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Work Breakdown Structure

(WBS)

Materi Kuliah Manajemen Konstruksi


Dosen: Emma Akmalah, Ph.D.
Pendahuluan
Dalam perencanaan proyek, manajer proyek harus
membagi-bagi pekerjaan menjadi elemen-elemen yang
lebih kecil yang bersifat:
Manageable, sehingga otoritas dan tanggung jawab
dapat dialokasikan dengan baik
Independent, atau dengan ketergantungan/interface yang
minimum terhadap elemen yang lain
Integratable, sehingga total paket kegiatan dapat dilihat
Measurable, sehingga kemajuan kegiatan dapat diukur.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
Langkah pertama dalam perencanaan proyek
setelah mendefinisikan kebutuhan proyek adalah
pembuatan WBS.
WBS merupakan suatu cara untuk membagi-bagi
pekerjaan secara hirarkis dan logis menjadi divisi-
divisi dan subdivisi-subdivisi, sampai ke bagian
terkecil yang disebut dengan paket pekerjaan
(work package)
WBS dibuat untuk berbagai keperluan,
khususnya pengendalian biaya maupun jadwal
pekerjaan
Rumah dua
lantai

Persiapa Pekerjaan Struktur Mekanikal Arsitektu Landscappin


n Tanah &Elektrikal r g

Struktur Struktur Struktur atap


bawah atas

Pekerjaan Pekerjaa Pekerjaa Pekerjaan


Rangka Atap n n Listplank
Kuda- Genteng
kuda Beton
Contoh WBS
WBS dapat digunakan sebagai dasar untuk:
Pembagian tugas dan tanggung jawab
Penjadwalan
Perencanaan biaya
Risk analysis
Struktur Organisasi
Koordinasi
Pengendalian
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Concept

A work breakdown structure is a logical, hierarchical tree of all


the
tasks needed to complete a project (Lock, 2007)
The work breakdown structure, or subproject tree diagram, is a
deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes
and defines the total work scope of the project. Each
descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of
the project work (Cooke, 2011).
The first step in implementation planning is to answer the
question, What must be done?. The tool of choice for
doing this is the work breakdown structure (WBS). The WBS
is one device that helps us ensure that nothing significant has
been forgotten.(Lewis, 2011).
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Concept
The WBS is the single most important element because it provides a
common framework from which: (Kerzner, 2009)
The total program can be described as a summation of
subdivided elements.
Planning can be performed.
Costs and budgets can be established.
Time, cost, and performance can be tracked.
Objectives can be linked to company resources in a logical
manner.
Schedules and status-reporting procedures can be established.
Network construction and control planning can be initiated.
The responsibility assignments for each element can be
established.
WBS for objective control and evaluation (Kerzner, 2009)
WBS Guidelines
A work breakdown structure does not show the sequence in
which work is performed! Such sequencing is determined
when a schedule is developed.
All paths on a WBS do not have to go down to the same level.
A WBS should be developed before scheduling and
resource allocation.
The WBS should be developed by individuals who are
knowledgeable about the work.
Break down a project only to a level that is sufficient
to produce an estimate of the required accuracy.
Create WBS
Create WBS is the process of subdividing
project deliverables and project work into
smaller, more manageable components.
The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the
project, and represents the work specified in the
current approved project scope statement.
The planned work is contained within the lowest
level WBS components, which are called work
packages. A work package can be scheduled, cost
estimated, monitored, and controlled.
(PMBOK, 2008)
(PMBOK, 2008)
WBS Coding System

A code is a shorthand and precise method for


conveying essential data about an item.
Every project task will need to be given a name or
descriptive title, but such names must always be augmented
by a specific code.
A code may be a sequence of alphabetic characters, a set of
numerical digits, or some mix of these two (an alpha-numeric
code). Coding systems should be designed so that the
maximum amount of information about each item is
conveyed by the minimum possible number of characters.
WBS Examples
Organization Breakdown Structure
(OBS)
Through the WBS, work is defined to a level where
unique organizational and personal responsibilities can be
established. This may occur at any one of several levels
within the project and functional organization.
The individual assigned responsibility for accomplishing work
at the control account level is often designated a control
account manager.
Control accounts are divided into smaller, discrete scopes of
work called work packages, and a work package manager is
assigned to each work package.
WBS-OBS Integration

Integrating the WBS with the project and functional


organizations assures that all contract work is accounted for,
and that each element of work is assigned to the level of
responsibility necessary for planning, tracking progress,
accumulating costs, and reporting.
In practice project managers need only produce the WBS and
OBS separately, and never have to draw the complex
relationship diagram.
Providing that the coding systems are logically designed, the
relational database in the computer will take care of the
complexity, so that enormous sheet of paper will never be
needed.
References
Cooke, Helen S. and Karen Tate (2011), Project Management, 2nd edition,
McGraw-Hill, New York, USA
Jackson, Barbara J. (2010), Construction Management Jump Start, 2nd edition,
Wiley Publishing Inc., Indiana, USA.
Kerzner, Harold (2009), Project Management, 10th edition, John Wiley & Sons
Inc., New York, USA.
Lewis, James P. (2011), Project Planning, Scheduling & Control, 5th edition,
McGraw-Hill, USA.
Lock, Dennis (2007), Project Management, 9th edition, Gower Publishing Co.,
Burlington, VT, USA.
Meredith, Jack R., Samuel J. Mantel (2009), Project Management: A Managerial
Approach, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA.
Project Management Institute, Project Management Body of Knowledge, 4th
edition, PMI Inc, Pennsylvania, USA.

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