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1) A bar chart 1) All 1) Why 1) Internet

showing countries Malaysia has 2) Journal
major forest are from the highest 3) Newspaper
4) Book
countries around the percentage of
with highest world forest loss?
percentage 2) Malaysia 2) Why Laos has
forest loss consists of the lowest
(2000-2012 too much percentage of
2) It collects the developm forest loss?
forest loss ent 3) What causes
data of 10 3) Examples the huge loss
countries. are illegal of forest?
3) Malaysia is tree 4) What will be
the highest cutting affected by
(14.4%) and forest the loss of
4) Laos is the burning forest?
lowest 4) Destroy 5) Why the loss
(5.3%) animals of forest is
5) Bar chart habitats related to
shows a 5) Destroy mankind?
decreasing preserved 6) What can we
pattern forest do to reduce
6) The highest 6) Loss of the loss of
and the special forest?
second species of 7) What are the
highest have flora and factor failure
a big fauna of
difference(4. 7) Main conservation?
8%) factor is 8) What are the
compared to human effects of the
others greediness failures to the
7) The environment?
background 9) Why we need
is forest management
theme of
10) Who are the
11) What are
principles and
practice for
12) How to
protect the
Issue of
13) What are
education for
14) How to
Suggest for

1) Why Malaysia has the highest percentage of forest loss?

Forest loss occur when there is deforestation activity, clearance or

clearing which is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is
then converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include
conversion of forestland to farms, ranches or urban use. The most
concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. Malaysia is one of
the world's great centres of biodiversity and its richest habitats are rainforests.
The rainforests of the Malay Peninsula, for example, contain about 6,000
species of trees, according to the World Wildlife Fund. Many types of wood
such as Meranti, Cengal and Keruing used for furniture, flooring, and
construction are harvested from tropical rainforests. Some of the trees only
available in Malaysia forest, so many people tend to cut down the trees due to
it high price in market. In Peninsular Malaysia, log consumption by the two
main processing industries (sawntimber and plywood) was 9.2 million cubic
metres in 1994 (Department of Forestry, Peninsular Malaysia 1994) and did
not show any sign of decreasing. Because of some inconsiderate people who
had involve in illegal logging, it is harder to control this activity. Malaysia
also has the highest percentage of forest loss because it consist of too much
development. According to Jeffrey R. Vincent (1997), countries richly
endowed with natural resources have, on average, developed less rapidly than
countries that are poor in natural resources. Malaysia is one of the worlds
most resource-rich countries yet also has one of the worlds fastest-growing
economies and it natural resource depreciation can be estimated conceptually.
Natural resources in Malaysia such as the forest product will be used for the
country development. We are aware that Malaysia population increase by
time. Thus, the forest have to be clear as more land are needed for expansion
of city. The correlation between high population density and low forest cover
is a well-established fact (e.g., Palo, 1994). Therefore, Malaysia become the
country with highest percentage of forest loss.
2) What causes the huge loss of forest?

Human activity has lead to a great loss of forest. Among all the causes
of tropical deforestation, agricultural expansion appears to be the most
important one. Indeed the share of deforestation related to agricultural
expansion has been estimated to be at least 50 percent (FAO, 1992; Myers,
1992) and at 70 per cent in the 1990s (UNEP, 2003). Other causes of forest
loss is logging. Large areas of rainforest are destroyed in order to remove only
a few logs. A timber that was harvested can be a commercial items such as
paper, furniture and homes. The heavy machinery used to penetrate the forests
and build roads causes extensive damage. For the road construction, the
rainforest need to be open up so that it can be constructed through the
inaccessible land. Trees are down and soil is compacted by heavy machinery,
decreasing the forest's chance for regeneration. As the population of a country
increasing, forest need to be cleared to make more land available for housing
and urbanization. Mining, industrial development and large dams also gave a
serious impact. Mining and industrial development lead to direct forest loss
due to the clearing of land to establish projects. Hundreds of thousands of
hectares of forests have to be destroy to build the hydro-electric dams. Hydro-
electric power (HEP) generation requires water flows from catchment forests
to run the turbines, and constitutes 17.7 per cent of the total energy
production. Wood and charcoal are still the major source of energy for most
people in developing countries. The trees also need to be cut down to create
ingredients that are highly prized consumer items, such as the oil from palm
trees. Basically, major reason that lead to forest loss is because of human
activity and demand.
3) Why Laos has the lowest percentage of forest loss?

Laos have many regulations and policies related to timber logging and
exports aim to conserve existing natural forests such as Laos Forestry Law
2007, Constitution of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic and Law on
Prevention and Control of Fire. Law classifies forests into three categories that
is protection forests, conservation forests and production forests. These areas
include all forest types such as dense forests, degraded forests, cleared forest
land and village use forests. The government permits logging only in
Production Forests. Prior to logging, the forest area must be inventoried,
surveyed, and sustainable management plans must be developed. In addition,
logging and harvesting forest products must adhere to some rules. Unfinished
wood products such as logs, timber, sawn timber, tree roots, semi-finished
wood products and ornamental plants are not permitted to be exported. Special
permits, such as the debt repayment and development permits are often used
to allow for an exception to the timber export ban. All the law and policies had
succeed in reducing the percentage of forest loss.

4) What will be affected by the loss of forest?

Malaysia has the highest loss of forest among other country in the world.
Forest consists of flora and fauna and especially in Malaysia there are many
valuable trees and endangered species. For instance, in Sabah, there are only
several Sumatran rhino left all over the world. The biggest flower, rafflesia
that can only be found in Malaysia and also be clarified as almost being
extinct has face the same phenomenon. These are the one that will be affected
the most. Loss of forest will destroy a huge number of the animals shelter.
Without shelter they will die and have no sources of food. Next, Malaysias
income will decline due to the loss of forest. Tourist will think twice to visit
Malaysia because some of our countrys attraction had extinct. Besides,
climate change may occur in Malaysia as trees in most forest being cut down.
Climate change refers to any significant changes in the measure of climate
lasting for an extend period of time. This phenomenon occurs because as
trees being cut down the temperature will also increase. Based on a statement
from Biological Science, Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod
abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon
sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated
12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because photosynthesis was reduced
at hotter sites. As increasing in temperature, iceberg at south and north pole
may be melt and sea level rise and more intense heat waves.

5) Why the loss of forest is related to mankind?

Rain forest in Malaysia consists of mostly valuable and high quality of

timber. Since it is only available in our country, it received high demand
worldwide. The price is very high for sure and this make the loggers hard to
resist the demand. That is why there are many illegal logging occur in
Malaysia resulting to forest loss. Besides, due to our countrys developing
economy, urban development is a must. In Selangor for example, forest
clearance could hardly be stopped as the housing developers compete
between each other to fulfill the customers demand. In this era, human
population has increase drastically and due to that Malaysia receive high
demand in housing sector. Many land need to be clear down to build house as
the land in Malaysia mostly being use. As we can see nowadays Malaysias
economic are decreasing compared with other countries. So to improve our
economic sectors, the forest being clear for development.

6) What can we do to reduce the loss of forest?

Since there are many valuable flora and fauna in Malaysia forest, it will
be a great loss if the forest not being conserved well. The forest belongs to
everyone and therefore all people need to play their role. Starting with the
biggest scope, the government. The government should enforce the law by
giving heavier punishment to the loggers without official license. This is
because the forest are usually being exploit by illegal loggers and hunters that
aim for higher profit.other than that, government can also proclaim more
reserves forest in Malaysia. This can prevent excessive illegal logging and
can preserve more forest. By opening more conservation places like for
Orang Utan and rhinoceros such as Kinabatangan Wildlife
Sanctuary (Sabah, Malaysian Borneo), we can prevent these habitat from
extinct due to forest loss. Moving down to a smaller scope, the community.
Campaigns could be held to spread awareness about the importance of our
forest such as Save Orang Utan that focused on ensuring the habitat for
future generation. Last but not least, we as students should be exposed to
value the nature since our early age. This will makes us appreciate nature
more and will be feeling guilty if we damage them.

7) What are the factor failure of conservation?

Many factors that could scuttle forest conservation in Malaysia as

well as throughout the world. First, many deforestation occur illegally are
not known by the NGOs nor the authorities. Deforestation has resulted in
the destruction of nature that cause species of flora and fauna have become
extinct. Losses of entire species and their habitats are caused by very rapid
deforestation and collecting of pretty much any animal or plant with even
the smallest commercial value. The once abundant house gecko or
enhancers, which sells for a few thousand rupiah in Indonesia, has now
disappeared from much of the forests, countryside, towns and cities in this
part of the world. That's the bad news (Erik Meijaard, 2015). Secondly
much construction going on to cause forest loss in Malaysia. The objective
of connecting the highway construction and shorten the distance between
state to another, cause of forest area in Malaysia reduced and cause forest
reserves have been explored. We can see the most of the highways are
built in a forested area. This case can disturbed ecosystems in the forest,
such as the occurrence of the LPT2 highway where a Tiger Malaya dead
being hit by a vehicle. Malaya Tiger is an endangered animal in Malaysia,
where there were only 10 in Malaysia. In addition, the construction of
energy sources such as the construction of hydro power plants to produce
energy for daily needs. This become the area of forest decrease.

8) What are the effects of the failures to the environment?

The effect of the failure can cause pollution to the world and
endangered certain species in forest. Such as, global warming, forest
burning and deforestation. Global warming and deforestation can cause air
pollution because of the tree cannot produce oxygen during their
photosynthesis process, cause the carbon dioxide increase in the space. Air
pollution would give effect to the human, plants and animals. Air pollution
has an adverse impact on wildlife in the world at present. Among the main
effects which affect humans as a result of air pollution is the respiratory
system. Air and pollutants are trapped in it will enter the human nose or
mouth and into the lungs through the trachea. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a
gas that can poison the blood oxygen transport system to great effect. In
addition, pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO2) can cause pulmonary edema
and are bleeding, pollutant ozone gas (O3) can cause kerengsaan4. Dust,
smoke, fog, steam or other substances also prevent eye sight and also
affect the human eye. Secondly, air pollution also gives a very bad
impression of the plants in the world. The plants were damaged in three
ways, namely necrosis (loss of leaves), Chlorosis (Color Swap), and
changes in growth. The cause of forest trees grow not perfect due to the
effects of air pollution. This condition causes the lack of food resources
and the economic part of the population of the earth is disturbed. Also, this
can affect the ecosystem in the forest, such as can cause endangered
species for flora and fauna. At Malaysia, we have a lot of rare species can
exist only in Malaysian Forest. For example, we have Raflessia, the
biggest flower in the world and Orang Utan for the animal, only can found
in Borneo Forest. If this forest loss continued, maybe one day we cannot
see this species in Malaysian Forest.
9) Why we need management of conservation?

Forests are a natural treasure that is essential for balancing the

earth's ecosystem. According to Mohd. Raf Abdullah (2012), forests have
1001 functionality that benefits in the inhabitants of which are to function
as catchment forests, helping to offset warming, stabilize the percentage of
oxygen in the Earth's surface, water, a habitat flora and fauna as well as
providing resources to human life, however, threats forests in countries
facing conflict caused landslides, mudslides, water supply interruptions
and the extinction of species of flora and fauna. Although Malaysia has the
authorities that responsible for managing the forest, but the threat and
deforestation activities by the hands of irresponsible people are still going
on. Therefore, measures to preserve and conserve the forest is an effort
undertaken by all parties involved in maintaining these natural treasures.
Preserving forests are the steps taken to control the threat that occur on
natural forests in Malaysia so as not destroyed. Preserving forests also
include efforts to monitor and control the forests from damage or
destruction due to excessive development or exploitation. Forest
conservation refers to repairing the environmental measures that are
increasingly threatened and face extinction through reforestation or
replanting. both forms of this regulation is a step to maintain, repair and
restore the degraded forest sites to their natural state and protect its
resources in order to be sustainable. Moreover, this effort also aims to
maintain the importance of forests in order to be enjoyed by people today
and generations to come. Therefore, there are various steps that need to be
done in maintaining the forest such as tightening legislation, reforestation,
environmental education compulsory and encouraging research and
development. That effort is also an alternative that can increase the
effectiveness of forest management system in addition to educating the
public about the importance of forest conservation.

10) Who are the responsibility of maintaining environment?

We have Communities, NGO, Government and student are the

responsibility to maintaining environment. Firstly, communities, the
communities can do reforestation means planting the trees that were cut
down forests from logging. They also can make the campaign to give
awareness to people about the forest. Secondly is NGO, NGO is the
volunteer group which organized on a local, national and international. We
have a lot of NGO that protect the environment such as SAM (Sahabat
Alam Malaysia). The role of SAM are to conserve and protect the forest
and environment in Malaysia. For the international we have WWF( world
wildlife fund) that protect endangered species for fauna. For example, at
Malaysia we have conservation place for turtles at Terengganu. We also
have a government that conserve the forest. PERHILITAN and FRIM are
the authorities should increase patrols using helicopters and GPS and
GPRS devices to monitor logging activities, especially illegal logging in
forest reserves. Monitoring of the air is not only able to detect illegal
logging but also can control the transfer of agricultural activities carried
out by indigenous peoples. Forest fires can also be monitored through the
use of helicopters. Authorities also must tighten the law of logging so the
logging illegally are no longer occur. Authorities also must gazette more
forest reserve to protect the species of flora and fauna in Malaysia.
According to representatives of Sarawak Press publication on 31 May
2014 the business has been on the run FRIM forest reserve in the hills
Lagong, Kepong on the campus. The forest is also recognized as the oldest
man-made tropical forests in the world. The area is the home of the former
tin mine which was earned since 1927 and is now a popular recreational
forest. Thus, the forestry project is very important for creating a forest area
that can accommodate other endangered forest areas Lastly, we have
student, student also must be responsibility to the environment so the
forest loss in Malaysia decrease. Student must join the activities that
related to the forest and protect the flora and fauna. For example we have
Rakan Muda club that involves to the all activities at Malaysia. Student
also can make the campaign at the university or school to awareness the
people about the forest.

11) What are principles and practice for conservation?

To improve forest development programs through operation

preservation and conservation-based forest silvicultural practices
appropriate to achieve maximum productivity. Others, sustainable forest
management can reduce the loss of forests
We as human beings must cooperate with the authorities in protecting the
forest from encroachment by illegal activities. Creating a tree planting
campaign day for every man so the trees can replace the trees that were cut
down. The government should tighten the law so that there are no longer
flying forest trees illegally apply. Also, we can collaborated with foreign
country to establish communication and international cooperation closely
to enhance understanding in the management and development tropical

12) How to protect the Issue of conservation?

The Nature Conservancy is taking on the tough issues facing

conservation today. Humans are applying high level strategies to the
conservation work around the world. Protecting water, Humans are
working to protect rivers, lakes and watersheds transform the way their
systems are managed and developed and inspire people to get involved.
Others, action on climate change, working for solutions that will reduce
emissions to levels compatible with a healthy planet and preserved forests.
Saving oceans, Oceans provide half of the oxygen we breathe, food and
livelihoods for millions around the globe, medicines to treat disease and
support for our thriving coastal economies. We need to continue using our
oceans and protect them at the same time. Conserving land, sustaining the
worlds land resources is where Conservancy begins for the benefit of
people, wildlife and climate change. Our mission should be to develop and
conserve the land to unlock the true potential for green growth.
Transforming cities, across the globe people are moving into cities at a
faster rate than ever in human history, natural disaster and unnatural
disasters caused by human activities occur in big cities most of the time
like storms, droughts and floods, people should know that nature can help
cities manage the challenges and problems they face.

13) What are environmental education for sustainable development?

Environmental education is knowledge that allows people to

explore the environmental issues, engage in problem solving, and take
action to improve the environment. Environmental education increases
public awareness and knowledge of environmental issues. Environmental
sustainability is the process of making sure current processes of interaction
with the environment are pursued with the idea of keeping the
environment as pristine as naturally possible based on ideal-seeking
behavior. Sustainable Development is the development that meets the
needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their needs. Sustainable development encourages us to
conserve and enhance our resource base. An unsustainable situation occurs
when natural capital (the sum total of nature's resources) is used up faster
than it can be replenished. The concept of sustainable development
emerged in response to a growing realization that economic and social
activities have potential to compromise environmental quality as well as
lower the productive potential of natural resources. Sustainable
development is built on three interdependent and mutually reinforcing
pillars, namely social development, economic development and
environmental protection. Sustainable development takes into account
society, environment and economic factors conceptualized as pillars in
order to ensure a more balanced form of development. Environment is
understood to encompass the natural and built environment, socio
ecological and economic aspects of environmental issues and political
dimension of environmental protection. In this context environmental
education and training includes aspects related to a wide variety of
environment and development issues that affect by human activities and
natural phenomena. A holistic understanding of environment in the context
of sustainable development is central to the definition of environmental
education. The holistic view supports the interrelated principles of
conservation, appropriate development, improvement of quality and good

14) How to Suggest for Improvement of conservation?

Make ecological awareness part of the social fabric and culture.

Minimize your use of toxic chemicals and use them with caution as they
tend to end up in the groundwater. Buy produced at the farmers market or
at grocery stores that buy local product, when you shop locally instead of
buying products that were shipped from far away, you are actually
supporting local farms. Do your part to control human population by not
looking for the joy of life through harmful developing ways. Keep
learning and implementing simple and practical daily habits that impact
our environment in positive ways. Try to become environmentally friendly
like joining environmental groups to combat air pollution, creating less
waste, planting more trees and many more. Try to learn to make different
choices on a personal level that start to change your awareness and
consumption of resources. Find out what products and consumables you
use that are made using fossil fuel based products and processes and use
them less or replace them. Reuse items for a different purpose instead of
sending them to landfills. Everyone should try to change the way that
fossil fuels and other resources are used to support community services
and other environmental purposes using ideas or actions. People should
start to practice conservation with their awareness of how natural
resources are used. Protect places like beaches and forests that are habitats
for animals.