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I.

Functional Anatomy of Digestive System


A. Primary Digestive Organs
1. Mouth
2. Pharynx
3. Esophagus
4. Stomach
5. Small Intestine
6. Large Intestine
B.
C. Accessory Digestive Organs
1. Teeth
2. Tongue
3. Salivary Glands
4. Exocrine part of Pancreas
5. Liver
6. Gallbladder
II. Wall of Gastro intestinal Tract
III. Part IV. Description / V. Found in VI. Histology VII. Function
Anatomy
VIII. Mucosa IX. X. XI. XII. - absorb
XIII. - mucus
XIV. - epithelium
XV. - MALT (Mucosa-
Associated Lymphatic
Tissue )
XVI. 1. Epithelial Lining
XVII. - in contact with XVIII. - inner surface of XXII. - stratified squamous epithelial XXIII. - absorb nutrients
contents of GI Tract mouth cells XXIV. - secrete mucus
XIX. - surface of tongue XXV. - epithelium
XX. - inner surface of XXVI.
pharynx
XXI. - esophagus
XXIX. - stomach XXXII. - columnar epithelial cells XXXIII.
XXX. - small intestine
XXXI. - large intestine
XXXIV. 2. Lamina Propria
XXXV. XXXVI. XXXVII. - connective tissues XLII. - LCM nourishes and
XXXVIII. - fibroblasts absorbing capillaries
XXXIX. - macrophages XLIII. - MALT (Mucosa-
XL. - lymphocytes Associated Lymphatic
XLI. - eosinophils Tissue )

XLIV. 3. Muscularis XLV. XLVI. - absent in mouthXLVIII. - thin layer of smooth muscle fibers
XLIX. - movement
Mucosa and pharynx L.
XLVII. - present from
esophagus onwards
LI. Submucosa LII. LIII. - all parts of GI tract LVI. - loose collagen LXIII. - elasticity for
LIV. - except mouth and LVII. - elastic fibers regaining shape after food
pharynx LVIII. - reticular fibers passes
LV. LIX. - connective tissue
LX. - blood vessels
LXI. - lymphatic vessels
LXII. - nerve plexuses
LXIV. Muscularis LXV. LXVI. - lips LXX. - skeletal muscle LXXI. - peristalsis
Externa LXVII. - cheeks LXXII. - segmentation
LXVIII. - wall of pharynx
LXIX.
LXXV. - esophagus LXXVI. - skeletal muscle LXXVIII.
LXXVII. - smooth muscle
LXXXI. - wall of stomachLXXXIII. 3 layers of smooth muscle: LXXXVII.
LXXXII. LXXXIV. 1. Inner oblique layer
LXXXV. 2. Middle circular layer
LXXXVI. 3. Outer longitudinal layer
XC. - Intestine XCI. 2 layers of smooth muscle: XCIV.
XCII. 1. Inner circular layer XCV.
XCIII. 2. Outer circular layer
XCVI. 1. Inner CircularXCVII. XCVIII. - sphincters XCIX. C. - Squeezes
CI. 2. Outer CII. CIII. CIV. CV. - shortens gut
Longitudinal
CVI. Serosa CVIII. - outermost layer of CX. - Stomach CXVII. - connective tissue CXIX.
CVII. - visceral the wall of GI tract CXI. - small intestine CXVIII. - mesoepithelial cells
peritoneum CIX. CXII. - large intestine
CXIII. * Exceptions:
CXIV. 1. Parts not in
peritoneal cavity
(esophagus)
CXV. 2. Retroperitoneal
glands
CXVI.
CXX. 1. Fibrosa CXXI. - fibrous layer CXXII. - pharynx CXXIV. - connective tissue CXXV.
CXXIII. - esophagus
CXXVI. 2. MesotheliumCXXVII. CXXVIII. CXXIX. - simple squamous epithelium CXXX.
CXXXI.
XXXII. Functions of Organs
CXXXIII. Part CXXXIV. Anatomy CXXXV. Histology CXXXVI. Function
XXXVII. Mouth CXXXVIII. CXXXIX. - thick stratified squamous CXL. - ingestion
epithelium CXLI. - Propulsion
CXLII. - Mechanical Digestion
CXLIII. - Chemical Digestion
CXLIV. - Chewing and mixing with saliva
CXLV. - taste
CXLVI. - transfer bolus to esophagus by
swallowing
CXLVII. - speech
CXLVIII. - Social function (smiling)
CXLIX.
CL. A. Salivary Glands CLI. CLII. CLIII.
CLIV. 1. Intrinsic CLV. - within mucosa CLVII. CLVIII. - prevent drying
CLVI. - secrete most of the time
CLIX. 2. Extrinsic CLX. - paired CLXI. CLXII.
CLXIII. a. Parotid glands CLXIV. - largest CLXVI. - Stensen duct where CLXVIII.
CLXV. - at the side of each face just secretions of the gland empties
below and in front of ear CLXVII.
CLXIX. b. Submaxillary Glands/ CLXXI. - in submaxillary triangle, medial
CLXXII. - Wharton duct opens atCLXXIII.
the
Submandibular Glands to mandible side of frenulum of tongue
CLXX.
CLXXIV. c. Sublingual glands CLXXV. - smallest CLXXVII. - Ducts of Rivinus/bartholin
CLXXVIII.
CLXXVI. - under tongue Duct
LXXIX. B. Oral Cavity CLXXX. CLXXXI. CLXXXII.
XXXIII. 1. Gums/Gingiva CLXXXIV. - gums, ridges of oral mucosa
CLXXXV. CLXXXVI.
that surround the base of each tooth
on the alveolar processes of the
maxillary bones and mandible
XXXVII. 2. Palate CLXXXVIII. CLXXXIX. CXC.
CXCI. a. Hard Palate CXCII. - Exterior CXCV. CXCVI. - ridges provide traction
CXCIII. - formed by palatine processes
of the maxillary bones and the
horizontal plates of the palatine bones
CXCIV. - where the central ridge , raphe
extends along its midline
CXCVII. b. Soft Palate CXCVIII. - Interior CC. CCI.
CXCIX. - posterior to hard palate
CCII. 3. Vermillion Border / Red Border
CCIII. - between the highly keratinized
CCIV. - stratified squamous epithelium
CCV.
/ Lips skin of face & mucosa of mouth
CCVI. 4. Frenulum CCVII. - folds of mucosa CCIX. CCX.
CCVIII. - thin fold of mucous membrane
that connects the body of the tongue
to the mucosa covering the floor of the
oral cavity.
CCXI. 5. Uvula CCXII. - dangling process CCXIII. CCXIV. - helps prevent food from
entering the pharynx prematurely
CCXV. 6. Cheeks CCXVI. CCXVII. CCXVIII.
CCXIX. 7. Vestibule CCXX. Space between the cheeks and
CCXXI. CCXXII.
teeth
CXXIII. C. Tongue CCXXIV. CCXXV. - 2 groups of skeletal muscles:
CCXXXIV. - grip and reposition food
CCXXVI. 1. Extrinsic Tongue MusclesCCXXXV. - form bolus / food lump
CCXXVII. - large CCXXXVI. - help in swallowing
CCXXVIII. - gross movements CCXXXVII. - speech
CCXXIX. 2. Intrinsic Tongue Muscles
CCXXXVIII. - Mechanical processing by
CCXXX. - change in shape of tongue compression, abrasion and distortion
CCXXXI. - assist extrinsic muscles CCXXXIX. - Manipulation to assist chewing
CCXXXII. CCXL. - sensory analysis by touch,
CCXXXIII. - both under control of temperature and taste receptors
hypoglossal nerve (XII) CCXLI. - secretion of mucins and the
enzyme, lingual lipase
CCXLII. 1. Portions: CCXLIII. CCXLIV. CCXLV.
CCXLVI. a. body CCXLVII. - oral portion CCXLVIII. CCXLIX.
CCL. Circumvallate papillae CCLI. CCLII. CCLIII.
CCLIV. b. Root CCLV. - pharyngeal portion CCLVI. CCLVII.
CCLVIII. c. Dorsum CCLIX. -Superior surface CCLXI. CCLXII.
CCLX. - where lingual papillae is
found
CCLXIII. i. lingual papillae CCLXIV. - forest of fine projections CCLXV. - covered by thickened CCLXVI. - assist tongue in moving
epithelium materials
CCLXVII. ii. circumvallate papillae
CCLXVIII. - V-shaped CCLXX. CCLXXI.
CCLXIX. - roughly separates the
boundary between the body and the
root of the tongue
CLXXII. 2. Lingual Tonsil CCLXXIII. - back of tongue CCLXXIV. CCLXXV.
XXVI. D. Teeth CCLXXVII. 2 sets: CCLXXXIV. CCLXXXV. - mastication of food
CCLXXVIII. 1. Primary (Decidious) = 20
CCLXXIX. 2. Permanent = 32
CCLXXX.
CCLXXXI. 2 main regions:
CCLXXXII. 1. Crown exposed portion of
the tooth
CCLXXXIII. 2. Root
XXXVI. 1. Neck CCLXXXVII. - marks boundary betweenCCLXXXVIII.
the CCLXXXIX.
root and the crown
CCXC. 2. Enamel CCXCI. - covers the dentin of the crown
CCXCII. - calcium phosphate in a CCXCIV.
crystalline form - hardest substance in
body
CCXCIII. - phosphates, calcium and Vit. D
are essential
CCXCV. 3. Dentin CCXCVI. - bulk of tooth CCXCVII. - with collagen CCCI.
CCXCVIII. - mineralized matrix
CCXCIX. - does not contain cells
CCC. - dentin of root is covered with
cementum
CCCII. 4. Pulp Cavity CCCIII. CCCIV. CCCV.
CCCVI. 5. Cementum CCCVII. - bone layer of tooth root CCCVIII. CCCIX. - provides protection and
anchors the periodontal ligament
CCCX. 6. Periodontal ligament CCCXI. CCCXII. CCCXIII. - anchors tooth in bony socket of
jaw
CCXIV. Types of Teeth CCCXV. CCCXVI. CCCXVII.
CXVIII. 1. Incisors CCCXIX. - blade shaped / chisel shaped
CCCXXI. CCCXXII. - clipping
CCCXX. - front of mouth CCCXXIII. - cutting
CCXXIV. 2. Cuspids / Canines CCCXXV. - cone shaped CCCXXVII. CCCXXVIII. - tearing
CCCXXVI. - sharp, ridge-like, pointed tip CCCXXIX. - slashing
CCXXX. 3. bicuspids / Premolars CCCXXXI. - flattened crowns with CCCXXXII. CCCXXXIII. - crush
prominent ridges CCCXXXIV. - mash
CCCXXXV. - grind
XXXVI. 4. Molars CCCXXXVII. - Very large flattened crowns
CCCXXXIX. CCCXL. - crushing
CCCXXXVIII. - has 3+ roots CCCXLI. - grinding
CCXLII. CCCXLIII. CCCXLIV. CCCXLV.
CCXLVI. Pharynx CCCXLVII. - muscular funnel CCCLIV. - skeletal muscle CCCLV. - Propulsion
CCCXLVIII. - connect oral cavity to
esophagus
CCCXLIX. - 3 constrictor muscles
(voluntary)
CCCL. 1. Superior Pharyngeal
Constrictors
CCCLI. 2. Inferior Pharyngeal
Constrictors
CCCLII. 3.
CCCLIII. - controlled by Vagus Nerve
CCCLVI. 1. Oropharynx CCCLVII. CCCLVIII. - stratified squamous epithelium
CCCLIX.
CCCLX. 2. Laryngopharynx CCCLXI. CCCLXII. CCCLXIII.
CCLXIV. CCCLXV. CCCLXVI. CCCLXVII.
CLXVIII. Esophagus CCCLXIX. - muscular tube CCCLXXIV. - non-keratinized stratified
CCCLXXIX. - to regulate food eaten
CCCLXX. - longitudinal folds when empty squamous CCCLXXX. - Passageway
CCCLXXI. - descends through thorax CCCLXXV. - Muscle : CCCLXXXI. - Propulsion
CCCLXXII. - Anterior to vertebral column
CCCLXXVI. 1. Superior Skeletal
CCCLXXIII. - Posterior to trachea CCCLXXVII. 2. Middle Skeletal & Smooth
CCCLXXVIII. 3. Inferior- Smooth
LXXXII. A. Parts / Portions CCCLXXXIII. CCCLXXXIV. CCCLXXXV.
CLXXXVI. 1. Esophageal HiatusCCCLXXXVII. - opening of diaphragmCCCLXXXIX. CCCXC.
CCCLXXXVIII. - abdominal part : 2 cm only
CCCXCI. 2. Cardiac Orifice CCCXCII. - junction of esophagus CCCXCIV. CCCXCV.
CCCXCIII. - opening of the stomach
CCCXCVI. 3. Cardiac Sphincter / CCCXCVII. - at cardiac orifice CCCXCIX. - Thin simple columnar CD. - prevent regurgitation
CCCXCVIII.
Gastroesophageal junction - connects the esophagus and epithelium CDI. - if not functioning
the stomach Gastroesophageal Reflux (Heartburn)
CDII. CDIII. CDIV. CDV.
CDVI. Stomach CDVII. - J-shaped CDXI. - simple columnar epitheliumCDXVI. - so lining wont get digested
CDVIII. - widest part (bicarbonate-buffered mucus) CDXVII. - temporary storage and mixing
CDIX. - Capacity : 1.5 L CDXII. - mucous lining 4 hrs
CDX. - Max. Capacity: 4 L / 1 gal CDXIII. - oblique muscles CDXVIII. - food breakdown
CDXIV. CDXIX. - Mechanical Digestion &
CDXV. Propulsion
CDXX. - Chemical digestion
CDXXI. - Absorption (aspirin, alcohol,
drugs)
CDXXII. A. Enzymes CDXXIII. CDXXIV. CDXXV.
CDXXVI. 1. Pepsin CDXXVII. - activated in acid environment
CDXXVIII. - Chief Cells CDXXIX.
CDXXX. 2. HCl CDXXXI. CDXXXII. - Parietal Cells CDXXXIII. - Activate pepsinogen into
pepsin
CDXXXIV. - bacteriolytic action
CDXXXV. - acid medium for hormone
action
XXXVI. B. Regions CDXXXVII. CDXXXVIII. CDXXXIX.
CDXL. 1. Cardiac Region / CardiaCDXLI. CDXLII. CDXLIII.
CDXLIV. 2. Fundic Region / FundusCDXLV. CDXLVI. CDXLVII.
CDXLVIII. 3. Body / Corpus CDXLIX. CDL. CDLI.
CDLII. a. Greater Curvature CDLIII. CDLIV. CDLV.
CDLVI. b. Lesser Curvature CDLVII. CDLVIII. CDLIX.
CDLX. 4. Pyloric Region CDLXI. CDLXII. CDLXIII.
CDLXIV. C. Rugae CDLXV. - longitudinal folds CDLXVI. CDLXVII. - distensible
DLXVIII. D. Muscularis CDLXIX. - has additional oblique layer
CDLXX. CDLXXI. - mixing food stuff
CDLXXII. - chemical and mechanical
digestion
DLXXIII. E. Pyloric Antrum CDLXXIV. - space CDLXXV. CDLXXVI.
LXXVII. F. Gastric Pits CDLXXVIII. CDLXXIX. CDLXXX.
CDLXXXI. 1. Neck cells CDLXXXII. CDLXXXIII. CDLXXXIV. - secrete mucus
CDLXXXV. 2. Parietal Cells CDLXXXVI. CDLXXXVII. CDLXXXVIII. - HCL
CDLXXXIX. - Intrinsic factor
CDXC. 3. Chief Cells CDXCI. CDXCII. CDXCIII. - Pepsinogen Pepsin
(stimulated by gastrin)
CDXCIV. CDXCV. CDXCVI. CDXCVII.
XCVIII. CDXCIX. D. DI.
DII. DIII. DIV. DV.
DVI. Small Intestine DVII. - longest part DIX. DX. - Mechanical digestion and
DVIII. - Propulsion
DXI. - Chemical digestion
DXII. - Absorption (carbohydrates,
fats, nucleic acids, vitamins,
electrolytes, water)
DXIII. A. 3 Subdivisions DXIV. DXV. DXVI.
DXVII. 1. Duodenum DXVIII. - 5 % of length DXXI. DXXII.
DXIX. - receives bile from liver and
gallbladder via bile duct
DXX. - receives enzymes from
pancreas via main pancreatic duct
DXXIII. 2. Jejunum DXXIV. - 40 % of length DXXV. DXXVI.
DXXVII. 3. Ileum DXXVIII. - 60 % of length DXXIX. DXXX. - longest portion of the small
intestine
DXXXI. Large Intestine DXXXII. DXXXIII. DXXXIV. - Chemical Digestion (enteric
bacteria)
DXXXV. - Absorption
DXXXVI. - Propulsion
DXXXVII. - Defecation
XXXVIII. Liver DXXXIX. - largest gland DXLIV. DXLV. - produce bile salt which
DXL. - 500 functions emulsifies fat
DXLI. - factory of body DXLVI. - Picks up glucose from blood
DXLII. - can be regenerated DXLVII. - Store glucose as glycogen
DXLIII. - R & L lobes + 2 smaller lobes : DXLVIII. - Processes fats and amino acids
Caudate & Quadrate Lobe DXLIX. - Store some vitamins: A,D,E,K
and b vitamins and iron
DL. - Detoxify poisons and drugs
DLI. - makes blood proteins
DLII. 1. Falciform ligament DLIII. - mesentery binding the liver toDLV. DLVI.
anterior abdominal wall
DLIV. - marks division between left
and right lobe
DLVII. 2. Porta hepatis DLVIII. - doorway to the liver DLX. DLXI.
DLIX. - where major nerves and
vessels enter and leave
DLXII. 3. Ligamentum teres DLXIII. - remnant of umbilical vein DLXV. DLXVI.
DLXIV. - attaches to navel
LXVII. 4. Hepatocytes DLXVIII. - liver cells DLXIX. - Rough ER DLXXV. - adjust circulating levels of
DLXX. - Smooth ER nutrients through selective absorption
DLXXI. - Peroxisomes and secretion
DLXXII. - Golgi Apparatus
DLXXIII. - Mitochondria
DLXXIV. - Glycosomes
LXXVI. 5. Liver lobules DLXXVII. - basic functional unit of liver
DLXXX. DLXXXI.
DLXXVIII. - hexagonal solid made of sheets
of hepatocytes around a central vein
DLXXIX. Corners of lobules have portal
triads
XXXII. 6. Central vein DLXXXIII. - DLXXXIV. DLXXXV.
XXXVI. 7. Portal Triads DLXXXVII. DLXXXVIII. DLXXXIX.
DXC. a. Portal arteriole DXCI. DXCII. DXCIII.
DXCIV. b. Portal venule DXCV. DXCVI. DXCVII.
DXCVIII. c. bile duct DXCIX. DC. DCI.
DCII. 8. Kupffer Cells DCIII. - near sinusoids DCIV. - phagocytic DCV. - engulf pathogens, cell debris,
and damaged blood cells
DCVI. - storage of iron, lipids, mercury
and tin,
DCVII. 9. Liver Sinusoids DCVIII. - large opening between the DCIX. DCX. - allow solutes to pass out of the
endothelial cells bloodstream and into the spaces
surrounding the hepatocytes
DCXI.