelength o~ 5~ m)
\.:.
(3)
A transver:z. wave has a velocitho~ m/s)nd a frequency Of6,01o HZ)
What is th"(!istance between the 2 crest of this wave})
-
)\v
V .:+71
Y
-
/}:: ..
300
- o. 3 "'" /.
+
- -'0-0-0-
-
".//
(4) Draw a full scale diagram of a complete wave that has fm amplitude of 1 cm and a wavelength
of 6 cm
Ion
...
- ..
\UlI
-
.
.
of
.
~
(5)
A sour e ofrequency 500 Hz}mits waves o(wavelength 0.2 m)
How long does it take for the wave to travel 400 m?
~
d
V;tl\
:::500)l. 0-1
.
~
:. lOOmIs
The 1V-r/YIultl >r-ud;; :-t
Page 3 of 4
/1'\4
- 400
~ ~J In +h IS cMap-tP<
-
100

too ..

I '1 3 q. ~ (, , IS
I
'1 3 q. ~ (,
, IS

(6) The lines below represent

p

the crests of a transverse wave.

Q

~ • 16 m (a) What is the wavelength of the wave? A ~ Ib -r
~
16 m
(a) What is the wavelength of the wave?
A ~ Ib
-r
; 2yYl~
(b) If 5 waves are produced in every second,
(i)
what is the frequency of the wave?
:5- ; 5 '-h_1'
(ii)
what is the period of the wave?
...
l-
-L
T
~f
;
5
:: 0- 2s
t
(iii)
what is the speed of the wave?
(7) (a) The figure below is a displacement-distance graph of ripples on the surface of water in a
ripple tank.
Determine (i) the amplitude of the ripples (ii) the wavelength of the ripples
li) o.6m (!
(b)
What is the frequency of the wave if the wave travel at a speed of 2.5 m/s?
9

Page40f4