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Prepared for:

Muhammad Maruf Ibne Wali (MfW)


Department of Management
North South University
Executive Summary
The project report is based on operations management in a product manufacturing company.
The report is on Origin Apparels, a renowned company in readymade garments (RMG) sector
of Bangladesh. Origin Apparels is a RMG company who specializes in manufacturing pant.
The first part of the report includes the basic information about the RMG industry of
Bangladesh and where does Origin Apparels stand in the industry. The report explains each
stages in the existing production process with the help of a process map. With the help of the
process map it will be easy to understand the whole production process. However, the report
also evaluates the existing process with what the other competitors in Bangladesh and outside
Bangladesh are doing. It includes recommendations and suggestions about things that can be
improved in the whole process. The report also includes a suggested new process map after
implementing the suggestions.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary.........................................................................2
Industry background........................................................................4
Company background....................................................................... 6
Current Process Map........................................................................ 8
Recommendation..........................................................................12
Conclusion.................................................................................19

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Industry background
Bangladesh with a population of about 164 million people has the readymade garments
industry (RMG) as the major earner of foreign currency. 81% of total export earning comes
from this sector and employs around 4.5 million workforces (indirect employment of 0.80
million workforces in accessories industries and 0.20 million in waste recycling industry) of
which majority is women. Through RMG sub-sector, the industry contributes 10.50% to GDP
(6% annual average GDP growth) and exports mainly to North American and European
countries. The RMG sector, which produces five products- t-shirts, sweaters, trousers, mens
and womens shirts, has replaced the jute industry when it started to diminish starting its
journey in the 1980s, when it started receiving investments. From 1947 to 1971 the textile
industry was owned by West Pakistan and in the 1960s the local Bengali entrepreneurs had
set up their own textile factories in Karachi and exported shirts (Mercury shirts) to the
European market. The pioneer of the RMG industry in Bangladesh was Late Nurool Quader
Khan, who sent 130 trainees to South Korea in 1978 to adopt the production of readymade
garments and set up the factory- Desh Garments. Over time, many hardworking entrepreneurs
started garments factories in Bangladesh and the industry began to curve a niche in the world
market. Currently there are 4296 manufacturing units attracting buyers due to cheap labor
($0.22 Denim shirt in BD costs $7.47 in USA). Though the industry was made free of child
labor in 1995, one of the biggest challenges faced is ensuring workplace safety and better
working conditions, which will take time to accomplish. Over the past decade the the RMG
sector has witnessed a number of industrial accidents including fire at Tazreen Fashions and
collapse of Rana Plaza which put Bangladesh in world attention and forced the Government
to put up strict laws and regulations after GSP was suspended from the country. In 2013, the
minimum wage was raised to $68 per month and the balance of payments was improved.
Presently, there are private and public textile engineering colleges to acquire specilalized
education about the industry in the country and use it to improve the lacking in the sector.

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Company background
Established in 2014, Origin Apparels Ltd is a woven garments supplier from Bangladesh
specializing in woven garments manufacturing- both tops and bottoms. Taking various
measures to make up a fully compliant company, it is being considered to be one of the safest
factories in Bangladesh in terms of workplace safety. The company is approved and certified
by SEDEX, BSCI, ILO, Oeko-tex, WRAP and ACCORD. The factory is located at Holding
no. 583, Block no. B, Ward no. 23, Hatiabo, Gazipur, Dhaka, Bangladesh and is
approximately 30 km far from the Shahjalal International Airport. The management
representative of the company is Kazi Gahangir Hossain (Manager- Admin, HR &
Compliance) and Auditing Company is Eurocert, India. It imports machines from Singapore
which are 430 in number currently and its capacity is 250,000 per month. Total 471
employees are employed in the factory (329 female and 142 male workers) of which 74 are
non production employees and the rest are production employees. It is a pre fabricated steel
structure building with no chance of building collapsing and structural design approved by
BGMEA engineering team having structural engineer who has MIEB (Member of Institute of
Engineers of Bangladesh) number and uses the latest technologies for sewing garments. The
ground floor of the factory is occupied for cutting, sewing, finishing, fabric store and
accessories store and the mezzanine floor is occupied for office. Among its features it has 6
fire exits (all 60 inches tall) which are not present in 95% of the factories in Bangladesh, art
fire detection and prevention system, bus-bar trucking system instead of traditional wiring
which is not present in 80% of the Bangladeshi factories. Having rain water reservoir and
recycling system for drinking and bio-gas plant for cooking, the company has established
itself as a green factory. It has 5 feet (60 inch) walkway in the production floor, conventional
smoke detection system and sprinkler system in the finished goods area which is under
process. For the workers it has separate dining space, child care room, children playground,
doctors room, prayer room, boiler, air compressor, subs station and generator room, which
are outside the production facility but within the factory premises to reduce fire hazards and
enhance workplace safety. Ensuring no child labor, built-in LED lighting for much brighter
view during sewing, security guards performing the jobs in 3 shifts and 24-hour CCTV
surveillance, the company has successfully maintained safe operations for the workers.

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Current Process Map
Process Map will explain the process flow in Origin Apparels. The process map will divide
the whole production process into several elements which will give a better understanding
about how the company produces their goods i.e. pants. The process will elaborate the
various steps including some decision making as well. The process has been divided into
several parts and will be explained chronologically.

1. The Merchandising Department will begin the production phase as they will be
responsible for gathering or sourcing raw materials. The merchandising department
will be sourcing the raw materials based on the requirements of the buyer. These raw
materials include fabric, zipper and other necessary materials for the production.
2. A CAD design of the pant will be prepared using software such as AutoCAD. The
following process will be carried out based on the design of the pant.
3. The design will be used to create a hardcopy pattern. A hard copy pattern is a
measured marking on a hard sheet of paper which will be used to cut the fabric. A
picture of a hardcopy pattern is given below.

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4. A sample is made using the raw materials and the hardcopy pattern. The sample is
used to fit on a dummy.
5. The sample on the dummy is used to check the fitting of the pant. This is the first
inspection activity in the whole production process.
6. The decision involves whether to accept or reject the fitting of the pant. If the fitting is
accepted, it flows to the next step of production. If the fitting is rejected the sample is
dumped and another sample is made. (A)
7. Pattern grading is one of the most important process in the production phase. Pattern
grading depends on the buyer's requirement of the size of the pant. For instance, if the
buyer demands three different sizes of the pant {for example Small (S), Medium (M)
and Large (L)} three different patterns will be created for the three different sizes
respectively.
8. The primary material i.e. the fabric is marked using the patterns.
9. After marking the fabric is spread on to the cutting table and this process is called
fabric spreading.

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10. All the fabric is cut on the cutting table and this process is called bulk cutting.
11. After cutting the fabric each part is placed on the panel of the respective sizes. For
instance, all the pieces of fabric cut using the Small (S) pattern is kept under single
panel and all the pieces of fabric cut using the Large (L) pattern is kept under another
panel. This process is called bundling for each panel.
12. After bundling the panels all the fabric is numbered. The different bundles will be
having different numbers. For instance, all pieces of fabric under the Small (S) bundle
will be having the same number. This avoids fabric shading.
13. The fabric now enters the sewing area and a complete pant is made.
14. The pant now enters the QC (Quality Control) inspection. Each and every product is
checked for quality based on whether the product i.e. pant matches the level of quality
required.
15. The decision to accept or reject the pant depends on the QC inspection. If the product
is accepted, it flows to the next stage of production. If the product is rejected it is sold
to the local buyers. (B)
16. The pant goes through wash. Water and a small margin of chemical dye is used in the
washing process.
17. After the products comes out of washing each and every pant goes under thread
trimming. The extra thread in the pants are trimmed or cut.
18. Each product is checked inside out to find any defects.
19. If no defects are discovered and the product is accepted, it goes to the ironing section.
If the product has any defects it is rejected. If the inside out checking team rejects a
pant because of the uncut threads it is being sent to the thread trimming section again,
but if it is rejected for some other reason it is stored and sold in the local market. (C)
20. The accepted pants from the inside out check is ironed.
21. The metal detector check requires each pant to go through a metal detector. This is
done to avoid any small needle or any other metal being discretely attached to the
fabric.
22. If there are no metals attached on the pant it is accepted and goes in to the next phase.
If there are metals attached on the pant, it is rejected and sent to the removing metal
section. (D)
23. The pants that fail the metal test come here and this process discovers the metal and
removes it from the pant and it is passed on through the metal detector again.
24. This is the final inspection in the production process before the product is packaged.
This section is a thorough summary of all the inspections in earlier stages.
25. If the product is accepted in final inspection, it flows to the packaging section. If the
product is rejected it is sold in the local markets. (E)
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Note: Even if the product fails a metal detector test here it is not sent to the metal
removing section but it is rejected.
26. The finalized products are packaged. Sometimes packaging is done as per buyer
specifications.
27. The products are shipped to the buyer.

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Recommendation
We would recommend the company to implement the following steps in their process map:

Reduce waste

Total Quality Management

Implement high quality automated machines

These will result in higher productivity and and reduce the cost. By Total Quality
Management (TQM) now the factory will check the raw materials right after
buying them. Also to reduce waste they will start production after they receive an
order.

Currently the machines used by Origin Apparels are no doubt good machines
which are being used in most of the Bangladeshi garments factories and are producing a
good quality of clothing products but still can improve its production by importing quality
machines that can have new unique and improved features which are not available in the
machines that are currently in use. By using these machines, the factory can further reduce its
labor cost as well as energy and labor hour. From our visit we can see that this factory
authority uses labors in most of the sections like (fabric cutting, sewing, trimming, bulk
cutting) rather than using machines. They don't use machines for higher implementing cost if
they use machines in this sections it will be more fruitful for them and will be more time
consuming as well. Time consuming is a huge fact either because taking order and other
staffs will be easy if the production takes less time. Some times it can attract buyers as well.
On the other hand, proper training facility should be provided to labors as we all know that
the labors of our country are not well trained and not much educated and this lack of training
can hamper the reputation of the factory. A simple mistake can create a big mess.

The recommended process map is described in the following, explaining each step of the
process.

The whole process stars after planning and approval from R & D section.

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1. The buyers from different parts of the world including local buyers place order for
their required materials and quality. As it is a RMG factory different quality fabrics
are required to make a single product. So the order placement is very important. The
buyers give order through e mail and phone call and the materials sample are send to
them and after the green signal the factory go for production.
2. The Merchandising Department will begin the production phase as they will be
responsible for gathering or sourcing raw materials. The merchandising department
will be sourcing the raw materials based on the requirements of the buyer. These raw
materials include fabric, zipper and other necessary materials for the production.
3. After buying the material there was no quality check thus the rejection rate was high.
So in the new process map we include this step to increase productivity and reduce
waste.

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4. Here a decision step is involved. If the quality of the raw materials is satisfactory then
the materials flow to the next production process, otherwise they are sent back to the
seller.
5. A CAD design of the pant will be prepared using software such as AutoCAD. The
following process will be carried out based on the design of the pant.
6. The design will be used to create a hardcopy pattern. A hard copy pattern is a
measured marking on a hard sheet of paper which will be used to cut the fabric.
7. A sample is made using the raw materials and the hardcopy pattern. The sample is
used to fit on a dummy.
8. The sample on the dummy is used to check the fitting of the pant. This is the first
inspection activity in the whole production process.
9. The decision involves whether to accept or reject the fitting of the pant. If the fitting is
accepted, it flows to the next step of production. If the fitting is rejected the sample is
dumped and another sample is made. (A)
10. Pattern grading is one of the most important process in the production phase. Pattern
grading depends on the buyer's requirement of the size of the pant. For instance, if the
buyer demands three different sizes of the pant {for example Small (S), Medium (M)
and Large (L)} three different patterns will be created for the three different sizes
respectively.
11. The primary material i.e. the fabric is marked using the patterns, and cut in bulk in
automated machines, which will increase the productivity.
12. After cutting the fabric each part is placed on the panel of the respective sizes. For
instance, all the pieces of fabric cut using the Small (S) pattern is kept under single
panel and all the pieces of fabric cut using the Large (L) pattern is kept under another
panel. This process is called bundling for each panel.
13. After bundling the panels all the fabric is numbered. The different bundles will be
having different numbers. For instance, all pieces of fabric under the Small (S) bundle
will be having the same number. This avoids fabric shading.
14. The fabric now enters the sewing area and a complete pant is made.
15. The pant now enters the QC (Quality Control) inspection. Each and every product is
checked for quality based on whether the product i.e. pant matches the level of quality
required.
16. The decision to accept or reject the pant depends on the QC inspection. If the product
is accepted, it flows to the next stage of production. If the product is rejected it is sold
to the local buyers. (B)

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17. The pant goes through wash. Water and a small margin of chemical dye is used in the
washing process.
18. After the products comes out of washing each and every pant goes under thread
trimming. The extra thread in the pants are trimmed or cut.
19. Each product is checked inside out to find any defects.
20. If no defects are discovered and the product is accepted, it goes to the ironing section.
If the product has any defects it is rejected. If the inside out checking team rejects a
pant because of the uncut threads it is being sent to the thread trimming section again,
but if it is rejected for some other reason it is stored and sold in the local market. (C)
21. The metal detector check requires each pant to go through a metal detector. This is
done to avoid any small needle or any other metal being discretely attached to the
fabric.
22. If there are no metals attached on the pant it is accepted and goes in to the next phase.
If there are metals attached on the pant, it is rejected and sent to the removing metal
section. (D)
23. The pants that fail the metal test come here and this process discovers the metal and
removes it from the pant and it is passed on through the metal detector again.
24. The accepted pants from the metal detector inspection are ironed.
25. This is the final inspection in the production process before the product is packaged.
This section is a thorough summary of all the inspections in earlier stages.
26. If the product is accepted in final inspection, it flows to the packaging section. If the
product is rejected it is sold in the local markets. (E)
Note: Even if the product fails a metal detector test here it is not sent to the metal
removing section but it is rejected.
27. The finalized products are packaged. Sometimes packaging is done as per buyer
specifications.
28. The products are shipped to the buyer.

Others recommendations without process map:

Implement ERP system.


For good quality product Origin Apparels should retain good raw materials.
Hire specialized workers.
Management should control the whole production carefully.
Should take some more initiatives to motivate labor and staffs.
Should concern about the safety issues of every labor and staffs (better ventilation
system).

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Conclusion
Origin Apparels is becoming very well recognized in our country and if they continue
with their development process simultaneously then no one can stop them from becoming
a world class ready mate garment industry. Now comes to our achievements and that is
basically exploring something new going beyond our limited boundary. This factory visit
was not only a thrill for us but also we acquired so much knowledge from it. We were
also astonished by the hospitality of Origin Apparels garments authority. We got answers
for each and every questions with explanations and sample of their products like their
cloths items and others were given to us and we were also told if we could help them to
develop some new process to help them develop their services in the near future.

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