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STRATEGIC INTERVENTION MATERIALS

`11``
IN
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Function of Reproductive system
Formation of sex cells
Male Reproductive System
Physiology of Male Reproduction
Female Reproductive System
Physiology of Female reproduction
Effects of Aging on the Reproductive System

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
I. Introduction

The human species could not survive without functional


reproductive systems. The reproductive systems play essential
roles in the development of the structural and functional
differences between males and females, influence human
behavior, and produce offspring.

II. LEARNING COMPETENCIES

At the end of this module, you are expected to;


1.List the functions of the male and female reproductive system.
2.Describe the scrotum and temperature regulation of the testes
3.Described the structure of the penis, seminal vesicles, Bulbourethral glands, and
prostate gland and Described their functions .
4.Describe the changes that occur in males during puberty.
5.Explain the events that occur during the sexual act.
6. Name the organs of the female reproductive system and Described their structure..
7.Described the structure of the uterine tubes , uterus, vagina, external genitalia, and
mammary glands
8.List the hormones of the female reproductive system and explain how their secretion
is regulated
9. Explain the events that occur during the female sexual act.
10.Define the menopause and described the changes that result from it.

In this Module, you will answer the following key question;

*What are the major female reproductive organs? What are their functions?
*What are estrogen and progesterone? What do they do?
*Tender breasts, cramps moodiness, and headaches are just a few of the symptoms
that may accompany menstruation. What causes them? How can they be eased?
*Theres no shortage of myths associated with female sexual development,
menstruation, and pregnancy. Lets talk about some and separate the fact from the
fiction.

TASK CARD

III. PRE-ASSESSMENT

Instructions; Answer each question.

1. The two oval- shaped organs that produce, store, and release eggs are
called the _________.

2.Which one is not a menstrual problem ?


a) Amenorrhea
b) Vulvovaginitis
c) Dysmenorrhea
d) Menorrhagia

3. True or false: Females make millions of eggs per day.

4.Fertilization occurs in the:


a) uterus
b)fallopian tube
C) labia
d) vagina

5 _____ produces egg cells

Functions of the Reproductive System

*The male reproductive system produces sperm cells, provides nutrients for
the sperm cells and secretions, transfer the sperm cells to the female, and
makes male sex hormones.

*The female reproductive system produces oocytes, receives sex cells from
the male, provides nourishment for the developing individual before and
after birth, and produces female sex hormones.

Formation of sex cells


*The reproductive organ in males
and females produce sex cells by
meiosis.

Male
Reproductive System

SCROTUM
*The scrotum is a sac containing
the testes.
*The dartos and cremaster muscles
help to regulate testes
temperature.

TESTES
*The testes are divided into
lobules containg the seminiferous
tubules and interstitial cells.

*During development the testes pass from the abdominal cavity through the
inguinal canal to the scrotum.

SPERMATOGENESIS
*. Spermatogenesis begin in the seminiferous tubules at the time of puberty.

*Sperm cells are produced in the seminiferous tubules.


*Sertoli cells nourish the sperm cells and produce small amounts of
hormones. *Spermatogonia divide (mitosis) to form primary
spermatocytes. *Spermatids develop a head,
midpiece, and flagellum to become a sperm cell. The head contains the
acrosome and the nucleus.

Ducts
*The epididymis is a coiled tube system, located on the testis, that is the site
of sperm maturation. Final changes, called capacitation of spermcells, occur
after ejaculation. *The seminiferous tubules lead to the rete
testis. *The ductus deferens
passes from the epididymis into the abdominal cavity. *The
ejaculatory duct is formed by the joining of the ductus deferens and the duct
from the seminal vesicle.
*The ejaculatory ducts join the prostatic urethra in the prostate gland.
*The urethra extends from the urinary bladder through the penis to the
outside of the body.
Penis
*The penis consist of erectile tissue.
*The two corpora cavernosa form the dorsum and the sides.
*The corpus spongiosum forms the ventral portion and the glans penis, and it
encloses the spongy urethra. The prepuce covers the glans penis.

Glands
*The seminal vesicles empty into the ejaculatory duct.
*The prostate gland consists of glandular and muscular tissue and empties
into the urethra. *The bulbourethral glands empty into the urethra.

Secretions

*Semen is a mixture of gland secretions and sperm cells.


*The bulbourethral glands and the urethral mucous glands produce mucus
that neutralizes the acidic pH of the urethra.
*The testicular secretions contain sperm cells.
*The seminal vesicle fluid contains nutrients, prostaglandins, and proteins
that coagulate.

Physiology of Male Reproduction

Puberty
*Before puberty small amounts of testosterone inhibit GnRH release.
*During puberty testosterone does not completely suppress GnRH release,
resulting in increased production of FSH, LH, and testosterone.

Male sexual behavior and the Male sec Act


*Testosterone is required for normal sex drive.
*Stimulation of the sexual act can be tactile or psychological.
*Sensory impulse pass to the sacral region of the spinal cord.
*The most common cause of infertility is a low sperm cell count.

IV.SUMMATIVE ASSESMENT
Directions. Choose the letter of the best answer

1. Transfer the sperm cells to the female, and makes male sex hormones
A. male reproductive system
b)scrotum
c)penis
d) female reproductive system

2 . Provides nourishment for the developing individual before and after birth,
and produces female sex hormones.

A. male reproductive system


b) scrotum
c) penis
d) female reproductive system

3. sac containing the testes

a. condom b.pills c. scrotum d. testis

4. Are divided into lobules containg the seminiferous tubules and interstitial
cells.

a. penis b. testes. C.scrotum d.condom

5-10 draw the Male reproductive system and label it.

Female Reproductive System

Ovaries
*By the fourth month of development the ovaries contain 5
million oogonia. *By birth many oogonia have degenerated,
and for the remaining oogonia meiosis has stopped in prophase
I,causing them to become primary oocytes. *By
puberty 300,000 to 400,000 primary oocyteremain amd about
400 will be released from the ovaries.
*If fertilization occurs, the corpus leteum persists. If there is no
fertilization, it degenerates.
Urerine Tubes
*The ovarian end of the
uterine tube is surrounded
by fimbriae.
*Cila on the fimbriae
move the oocyte into the
uterine tube.
*Fertilization usually
occurs in the uterine tube,
which is near the ovary.

Uterus *The eterus is a pear-shaped


organ.The uterine cavity and the
cervical canal are the spaces formed by the uterus.
*The wall of the uterus consists of the perimetriumor serous layer,
the myometrium (smooth muscle), and the endometrium.

Vagina
*The vigina connects the uterus (cervix) to the vestibule.
*The vagina consists of a layer of smooth muscles and an inner
lining of moist stratified squamous epithelium.

*Lubricating fluid is produced by the wall of the vagina. The


hymen covers the vestibular opening of the vigina.

External Genitalia
*The vestibule is a space into which the vagina and the urethra
open. *The clitoris is composed of erectile
tissue and contains many sensory receptors impotant in detecting
sexual stimuli. *The labia
minora are folds that cover the vestibule and form the prepuce.
*The mons pubis is an elevated area superior to the liabia majora.

Mammary Glands
*Mammary glands are the organs of milk production.
*The mammary glands are modified glands that consists of
glandular lobes and adipose tissue. The lobes connect to the
nipple through ducts. The nipple
is surrounded by the areola .The
female breast enlarges during
puberty under the influence of
estrogen and progesterone.

Oogenesis

Activity 1

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM

Instructions: Label the diagram and write the function of each part
below. On the back, note at least 3 features of the female reproductive
system that are specifically adapted for conceiving.
Labia _______________________________________________________

Clitoris ________________________________________________________

Urethra ________________________________________________________

Vagina ________________________________________________________

Uterus ________________________________________________________

Fallopian tubes ________________________________________________________

Ovaries ________________________________________________________

Hymen ________________________________________________________

Cervix________________________________________________________

Physiology of Female Reproduction

Puberty
*Puberty begins with the first menstrual bleeding (menarche).
*Puberty begins when GnRH,LH, and FSH levels increase.
Menstrual Cycle
*The cyclical changes in the uterus are controlled by estrogen and
progesterone produced by the ovary.
*Menses (day 1 to days 4 or 5) : menstrual fluid is produced by
degeneration of the endometrium.
*Proliferative phase (5 to day of ovulation) : epithelial cells
multiply and form glands.
*Secretory phase ( from day of ovulation to day 28) : the
endometrium becomes thicker, and endomentrial glands
secrete.The uterus is prepared for implantation of the developing
blastocyst by day 21.
*estrogen stimulates proliferation of the endometrium, and
progesterone causes thickening of the endometrium.Decreased
progesterone causes menses.

*If fertilization does not occur, progesterone secretion by the


corpus luteum decreases and menses begins.
*If fertilization does occur, the corpus leteum continues to secrete
progeterone and menses does not occur.

Menopause
The cessation of the menstrual cycle is called menopause.

Activity 1

ONCE UPON A FALLOPIAN TUBE

Instructions: Use this storyboard to write and illustrate


the journey of an egg from ovulation through fertilization
_______________ __________________
__________________ _______________
__________________ ___________________

__________________ ___________________
__________________ __________________ ____________________
__________________

____________________ _________________
________________ __________________ ____________________
________________

Female Sexual Behavior and the Female

Sex act
*Female sex drive is partially influencedby testosteronelike
hotmones (produced by the adrenal cortex) and estrogen
produced by the ovary. *Autonomoc nerves
cause crectile tissue to become engorged with blood, the
vestibular secrete mucus, and the vagina to produce a lubricating
fluid.

Infertility
*Causes of infertility in females include malfunctions of the
uterine tubes, reduced hormone secretion from the pituitary or
ovary, and and interruption of implantation.

Effects of aging on the Reproductive System


*Benign prostatic enlargement affects men as they age and it
blocks urine flow throught the prostatis urethra.
*Proatatic cancer is more common in elderly men.
*Menopause is the most common, age_related change in females.
*Cancers of the breast, the uterine cervix, and ovaries increase in
ederly women. *Occasionally prolapsed uterus develops in
ederly women.

BREAK TIME

Answer the following question

1. ________________ occurs about 2 weeks before a womans period.


2. The _______________ is a thick, muscular organ that can expand to
accommodate a developing baby.
3.The lining of the uterus is called the _______________.
4.The average menstrual cycle is about __________________.
5.The___________ is the lower portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
6.About a week after fertilization, the fertilized egg is a hollow ball of cells
called a __________.

GLOSSARY
Acinus (asi-nus) Grape-shaped secretory portion of a gland
Chromosome (kromo-som) one of the bodies (normally 46 in
humans) in the cell nucleus that carry the cells genetic
information.
Cystic duct (sistik) Duct from the gallbladder; it joins the
common hepatic duct to form the common bile duct.
Efferent (efer-ent) (L. efferens, to bring out) conducting outward
from a given organ or part, denoting certain arteries, veins,
lymphatics, and motor nerves. Opposite of afferent.
Ejaculation (e-jak-u-la-shun) [to shoot out] reflexive expulsion of
semen from the penis.
Embryo (embre-o) In prenatal development, the developing
human between the time of fertilization to approximately the end
of the second month
Hymen (himen) A thin membranous fold highly variable in
appearance; partly occludes the opening of the vagina prior to its
rupture; may occur for a variety of reasons and is frequently
absent.
Menopause (meno-pawz) permanent cessation of the menstrual
cycle.
Oocyte (oo-sit) Female gamete, or sexcell; a secondary oocyte
and a polar body result from the first meiotic division, which occur
prior to the time of ovulation
Prostate gland (prostat) Gland that surrounds the beginning of
the urethra in the male. The secretion of the gland is a milky fluid
that is discharged into the urethra as part of the semen
Scrotum (skrotum) musculocutaneous sac containing the testes.
Semen (semen) penile ejaculate ; thick, yellowish white, viscous
fluid containing sperm cells and secretions of the testes, seminal
vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands.
Spermatogenesis (sperma-to-jen-e-sis) formation and
development of sperm cells
Sperm cell Male reproductive cell
Spinal cord portion of the central nervous system extending from
the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the second
lumbar vertebra; consists of a central gray portion and peripheral
white portion.
Testis (testis) one of two male reproductive glands located in the
scrotum; produces testosterone and sperm cells.
Urethra (urethra) a duct leading from the bladder, discharging
the urine externally
Uterus (uter-us) hollow muscular organ in which the fertilized
oocyte develops into a fetus

Answer keys
PRE ASSESMENT
1. ovaries
2. b
3. false
4. b
5. oocytes

SUMMATIVE ASSESMENT
1. a
2. d
3. c
4.b
BREAK TIME
1.ovulation
2. uterus
3.endometrium
4.28days
5. cervix
6.blastocyst

REFERENCES
*Gerald J. TORTORA and Bryan Derrickson (PRINCIPLES OF
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY) maintain and continuity of the human
body 13th EDITION
*Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology sixth edition Seeley
Stephens Tate
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Merryl Faye R. De Vera (student at GLNHS)

With honor since 1st year high school in Bartolome Sangalang National
High School, athlete, Silver medalist of playing Arnis, volleyball and football.
She was born in General Luna Llanera Nueva Ecija on October 07, 2000. She
believed that Great work is achieved not by power but by hard work and
perseverance

Paula Estibar (Student at GLNHS)

She is a dancer since first year in Gen. Luna national High


School, karate arnis player in Fuma, a crazy and noisy person. She
is born in Cabanatuan City on June 30, 2000. And she believed
that Learning through enjoyment to be the best