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Modeling and Simulation for Head/Disk

Electro-mechanical Systems Interface


During Load/Unload Process of a Hard
Disk Drive

ISPS 2016

2016 Western Digital Corporation or affiliates. All rights reserved.


Outline

Introduction
Electromechanical Models
Simulator Capabilities
- Dynamic Simulation
- Static Margin Analysis
- Statistical Analysis
- GUI
Experimental Results
Feasibility Analysis

2016 Western Digital Corporation or affiliates. All rights reserved.


Introduction
Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is an integration of several subsystems operating
synchronously.
Focus on Voice Coil Motor (VCM) load and unload operations

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Introduction Contd
Simulator for Head Loading/Unloading Operations of HDD Voice Coil Actuator
(VCA)
Load: Motion of head from parked position inside garage to outermost point on media of
disk called the outer diameter (OD).
Unload: Motion of head from anywhere on media of disk to crash stop position on garage
where head is forced to stop.
Emergency Power Off Retract (EPOR): Unload, but when power is lost, and inertial
energy of spindle is used to park the head.

Simulation Types and Capabilities


Static algebraic simulations to assess feasibility and available margins due to changes in
electro-mechanics(EM) during feasibility phase.
Dynamic simulations to accurately assess the performance of L/UL process, by providing
the optimal firmware (FW) tunings for controller coefficients and target velocities at various
locations on media and on ramp during development phase.
Monte Carlo (MC) simulations provide feedback on design of EM parameters including Kt
(motor torque constant), resistance of coil, and composite torque due to friction, windage,
flex bias

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Electromechanical Models
Model Inputs and System Parameters
VCM Electro-mechanics including Kt Motor Torque Constants, Composite torque functions
opposing motion, and crash-stop stiffness
Geometry of garage
Power Large Scale Integration parameters
Printed Circuit Board Assembly parameters
initial conditions for head location: position and velocity
operating temperature
Model outputs
Head position
Velocity
VCM current
Operation Time
Distributions of velocity, current, position, load/unload times, at various positions on the
drive, and applied parametric variations

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Simulation Capabilities

MC simulations
sample from a probability distribution for each variable to produce millions of possible
outcomes.
3-sigma variation on main contributing parameters under normal distribution within specified
tolerance provide 99.73% process yield.
Failures captured during simulation provide details e.g. what parameter combination causes
the failure mode.

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Simulator Capabilities: Dynamic Simulations

Provide simulations with exhaustive parameter variation cases for: Load,


Normal Unload, Emergency Unload and EPOR
Initial conditions for the head: position and velocity can be preset.
Simulation stopping condition based on time or head position can be preset.
Worst case scenarios under hot or cold conditions can be determined.
Provides MC simulations on single drive without considering part variation as
well as drive-to-drive variations on multiple drive components from several
vendors.

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Simulator Capabilities: Dynamic Simulations
Architecture for Load and Unload Models

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Simulator Capabilities: Dynamic Simulations
Architecture for EPOR Models

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Static Margin Analysis

Provide simulations with exhaustive parameter variation cases for: Load,


Normal Unload, Emergency Unload and EPOR
No momentum involved.
Algebraic simulations are fast
Provides the minimum torque required for head to load and unload under
normal conditions, absolute worst case (corners) and MC worst case
scenarios.
For EPOR, in addition to minimum torque, power required to unload during
EPOR is also determined.

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Statistical Analysis

Percentage or defective part per million (DPPM) is recorded for various cases.
Lower and higher velocities outside designed target range is recorded, and
provides insight into potential issues.
Distribution of velocities when head is at ODCS is recorded and portion
outside designed allowable range can be determined.
Average, minimum and maximum velocity and current at various positions on
media, ramp or garage region can be recorded and monitored.

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Simulation Capabilities: Graphical User Interface

GUI capabilities
allows varying specific
parameters to test specific
cases or failure modes
simulate scenarios under
different conditions
Real-time update on large
simulations
Provide estimated time
Save all parameter inputs and
outputs and creates simulation
reports

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Results
Simulator provides FW tuning parameters and controller coefficients.
The simulations provide the expected current and velocities at various locations for comparison with
large scale measurements on thousands of drives.
For observed discrepancies, the mechanical parameters and friction forces are revisited to ensure the
entire range of part and temperature variations are covered in typical L/UL torque inputs or magnet
specifications.

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Reliability Analysis

Accuracy of models allows system changes to be rapidly assessed, e.g. new


VCM geometry or new electronics can be tested to assess margins.
Failures due to specific electronic bugs or out of specification parts, can be
modeled into simulation to predict field exposure.
Any beneficial FW changes can be incorporated into dynamic simulations to
foresee potential issues.

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