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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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1.1. Premise

In the present world of mass media we are surrounded with

advertisements all the time. Whether we watch T.V., read newspaper,

magazine etc or on our way to school, college or office we came across

many advertisements of different shape and sizes and in one way or the

other our attention is diverted towards them. Advertisements have become

an important part of our daily lives and it is impossible for us to neglect

the importance of advertising.

In present day life, different types of advertisements attack our

privacy but in fact its an attractive power which can control a consumer.

The voice of advertisements can guide, encourage, asks, announces and

deeply inserted into peoples mind.

Nobody questions the significance of the words picked in verbal

correspondence in deciding exactly how compelling that correspondence

is prone to be. Keeping in mind, consideration may be paid to protect that

portrayals or traits inside of an objective message which reflect those

things well on the way to be significant to the objective beneficiary,

almost no thought appears to go into conceivable communications among

those depictions or characteristics, and even less to syntactic thought. One

trusts that there will be a positive, added substance relationship among

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different unmistakable components in a correspondence and that they are

very much requested. However that is not generally the case. To the

degree that there are incongruities between these verbal components in a

correspondence and potential harmony may come about.

Unmistakably, the parts of our language and the way they are gathered

will impact how well a message is conveyed.

It has commented that there is by all accounts something about the English

language that causes individuals to respond to specific words or sounds

uniquely in contrast to they respond to others. (Schloss1981).

Media talk is multidisciplinary which covers the terms of

ethnography of correspondence, conversational investigation, social

studies, and discriminating talk examination etc. Media supplant every

more seasoned asset of learning and data and comprehension of world.

Part of media is exceptionally clear in constituting individuals'

acknowledgment of world, developing substances, highlighting social

values and standards and involving force. Multinational organizations

utilize some particular apparatuses in their print media promotions to

induce their recipients and change their disposition and decisions, by

overwhelming their uncommon social values, their philosophies and

convictions. Ads are made to focus on a particular gathering for some

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particular purposes. Makers utilize some particular medium to target their

gathering. Language and Visuals of commercials assume principle part to

pull in viewers.

Language, these days, is not an unimportant apparatus of

correspondence maybe it has turn into a ware to gain cash. It is, in the

business world, the most compelling gadget of reputation owing to its

appealing nature (Emodi, 2011).

A shrewd utilization of words in a monetary way is the

magnificence of TV plug mottos. TV is an intense wellspring of diversion

for people and also nobles. Gathering of people with numerous hobbies is

bound to stare at the TV ads amid projects of their interest. These plugs

influence the general visibility about their occupation. They add to a

certain perspective about diverse items presented on the TV screen. The

most powerful piece of TV advertisements is their flabbergasting mottos;

essentially, the language.

Advertisements are always there, even if people are not aware of that.

Today advertising industry uses every possible media to convey its

message. Advertising industry consists of advertising companies that

advertise agencies who create advertisements, media, copy writers, brand

managers, creative heads, designers and customers.

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1.2. Definition of advertisement

The word advertising first appeared around in year1655. That was used

in the Bible to indicate notification or warning. An advertisement is a

public announcement, generally printed or oral, made to promote a

commodity, service, or idea.

Advertising generally, is in form of a picture, short film, songetc that

tries to convince people to buy a product and to inform them about some

job...etc. Advertising can be portrayed as a paid dispersal of information

through a blended sack of mass correspondence media to rouse a sought

activity.A c c o r d i n g the concise oxford dictionary the verb, to advertise

means: to make generally or publicly known.

Jeremy Bullmore defines advertising as any paid-for communication

intended to inform and/or influence on one or more people.Here, the first

component paid for recognizes promoting from free exposure. The second

component correspondence demonstrates transmission of messages and

the utilization of a medium. The third component purposeful is about

notices being objective situated. Fourthly, educate and/or impact

demonstrates about the powerful way of promoting.

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According to Advertising Association of U.K.:

Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or

service. Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them

and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them.

Advertising is a paid non-personal communication form with an

identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence the audience

(Wells and Burnett and Moriarty, 1989 page8).

From these definitions we can see that advertisements are important for

both the consumers and producers. It creates and changes with the

development of society. It is a mirror of society (Russell, 1996 page508)

which reflects the general public we live in.

1.3. Language in advertisements

Advertising language is the language used as a part of promoting

messages to bring out the readers consideration and impact which readers

conduct in purchasing item. In advertising language, language and thought

are associated. It manages exciting interest and speaking to yearnings in

the readers mind. The objective of advertising is to pick up and to

persuade people. Language in advertising is dissimilar to language in

Literature. In literature author makes sentiments through words and reader

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can feel while perusing. In publicizing author composes for reader.

Impression from publicizing is made by readers not by author. Language

in advertising may need to break the standards of sentence structure. It can

be seen regularly in advertising messages that sentence structure is ignored

and it has a tendency to concentrate on word play and talk (May 1995

Tipper Hollingworth and Hotchkiss, 1921)

1.4. Features of Advertising Language

There are three linguistic features used in advertisements which are

English lexicon, English syntax and figures of speech. All the three

elements i.e. word/sentence, grammar structure and figures of speech,

combined are essential in making advertising message.

1.4.1. Lexical features

Lexicon in advertising language is different from common language. It is

more compact, visual and emotional. Words found in advertising are

simple and informal, misspellings and coinage words, loan words, word

reduction, use of verbs, adjectives and compound words.

1.4.2. Syntactic features

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Sentence structure in advertising language is quite simple, understandable

and attention grabbing. It is more interrogative and imperative sentences.

Disjunctive clauses and minor clauses can also be used in advertising

language.

1.4.3 Figures of speech

Figurative language plays a major role in advertising language. It can

make messages more effective and outstanding. It also has power to vivify,

illustrate and can connect to human thought. Language of advertising has

its own ways of using literary devices to achieve multi layered meanings.

Lexicon and syntax seems to be general techniques used in advertisements

created by advertisers to create messages, but figures of speech used to be

the great technique to enhance the advertising message to another

rhetorical level.

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1.5. Statement of the Problem

Language used in Pakistani advertisements has becomes an important

source of communicating ideas and shows variety of linguistic features of

its own which persuade people. This research employs the impact of

linguistic features of Pakistani Kids Advertisements.

1.6. Rationale of the study

Advertising is something that we are all introduced to. It is furthermore

something that is inclined to impact most of us in different circles of our

lives. Advertising exhibits the qualification that exists between brands of

things and choice organizations. Advertising language furthermore tells

the purchaser what a specific thing, brand or organization should do when

it is used, in this way helping consumer to appreciate and evaluate

inclusion with, the things and organizations that consumer uses.

Advertising is one of the critical forces that help to improve the lifestyle

around the world. Merged with all these communicational, promoting and

social limits, Advertising gets the opportunity to be basic in the present

world.

On the other hand, by making people aware of things, organization and

contemplations, advertising advances arrangements and advantages. As

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needs be the types of advertising are fundamental. Publicizing has various

structures, yet in an extensive segment of them language is of vital

noteworthiness. The words in advertising are carefully made to address

particular issues.

1.7 Objectives

To analyze the impact of language features in Pakistani kids

products advertisements

To give recommendations to the readers, viewers, copywriters and

advertising agencies about the use of language in Pakistani kids

products advertisements.

1.8. Research Questions

Which language features are being used in Pakistani

advertisements of kids products?

What recommendations should be given to readers, viewers, copy

writers and advertising agencies about the use of language in

Pakistani advertisements of kids products?

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1.9. Significance

Commercials can be examined as far as appearance, the language used as

a part of them, their structure, their importance, the responses they bring

about, and tastefully as an artistic expression. By contemplating them in

these terms we have the capacity to research, and dismember the

promotions so as to find how they function, and what makes us purchase

those items related to kids.

Promotions have their own specific language. Their point is to impart data

about the organization and the picture they need to make, to the group of

onlookers, or rather the purchasing open. Words are frequently utilized as

a part of ads to reaffirm the feeling that organizations need the group of

onlookers to feel. Words are every now and again used to tie the

photos/pictures made in ads to the item they are attempting to offer.

Naturally Pakistani products advertisements have become an important

mean of communicating ideas, demonstrating a variety of linguistic

features on its own. The present study focuses on the influence of these

features upon people at lexical level, syntactic level and figurative

language, used in Pakistani advertisements. In the hope to bring them to

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light and thereby, offering help to advertising agencies, copy writers,

viewers and readers.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

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2.1. History of Advertisements

Advertising Starts from ancient times. Initially messages were conveyed

by exchanging each others conversation. Some business and election

campaign messages have been found in remnants of Pompeii. Egypt,

Rome and Greece papyrus was utilized for promoting any item. The olden

advertising structure consists of wall and rock painting and it was also

available till modern time in many parts of world.

During nineteenth century because of exceed in economy, the

requirements for advertising also developed which makes it advance, more

exploratory and a modern organization. New methods to promote item

visually were introduced. Imperative structured sentences are utilized for

promoting an item or service which brings innovativeness in it.

Today we see so many advertisements in market where dealers are

praising their items. Today, product makers want to separate their items

and are always trying to figure out better approaches to display their item.

The items are visually highlighted now. Today the streets are covered with

lots of colorful posters.

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In Pakistan, for almost a decade after its existence in 1947, Advertising

industry was being controlled by many foreign advertising agencies. At

that time print media was the only medium for promoting a message.

Trained and skilled professionals were not available at that time because

focus of Pakistani nation was to overcome the social and economic

problems as a newly developed nation. But after few years a sudden

change came in media side, Radio Pakistan started advertising. Then in

November 1964, Pakistan Television (PTV) the first television channel

had been launched and with this advertising industry in Pakistan started to

develop.

2.2. Function of Advertising and Its Language

Now advertising has been completely created. It is of great importance for

consumers, brings social reforms and also plays three major roles in

society.

2.2.1. Marketing Role

The organizations are being helped by market to offer their items or

services.

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Through advertisements, the makers of item or service bring them forward

and try to convince the purchasers to buy that item or avail that service

and as a result it supports them financially.

2.2.2. Educational Role

A proper knowledge about an item or service helps people to find out a

certain object.

Buyers can get to know about an item or service through ads which

instructs them and through this purchaser can do comparisons between

different product and services and then settle on to their decisions.

2.2.3. Social Role

Advertising helps to bring the social reforms and in this way enhance the

way of individuals life.

Advertising raises the countrys economy and also it is socially significant

for people because through this the communication system become so

vast.

Advertising should have different structures, methodologies and strategies

which should be applied to offer any item or service to purchasers but

besides all that language is the only essential device which satisfies the

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role of advertising completely. Other than sound, light, photos etc

language of advertisements is of great importance.

According to Leech (1978), there are five major functions of language.

Firstly, language is used to forward some data from one person to another

through words or expressions. Secondly, through language we can express

our emotions and feelings to one another. Thirdly, language can tell us the

tone of a speaker as if the speaker is commanding or requesting. Then a

language can give us an aesthetic delight also. Finally, through language

people are socially connected with each other. All these above elements

are important for advertising also.

So, language plays a critical part in commercials. Advertising language

has some fundamental elements and also certain styles and strategies

which persuade the consumers.

2.3. Basic Principles of Advertising Language

Generally the basic principles of advertising language are to attract

attention, to arouse interest, to create conviction and to stimulate desire of

the consumers.

Professor Liu summed up the four standards of language in Advertising

English.

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Firstly an ad should be catchy for consumers and to achieve the target, the

sponsors need to make it colorful and utilize those sentences which drag

the attention of purchasers to buy the item.

Secondly an advertising content is difficult to read if it uses too long

sentences because it will make the readers tired. So simple words must be

utilized to make a advertising content useful and entertaining for readers.

Thirdly, memorization of advertising content for consumers is important to

make them potential clients and this target can be achieved by using

rhyming words and other language features.

Finally, the advertising content should be well designed, clear and have

the ability to attract the readers to purchase the item.

2.4. Importance of Advertising Language

In last decades advertising market has increased a lot which has increased

the enthusiasm for its linguistic aspect. As per William Bernbach, a

renowned advertising pioneer, states that:

The truth isnt the truth until people believe you, and they cant believe

you if they dont know what you are saying, and they cant know what you

are saying if they dont listen to you, and they wont listen to you if you

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were not interesting, and you wont be interesting until you say things

imaginatively, originally, freshly.

It is important because he further says that:

It is insight into human nature that is the key to communicators skill. For

whereas the writer is concerned with what he puts into his writings, the

communicator is concerned with what the reader gets out of it. He

therefore becomes a student of how people read or listen.

Bernbach puts stress on the importance of language in advertisements, in

both his quotes. Advertising now is a science. People try to find out

linguistic aspects and principles which make an advertisement unique and

catchy.

2.5. Advertising in Pakistan

In Pakistani advertisements language has a very high flexibility.

Advertising agencies uses different kinds of styles to attract the customers.

In advertising language pictures and music are blended and it has

information and feeling which can catch the five senses of an individual. It

is socially and functionally important also.

2.6. Previous Researches

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Although a number of researchers have endeavored on advertising

language but the works of the following scholars occupies a fundamental

position.

Perhaps, Leech is foremost among such researchers who embarked the

basic principles of language in field of advertising in English in

Advertisements (1966) gave valuable ideas regarding punctuation and

semantic highlights used in English advertising. Further two researchers

Cook in The discourse of advertising (2001) and Goddard in The

language of advertising (2002) provided practical information and

presented view on how to examine particular specimens of promoting.

Another interactive asset was Janoschkas Web Advertisement: New form

of Communication on the internet in 2000. It provides valuable

information for web promoting. It provides useful material for quick

information of online promoting message.

(Leech 1966) is considered as the pioneer in the field among those who

provided knowledge into the subject. He primarily focuses on style,

vocabulary and grammar of English advertising. He specifically

investigated on language of television advertising. Due to short span of

time, language in advertising is disjunctive and has a condensed language

structure.

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As television plays a very important role in todays business world. It

gives us brief information about something in a short span of time through

commercials. So language used in commercials should be straightforward,

appealing to audiences and financial. Akinbode (2012) studies the basic

linguistic components used in advertisements and fides out that through

advertisements viewers would get better living opportunities for their

wellbeing.

2.6.1. Focus of the Present Study

An advertising message can be conveyed through visual effects, sounds

and language. Sometimes its a blend of any two as in radio ads music and

language is blended and print advertisements are shown through language

and pictures. But television advertisements are a blend of three, in T.V

commercials are shown by music, pictures or video and language.

Although pictures and music gives clues but its data is constrained and

sometimes leads to misconception also. So, we can say that language of

advertising gives more correct, valuable and reliable information to

people.

This research will focus on the impact of language features of Pakistani

Advertisements at lexical, syntactic and figurative language with the aim

to highlight the linguistic features and to give recommendations to the

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readers, viewers, advertising agencies and copy writers about the use of

language in advertisements.

Advertising language has been studied by various researchers all over the

world from different dimensions and perspectives. Many researchers have

studied the linguistic features used in advertising language and their

impact upon people. These linguistic features are studied as follows:

2.6.1.1. Lexical Features

Leech observed that adjectives and connotations are abundantly used in

advertisements that help advertisers to impart extraordinary characteristics

of their items and in return it helps consumers to build positive attitude

towards the item or services. As per Sternkpof connotations are elaborated

forms to express different words and are some special affiliations that

prevail in a specific culture. In advertisements they are used to memorize

trademarks

In advertisements, use of comparative references is very common which

modifies the advertising content. According to Goddar (1998) comparative

references tells the readers to find out specific things in an advertisement

and draw them together to examine it.

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Weasel words are also used in advertisements which is an informal term

for words to create an impression for making a specific statement, when

only a vague or ambiguous claim has been communicated, enabling the

specific meaning to be denied if the statement is challenged.

According to Leech (1966)advertising needs to make a long lasting

impression in consumers mind and also to influence their behavior and for

this repetition plays a vital role. That is why the name of the product or

brand is repeated several times in an advertisement. Brand names are also

frequently repeated to create cohesion.

Sternkopf claims that the overwhelming utilization of pronoun cannot be

disconnected from the labels of adverts. By using pronouns, publicists

figure out how to engage a wide gathering of people and make an impact

on clients mind.

The wide use of monosyllabic and disyllabic (words comprising of a

single syllable or two syllables) is because of the reason that the shorter

the sentence the simpler it is to readers.

Conversion is also used by advertisers. According to Jackson, conversion

is a process to transfer words of one class to another without any changing

in their pronunciation and spellings.

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According to Goddard, advertising is a literary content in which some

aspects of real discourse were also copies. The lexical features Goddard

found in his research are firstly, colloquial or simple conversational words

are used and secondly, idioms are frequently used in advertisements.

According to (Jefkin 1976), (May 1995) and ( Drewniany and Jewler

2008) promoters used several techniques in advertising content. Firstly,

simple conversational and easily understandable words are used in ads.

Secondly, words with change in spellings are used which makes a sentence

more dynamic. Thirdly, coinage of words is frequently used and finally,

prints of adverts are made catchier to persuade the consumers.

All the above researches on lexical features of advertisements focus on the

English advertisements. The present study focuses on the impact of lexical

features used in Pakistani Advertisements. Moreover in this research, the

researcher focuses on the code mixing of English words in Pakistani Urdu

advertisements as code mixing and borrowing is common phenomena in

Pakistani context.

2.6.1.2. Syntactic Features

Syntactically, as per Leech, advertising language has a restricted variety of

grammar. In daily newspapers and trademarks only those sentences are

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utilized which just pass on the specific message to the audience. Limited

verbs are excluded and dependent clauses are made independent. Through

this method commercials are made more concise but informative.

Simple and minor sentences in advertisements have great impact on

audience. As simple sentences consist of one clause with one subject and a

verb whereas, minor clauses have nominal phrase but no finite verb. As

per Crystal, grammatical rules have not been followed by minor sentences.

According to (Jefkin 1976) and (Kongpetch and Smith 2008), to create

style in ads exclamation, interrogative, imperative and declarative

sentences are utilized. More over in some ads figures of speech are

combined with these general techniques to give a more powerful impact of

ads to consumers.

According to (Biber et al. 1999 page 221) in daily conversation we use

interrogative and imperative sentences commonly. But Myers (1994 page

47) says that commands are usually used in ads by promoters to create a

personal effect. They set up a relationship between purchasers and

sponsors. Both positive and negative imperative sentences are abundantly

found in advertisements and these neither have subject and tense nor

models or aspect makers. Only basic forms of verbs are utilized in these

sentences.

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Leech (1966 page 110 to 111) distinguishes three groups of verbs that are

used in commands in advertisements. In the first group they deal with the

buying of a product or service and are also used at the end of the

advertisements. In the second group they are connected with the use of a

product or service. In the third group they act as appeal to notices.

According to( Myers 1994) interrogative clauses are commonly used in

advertisements which have presuppositions. Also figures of speech are

also used in interrogative sentences present in advertisements, which

requires an answer that is obvious or can be provided by the sponsors of

that item or service

Exclamations also create personal and intuitive effect like interrogatives

and imperatives do and that is the reason exclamations are also used

abundantly in advertisements (Myers 1994). Also according to (Biber et al.

2002) strong emotions are also being exposed by the use of exclamation

sentences in ads.

According to (Leech 1996) to deviate from normal communication

incomplete sentence is a common feature of advertisements. These

sentences are not finite and have verb clause to form an individual

sentence. This only happens when a complete advertising clause consists

of phrase that has no main verb.

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According to (Brutaux 1996 page79) and (Toolen 1988 page57) the usage

of long and complex noun phrases, comparatives, compound adjectives

and modifier nouns are prominent features of advertisements.

According to (Leech 1996) and (Biber et al.(2002) in advertising content

present tense is frequently used while past tense is less common in usage.

According to (Cook 1992) the use of pronouns in sentence of

advertisements makes it different from normal communication and also

makes it an important subject for linguistic analysis. Through

advertisements sponsors need to personalize message for their consumers.

According to Williamson (1978 page 50) the pronoun you which is

common in advertisements is referring to you, the reader or viewer of the

advertisement, although there is no logic in it that it was you that the

advertiser had in his mind while creating an advertisement.

(Lapsanska2006) led a study on the Language of Advertising with

Concentration on the Linguistic Means and the Analysis of Advertising

Slogans he found out that, the pronoun "you" was generally used by

marketing specialists. The use of pronoun you in daily conversation help

to produce a sense of equality while in advertisement it is used as a

possessor of information and authority. The pronoun we can be used in

exclusive and inclusive senses in advertisements. The pronoun I is

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commonly refers to potential customers, the expert or advocate of the

product.

To portray an item and also to recommend the quality and elements of

products comparatives and superlative degrees of verbs are frequently

used in advertisements.

The above studies are referred to the syntactic features of English

advertising. The present study focuses on the impact of syntactic features

of Pakistani advertisements.

2.6.1.3. Figures of Speech

Different researches have been endeavored for the analyses of figures of

speech in advertisements such as (Leigh 1994), (McGuire and Mick, 2000)

(Toncar and Munch 2001), Mulken, Dijk, and (Hoeken 2005), (Philips

2000), and (Lagerwerf and Meijers2008), which all point to the

interconnectedness of figurative meanings found in the advertisements

with comprehension.

Figures of speech ads an extra dimension to advertising content which

makes it more memorable, interesting and attractive for buyers.

As per (Warren and Martin 1990) a figure of speech is taken out from

normal discourse and used them to have an impact on the other people. So

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in advertisements, figures of speech are an approach to express the psyche

of makers of advertisements to make the audience and readers keen to

look at the adverts which built stun, curiosity and illustrative outcomes in

them.

Different figures of speech have been used in advertisements which are

described by Cuddon in his research. These figures of speech will help to

analyze the data of the current study.

Different puns, which mean to play upon word, are prominent among

marketing specialists because they clarify the idea and also brings an

element of shock. As per Sternkopf the reasons for puns are polysemy

(words with a related significance), homonyms (two formally unclear

lexemes with irrelevant significance), and homophones (different words

sounding the same).

Rhyme presents a reoccurrences of sounds between words or the endings

of words, especially when these are used at the ending lines of poetry.

Alliteration is also applied in advertising because it gives delight to the

audience. An advertiser chooses words cleverly in ads so it is pleasing for

audience. By using alliteration an advertising content should be made

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rhythmic and also put stress by repeating the beginning sound the

advertisers want to express the meaning of an advertising content.

Hyperbole is defined as a way of describing something in order to make it

sound than it really is. In advertising, exaggerated statements puts

emphasis on the particular features of the products or services, or

sometimes achieves humorous effect.

Repetition is repeating any element in an utterance of sounds word or

phrases, accents or an arrangement of lines. In advertising repetition is

used to put an emphasis on important features of product or service which

makes the advertising message impressive and also persuade the

consumers.

Metaphor is defines as a figure of speech in which one thing is described

in terms of another with the help of implicit comparison.

For the reinforcement of an image similes are employed by advertisers

which two things are compared with each other by using words as and

like. It is an explicit comparison which clarifies and enhances the image

in an advertisement.

Litotes are a figure of speech which contains an understatement for

emphasis, and is therefore the opposite of hyperbole.

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Ellipsis is a syntactic scheme when one or more words are omitted

(Cuddon 231). It is very typical of advertising.

The current study will focus on the above described figures of speech used

in Pakistani advertisements.

(McQuirrie and Mick 1993) analyze figures of speech from times

magazine advertisements. The researcher discussed the relevance of

figurative language to the consumer advertising and also the frequency

and function of figurative language. They found out that puns are mostly

used while metaphors are less common in usage. Alliteration is mostly

used in scheme category. As in this research the researcher investigate the

consumer advertising. If the research is conducted on the specific type of

products then the results of the use of figures of speech would be different.

In another research of (McQuirrie and Mick1996) they differentiated

between figurative and nonfigurative content use to convey messages and

also two types of figures of speech which are tropes and scheme. This

research is also based on consumer ads. By comparing figurative ads with

nonfigurative ones the study finds out that consumers positively respond

towards the ads in which figures of speech are used. Figurative language

has a power to motivate a reader. Rhyme and repletion type represents the

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simplest and less demanding while puns and paradox are complex and

demanding.

(Leigh 1994) studies the frequency of figurative language used in

headlines of print advertisements. This study focused on the every

categories and factors related to the use of figures of speech in headlines

of the advertisements. Data will be analyzed from sports, special interest,

finance and life style magazines. The study revealed that alliteration,

assonance and puns are widely used in advertising headlines. The study

also finds out that different rhetorical devices are tended to be used in

different categories of products.

Till now by studying previous research the researcher feels that there is an

inadequate research on language of specific type of advertisements.

Moreover these researches focus on the English advertisements. The

researcher finds that kids advertisements in Pakistan has unique

characteristics from other types of advertisements, since it brings variety

in kids products advertisements. This research will examine the impact of

the figurative language used in Pakistani advertisements of kid products.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

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Linguistic is the investigation of the nature, structure, and variety of

dialect, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, grammar, linguistic,

sociolinguistics, and pragmatics. And the impact of linguistic in

advertisement creates pleasant sense in the minds. This research is based

on the impact of linguistic in Pakistani advertisements which are related to

products of kids.

3.1. Nature of study

The study is based on qualitative in nature and also descriptive. This study

analyzes the impact of language in TV advertisements on the customers

who purchase products of kids. Survey approach is considered suitable in

order to complete the research.

3.2. Population

The Customers of kids products in Hyper star Lahore and Metro plaza

Lahore.

3.3. Samples

The hundred customers were selected as sample from the above

population.

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3.4. Tools

Close ended questionnaire is prepared which is used to collect the data

from the customers who are available in the Hyper Star and Metro Plaza

Lahore purchasing products of Kids.

3.5. Limitations

This research is delimited to the results of data by Customers of Kids

product.

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CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS

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The researcher use questionnaire technique for data collection. Researcher

makes twenty questions in order to bring the perfect results. These

question have five option with Agree, Strongly agree, Neutral, Disagree

and strongly disagree, sign of tick mark is use to indicate the selected

option. The researcher decides to go in the field to provide the question

sheet to hundred people who purchase kids products as sample from the

Hyper Star Shopping Mall Lahore and Metro Plaza Lahore. The

researcher did not face any complication in the process of data collection.

The answer of each question describes in the percentage to tell the result

of this study.

The researcher presented his result without any understandable conflict;

the result is very easy to understand. Each question is with its commentary

and the pie table is used for the better understanding and for showing the

percentage which provide a clean mirror image of the study.

Analyzed data results:

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Question No. 1

TV advertisements strongly influenced you into buying products

Options No. of Customers


Agree 40
Strongly Agree 55
Neutral 0
Disagree 5
Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 1
Disagree; 5%
Agree; 40%
Strongly Agree; 55%

.The researcher analyses that 55% of the people strongly agree that the

advertisements impress them to buy products and the 40% of the people

also replied with Agree as ads play vital role in the purchases of kids good

or products. It is very strongly finding in the favor of advertisement. But

38
the 5% of the customers disagree with this question. And the percentage of

both Neutral and Strongly Disagree are 0%.

Question No.2

Advertisements divert peoples opinion from one product to another one

for better result.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 40

Strongly Agree 15

Neutral 0

Disagree 30

Strongly Disagree 15

Question No. 2
Agree; 40%
Disagree; 30%
Strongly
Strongly Disagree; Agree; 15%
15%

The analysis of this question is that the 40% of the people agree that the

advertisements effects on their opinion to check the new product. And the

39
15% of the people strongly agreed. 0% of the people are neutral in the

finding of this question and 30% of the people disagree with this. The

remaining 15% of the customers are strongly disagreeing with in the

finding of this question.

Question No. 3

Alliterations are used to create rhythm to attract people.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 70

Strongly Agree 10

Neutral 0

Disagree 20

Strongly Disagree 0

Disagree; 20%
Question No. 3
Strongly Agree; 10%
Agree; 70%

70% of the people reply that they are agree with this question that the

Alliterations is the cause to get the attraction and 10% of the people

40
strongly agreed that it caught the attraction because it provide rhythm in

dialogues but 20 percent of the people are disagree with this question they

does not like redundancy of the letters in words or dialogues. And the ratio

of Neutral and strongly disagree is the 0% in the finding of this question.

Question No. 4

Rhyming words create rhythm which makes an ad attractive

Options No. of Customers

Agree 85
Strongly Agree 5

Neutral 10

Disagree 0
Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 4
Neutral; 10%
Strongly Agree; 5%
Agree; 85%

41
The finding of this question is that the 85% of the people are agreed and

the 5% of the people are highly agreed with this statement and the 10% of

the people are neutral with this statement they may be agreed or may not

be agreed with the presented statement. And both the options disagree and

strongly disagree showed 0%.

Question No. 5

Colloquial words have an impact on people.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 92

Strongly Agree 8

Neutral 0

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 5
Strongly Agree; 8%

Agree; 92%

42
Through this question the researcher comes to know that the

large number of people agreed that Colloquial words have an impact on

people and create effect on attraction, agreed are 92% and strongly agreed

are remaining the percentage of 8. And remaining three filled by

percentage of 0.

Question No. 6

Simple sentences used in ads have an impact.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 24

Strongly Agree 26

Neutral 0

Disagree 40

Strongly Disagree 10

Question No. 6

Disagree; 40%
Agree; 24%
Strongly Agree; 26%
Strongly Disagree; 10%

43
The findings of this question is that the 24% of the people are

agreed and the 26% of the people are strongly agreed that the simple

sentences create impacts on the buying behavior and mind, Neutral are 0%

but the disagreed persons are 40% and strongly disagreed people is 10%.

Question No. 7

The metaphors and similes clarify the message

Options No. of Customers

Agree 42

Strongly Agree 48
Neutral 0

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree 0

Strongly Agree; 48%


Agree; 42%
Question 7

Disagree; 10%

44
The researcher come to know that through this statement the 42%

of the people agreed and 48% customers are highly agreed with this

statement they are in the favor that more reasonable and frequently

inconceivable have strong impact and the remaining 10% of the people

disagreed with it.

Question No. 8

Comparative and superlative degrees portray the quality of a product.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 78

Strongly Agree 12

Neutral 0

Disagree 10

Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 8
Disagree; 10%
Strongly Agree; 12%
Agree; 78%

45
. The finding of this question is that the 78% of the people are agreed

with this statement they like comparative products in nature which are superior

then another and 12% of the people are highly agreed with the question these

peoples are also quality conscious they preferred most beneficial good or

products for kids. Neutral are 0% but the people who strongly disagree with the

statements and 10% of the people disagree with this.

Question No. 9

The slogans are made catchy to catch the intention of the people.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 40

Strongly Agree 50

Neutral 10

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

46
Strongly Agree;Agree;
50% 40%
Question No. 9

Neutral; 10%

The 40% of the people are agreed and the 50% of the people are

strongly agreed with this statements thats the slogans is the cause to get

the attention. 10% of the people are neutral with the statement. Disagree

and strongly disagree is not filled by the any sample.

Question No. 10

Use of adjectives convince the watchers

Options No. of Customers

Agree 45

Strongly Agree 40

Neutral 0

Disagree 15

Strongly Disagree 0

47
Question No. 10
Disagree; 15%
Agree; 45%
Strongly Agree; 40%

The 45% of the customers are agreed and 40% of the customers are

highly or strongly agree with the adjective words these words convince

peoples to buy the products. Neutral are 0% but the disagrees are 15%

Neutral and strongly disagree show 0% of marked results.

Question No. 11

The mix-code words make an ad colorful and attractive.

Options No. of Customers


Agree 40
Strongly Agree 45

Neutral 10

Disagree 5

Strongly Disagree 0

48
Question No. 11
Disagree; 5%
Neutral; 10% Agree; 40%
Strongly Agree; 45%

The finding of this statement 40% of the customers are agreed and

the 45% of the customers are strongly agreed with the code-mixing has

strongly impact on the buying behavior and the 10% of the people are

neutral these peoples think it may be or it may be not. The 5% are disagree

with this statement and 0% of the customers are highly disagree with this

statements

Question No. 12

The pronouns like (I, we and you) creates a sense of equality in mind as a

buyer.

Options No. of Customers


Agree 90
Strongly Agree 10

49
Neutral 0

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 12
Strongly Agree; 10%

Agree; 90%

The finding of this statement is 90% of the peoples are agree and

10% peoples of the customers are strongly agreed with this statement and

the remaining three options are not marked by the any sample. It is very

favorable for the pronouns used in the advertisements.

Question NO. 13

Connotations built positive attitude towards the product.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 80

50
Strongly Agree 15

Neutral 5

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 13
Neutral; 5%
Strongly Agree; 15%
Agree; 80%

The finding of this question 80% of the people are agreed with this

statement and the 15% are strongly agreed with it. 5% of the people are

neutral with this statement it may be or it may be not. And both of disagree

options are not filled by a single sample.

Question No. 14

The interrogative sentences create style that influenced the buying

behavior.

Options No. of Customers

51
Agree 25
Strongly Agree 10

Neutral 30

Disagree 15
Strongly Disagree 20

Question No. 14
Agree; 25%
Strongly Disagree; 20% Agree; 10%
Strongly
Disagree; 15% Neutral; 30%

The finding of this question is 25% of the people agreed with this

statement and the 10% of the people are strongly agreed with that the

interrogative sentence create highly impact and influenced them to buy the

products. Neutral are the 30%. The 15% of the people are dis agree and

20% are strongly disagree with this statement.

Question No 15.

Overstatements are utilized as a part of advertisements to underline on a

specific component of an item. They are full of feeling or deluding.

52
Options No. of Customers

Agree 10

Strongly Agree 5

Neutral 50

Disagree 15

Strongly Disagree 20

Question No. 15
Agree; 10%
Strongly
Strongly Disagree; Agree; 5%
20%
Neutral; 50%
Disagree; 15%

The outcomes of this statement are that the 10% of the people are

agreed and the 5% of the people are strongly agreed with it. But on the

other hand neutral are 50% it means these people are agree or not may not

be agree with it. The 15% of the customers are disagreed and the 20% of

the customer highly disagree.

Question No. 16

The command used in advertisements urge u to try a new brand.

53
Options No. of Customers

Agree 18

Strongly Agree 22

Neutral 10

Disagree 20

Strongly Disagree 30

Questioin
Agree; 18%
No. 16
Strongly
Strongly Disagree; 30%Agree; 22%
Neutral; 10%
Disagree; 20%

The finding of this question is that 18% of the people are agreed

22% are strongly agree with the commands that used in the advertisement.

10% of the customers are neutral with these statements. 20% of the people

disagree and 30% of the people strongly disagree with this statement.

Question No. 17

The Slogans of ads Create strongly emotional impact.

54
Options No. of Customers

Agree 30

Strongly Agree 60

Neutral 10

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 17
Strongly Agree; 60%
Agree; 30%

Neutral; 10%

The finding of this question is that the 30% of the customers are

agreed and 60% of the customers strongly agreed with the usage of

slogans in the advertisement. 10% of the customers are neutral with this

statement. And disagree and strongly disagree options not filled by singly

sample.

Question No. 18

Puns clarify the image of a product.

55
Options No. of Customers

Agree 30

Strongly Agree 70

Neutral 0

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 18
Agree; 30%
Strongly Agree; 70%

30% of the people agreed with it and remaining 70% of the people

are highly agreed with this statement. Neutral, disagree and strongly

disagree options about this statement is not filled by the single sample

from the population.

Question No. 19

Declarative Sentences bring innovation.

56
Options No. of Customers

Agree 25

Strongly Agree 70

Neutral 5

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

Question 19
Neutral; 5%
Agree; 25%
Strongly Agree; 70%

The finding of this statement is that 25% of the people agreed and

70% of the people are strongly agreed with this statement these are

customers who like declarative sentences in the advertisements. Neutral

showed result 5% thats mean it may be or it may be not is the opinion of

the neutral persons. Disagree and strongly disagree is no marked by the

single sample from the target population.

Question No. 20

57
Litotes are used to enhance a particular feature of an object.

Options No. of Customers

Agree 42

Strongly Agree 50

Neutral 8

Disagree 0

Strongly Disagree 0

Question No. 20
Strongly Agree; 50% Neutral; 8%
Agree; 42%

42% of the people agreed and 50% of the people are highly agreed

with that litotes can enhance the particular feature to the product. Neutral

are marked by 8% of the people and disagree and strongly disagree is not

filled by the any sample from the target population.

58
59
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION

5.1 Findings

Through this study and previous researches the researcher concludes

that language has strong impact in advertisements. Implementation of

60
language in advertisement can bring desirable result and very useful for

attractive motivation among the peoples. According to the selected topic

the Researcher comes to know that language plays vital role in the

advertisement related to kids product. Linguistic rules are the arts to

create value in the mind of people and built strong relationship and make

them loyal with the product. Kids products advertisement influences the

people through its charm and attractiveness to buy that product. Through

this study the researcher also concludes that the advertisements are the

cause to impress people but some things can make negative impact on the

customer as researcher define in data analysis through the pie table and

chart showing less ratio of the person with provided situation and

statement. Strong language impression has very strong impact to select the

product through the advertisements and this impression is also uses to give

more preference to the product among the competitors.

5.2 Findings Remarks

61
Advertisements strongly influence people to buy products.
Advertisements divert people opinion to buy different products.
Linguistic is the cause of attractiveness and colorfulness
Components of linguistic effect on the buying behavior
There is a need of some change in the Advertising language.

5.3 Recommendations

Control on overstatement.

62
Advertisers have to must avoid from over statement which are

against the reality. It also creates the bad image about the product when

customer finds it against the advertisement after consumption.

Repetition of advertisement

This case creates the bad impression. Mostly peoples feel

disturbance to see the advertisement again and again in the short breaks

while they watching a film or drama.

Avoid from selling concept

Selling concept mean the purpose is only to sale the product may it

beneficial or not. The main purpose is the concept to sale existing product

into the marketed before it spoiled the companies at this concept not think

about the loyalty of customer it is presented oriented not future oriented.

Use of Connotations

In ads messages should be delivered without the use of negative

connotations. They will easily pull into the readers mind and stick where

they faster weaken the message.

Use of words

63
When writing an ad copy, it is best to use simple messages which can be

direct, funny, contain puns or allusion. If an advertiser wants positive

association then he must take great care to use any terms or phrases which

have negative cultural association.

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Sr. Questions Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly


No Agree Disagree
1 TV advertisements
strongly influence
you into buying
products.
2 Advertisements
divert peoples
opinion from One
product to another

68
one for better
result.
3 Alliterations are
used to create
rhythm to attract
people
4 Rhyming words
create rhythm
which makes an ad
attractive
5 Colloquial words
have an impact.
6 Simple sentences
used in ads have
an impact.
7 The metaphors and
similes clarify the
message.
8 Comparative and
superlative degrees
portray the quality
of a product.
9 The slogans are
made catchy to
catch the intention
of the people.
10 Use of adjectives
convince the
watchers
11 The mix-code
words make an ad
colorful and
attractive.
12 The pronouns like
(I, we and you)
creates a sense of
equality in mind as

69
a buyer.
13 Connotations built
positive attitude
towards the
product.
Sr. Question Strongly Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly
No Agree Disagree

14 The interrogative
sentences create
style that
influenced the
buying behavior.
15 Overstatements are
utilized as a part of
advertisements to
underline on a
specific
component of an
item. They are full
of feeling or
deluding.

16 The command
used in
advertisements
urge u to try a new
brand.
17 The Slogans of ads
Create strongly
emotional impact.
18 Puns
clarify
the
image of
a

70
product.
Declarative
19 sentences bring
innovation.

20 Litotes are used


to enhance a
particular feature
of an object.

71