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Transfer Theorem for Moment of Inertia

The Transfer Theorem is also known as Parallel-Axis Theorem. When we


calculated the area and mass moments of inertia via integration, one of the
first things we had to do was to select a point or axis we were going to take
the moment of inertia about. We then measured all distances from that point
or axis, where the distances were the moment arms in our moment integrals.
If we pick a different point or axis to serve as the center all of these
distances will be different, which means that we will get a different moment
of inertia.

The distances used in our moment integrals depend on the point or axis chosen.

For the instance on the right however, each of these distance vectors can
be broken down into a vector from the origin to the centroid, and then a
vector out from the centroid to all the points in the shape. Similarly, we can
find the overall moment of inertia by adding two sets of moment integrals.
The first moment integral will add up all the distance vectors from the origin
to the centroid (This will be like a point mass on a massless stick, so we get a
mass times distance squared term), the second will be the moment integral
about the centroid (which is what is listed in the tables). By adding these two
terms together we can find the moment of inertia about the given origin
point.
The Parallel Axis Theorem states that a bodies moment of inertia about
.
any given axis is the moment of inertia about the centroid plus the mass of the
body times the distance between the point and the centroid squared

This works for both mass and area moments of inertia as well as for both
rectangular and polar moments of inertia. Above the mass moment of inertia
is listed, but if we substitute in areas instead of masses we can use it for
area moments of inertia.

For mass moments of inertia we will use the mass of the body and for
area moments of inertia we will use the area of the shape.
For rectangular area moments of inertia and for 3D mass moments of
inertia the distances in the equation will be the distance between the axis or
rotation and the centroid while for 2D polar moments of inertia we will
measure the distances from the point of rotation to the centroid.

With these equations we can see that the moment of inertia of a body is
always lowest about its centroid (where d = 0), and that the further we move
away from the centroid the larger the moment of inertia will become.

The moment of inertia of an area about any axis is defined as the moment of
inertia of the area about the parallel centroidal axis plus a term equal to the area
multiplied by the square of the perpendicular distance d from the centroidal axis
to the axis in question.
Example #1:

Find the moment of inertia of the dumbbell in Example 8-5 rotated about
one end of the dumbbell.

Parallel-axis theorem:

I = ICM + Mh2

ICM = 144 kg x m2

h = 1.20 m

M = 50.0 kg + 50.0 kg = 100.0 kg

I = ICM + Mh2 = 144 kg x m2 + (100.0 kg)(1.20 m)2

= 288 kg x m2

Example #2:

A solid sphere with mass 60.0 kg and radius 0.150 m has a moment of
inertia for rotation through its central axis. What will be the
moment of inertia of the sphere, if the rotation axis is changed to pass through a
point on its surface?

Answer: If the rotation axis is changed from the center axis of the sphere to an
axis that connects to the surface of the sphere, then the distance between these
points is the radius of the sphere: d = 0.150 m. The mass and moment of inertia
through the sphere's center of mass are given. Using these, the moment of inertia
for the parallel axis can be calculated using the formula:

The moment of inertia for rotation around the axis at the surface of the sphere is
Exersices

1. A long rod with mass has a moment of inertia, for rotation


around an axis near one end. The total length of the rod is 10.00 m. What is
the moment of inertia for rotation through the rod's center?

2. Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect to
each of the coordinate axes.

3. Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect to
each of the coordinate axes.
4. Determine the moments of inertia of the beams cross-sectional area shown
about the x and y centroidal axes.

5. Determine the moments of inertia and the radius of gyration of the shaded
area with respect to the x and y axes.
6. A childs swing at a
rustic amusement
park is made up of
an old tire hanging
from a lightweight
rope tied to a tree
limb. The tire has a
radius of 0.310 m
and a mass of 11.0
kg, and hangs from a
rope 2.50 m long. If
the ropetire
combination is
swinging around the
tree limb at 1.20
rad>s at the low
point of its motion, what is its kinetic energy?

7. Determine the moment of inertia.

[1]
[2]
8. [3]What is the moment of inertia
Two I shaped sections are welded together.
about Axis A-A of this composites sections?
9. A rod of mass M= 3Kg and length pivots about an axis,
perpendicular to its length, which passes through one of its ends. What is
the moment of inertia of the rod?

10. A beam is made by connecting two 2" x 4" beams in a T pattern with
the cross section as shown below. Determine the location of the centroid of
this combined cross section and then find the rectangular area moment of
inertia about the x axis through the centroid point