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The risk that patients are harmed while receiving healthcare can never be mitigated
entirely. Nevertheless, estimates suggest approximately 50 per cent of care-related
injuries are avoidable, and the challenge for health services is to ensure their patient
safety systems minimise the risk of harm.

Health services take a systems approach to preventing incidents, acknowledging that

while human error is unavoidable, the conditions that people work under can be
controlled. Rather than blaming individuals, the systems approach attempts to identify
the underlying causes of incidents, and establish mechanisms to prevent them from

Clinical incidents are incidents that occur in a health setting that could have resulted, or
did result, in the harm of a patient. Clinical incidents can have serious health and quality of life
consequences for patients. At worst, they can result in death, and they can also have significant
financial implications for health services.

Patient safety

The provision of healthcare is complex, and the risk that patients may be harmed while
in the care of health services can never be mitigated entirely. The challenge is to
ensure that the patient safety system minimises the risk of harm.

An important contribution to patient safety is a strong commitment to clinical

governance and clinical risk management by government and health services.
Together, they must ensure that they have established clinical governance systems to
monitor, support, evaluate and continuously improve patient safety. In health services,
patient safety should receive, at the very least, the same level of attention as financial
and corporate issues.

Clinical risk management

Clinical risk management (CRM) refers to how health services manage the risks
associated with patients and patient care. It focuses on how health services implement
their commitment to patient safety and incorporates the collection, analysis and
reporting of patient safety information to identify and respond to risks. It outlines the
roles and responsibilities of those involved and provides guidance on appropriate

A central feature of CRM is incident reporting, which includes documenting actual and
potential incidents, and the actions taken by health service staff to redress them.
Incident reporting systems facilitate the collation of data to identify patient safety risks
and monitoring performance over time.

Clinical incidents
Clinical incidents are incidents occurring in a health setting that could have, or did,
result in harm to a patient. In ABC the DHS categorises clinical incidents according
to the degree of harm, or potential harm, they cause.


To study the patient safety in hospital ABC

To study the patient safety in hospital ABC OPD
To study the patients perceptions about hospital
To study the various steps have been taken by the hospital department in order to improve
patient safety measure

Research is a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in branch of
knowledge: market research specifies the information. Required to address these issues: designs
the method for collecting information: manage and implements the data collection process
analyses the results and communicates the finding and their implications.

Research problem is the one which requires a researcher to find out the best solution for the
given problem that is to find out the course of action, the action the objectives can be obtained
optimally in the context of a given environment.

Research design:-

A research design is the arrangement of the conditions for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

The formidable problem that follows the task of define the research problem is the preparation of
the design of the research project, popularly known as the research design.

Decision regarding what, where, when,, how much, by what means concerning an inquiry

Types of Research Design:-

Research Design is mainly of three types

1. Exploratory Research

2. Descriptive or Conclusive Research

3. Experimental Research
Exploratory research: -

It is often the initial step in the series of studies designed to supply information for decision-
making. The main purpose of this research is that of formulating a problem for more precise
investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The
major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights.

Descriptive Research or Conclusive Research: -

Descriptive Research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries. The descriptive research is
typically concerned with determining the frequency with which something occurs or determining
the degree to which variables is associated. It is guided by an initial hypothesis.

Experimental Research: -

In experimental research some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other
variables. Experimentation is defined as a process where events occur in a setting at the
discretion of the experimenter and controls are used to identify the source of variation in the
subject. Thus, experimental researches are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of
casual relationships between variables research study constitute a research design.

I was used descriptive research design for conducting the survey.

Sample design:-

A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the
technique or the procedure the researcher would adopted in selecting items for the sample.
Sample design may as well lay down the number of items to be included in the sample that is the
size of sample.
Type of sample:-

1 Probability sampling
2 Non probability sampling

Probability sampling:-

Probability sampling is also known as random sampling or chance sampling. Under this
sampling design, every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample.

Non probability sampling:-

Non probability sampling is that sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for
estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample. In
this type of sampling, items for the sample are selected deliberately by the researcher; his or her
choice concerning the items remains supreme.

I was used convenience non probability sampling for obtain the sample.

Sample size:-

This refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample.

Sample size- 25

Sample unit:-

Sampling unit may be a geographical one such as state, district, village etc or it may be social
unit. Sampling unit-patient and staff of the hospital.

Sample extent:-



SAMPLE UNIT Patients and staff


DATA ANALYSIS: Data will be analysed through pie charts, graphs and tabulation using MS-