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A programmable gain amplifier* (Please mark * when the work is supported

under financial supports and name the supported project in the footnote)
D. Buckmaster1, , L. Lugani2, and G. Q. Wang2 (Please mark after the Corresponding
Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China
Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Abstract: A broadband programmable gain amplifier with an improved delay line structure by a calibration algorithm
has been designed to conquer PVT variations. The amplifier is implemented in 0.13 m CMOS technology. Measurement
results show that the proposed structure with the calibration algorithm can evidently improve the linearity and resolution
of the delay line. The delay resolution is 2 ps and the root mean square jitter of the delay is 4.71 ps, leading to an error
vector magnitude enhancement of 1.32 dB. (The abstract is a concise (short and clear) summary of your work. It
should clearly state the problem, the methods used, the main results, and the conclusions, and should not
include citations and formulas.)

Key words: CMOS technology; amplifier; integrated circuits (36 sets of key words are needed)
PACS: 85.40.-e (no more than 3 PACS codes) EEACC: 2560; 2560B (no more than 3 EEACC codes)

1. Introduction (Times New Roman, word size: 14)

Programmable gain amplifiers (PGA)[1, 2] are the essential blocks in the majority of
communication systems in order to optimize the dynamic range of the system[36].
(Times New Roman, word size: 12)
2. Conventional low gain PGA architectures
Figure 1 shows the measured and simulated S parameters.

Figure 1. (Color online) The measured and simulated S parameters.

The axis labels should be given in the form of variable (unit)".
For articles prepared in LaTex, please provide all figures in EPS format.
3. Schematic design of the proposed PGA
3.1. Circuit design
The linearity of the delay line is defined as the deviation of delay from the ideal delay curve when

the control code increases with a step of one. The delay line structure proposed in this paper is shown

in Figure 2; we take the delay line structure from Reference [5] as a contrast. The transfer function is

given as

** Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60123456). (Funding project) Corresponding
author. Email: (Corresponding author)
Vout AV 0n2
Vin s 2n s n2 . (1)

3.2. Gain amplifier circuit design

Table 1 shows the comparison with other recently published PGA.

Table 1. Comparison with other published PGA.

Parameter Reference [7] Reference [10] This work
Technology 90 nm CMOS 130 nm CMOS 130 nm CMOS
Resolution of delay line (ps) 4.20 5.60 2.00
RMS jitter of delay line (ps) 9.33 11.32 4.71
EVM (dB) -29.81 -29.53 -30.85
ACPR requirements Met Met Met

4. Conclusion
The linearity and resolution of the delay line has a great effect on the transmitter performance.
In order to overcome the bottleneck of low linearity and low resolution, an improved delay line
structure is proposed with a calibration algorithm to conquer PVT variations for this all-digital
design. Measurement results show that the proposed structure with the calibration algorithm can
evidently improve the linearity and resolution of the delay line.

Acknowledgment (Optional)
The scientific contributions from other people or groups are acknowledged here.
Financial supports are given in the footnote on the first page.

[1] Cui Jie, Chen Lei, Kang Chunlei, et al. A high-linearity InGaP/GaAs HBT power amplifier for IEEE
802.11a/n. Journal of Semiconductors, 2013, 34(6): 065001(Journal)
[2] Hur J, Kim H, Lee O, et al. Multi-level LINC transmitter with non-isolated power combiner. Electron Lett,
2013, 49(25): 1624 (Journal)
[3] Lazavi B. Design of integrated circuits for optical communications. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2003 (Book)
[4] Yoo S J, Ravindran A, Ismail M. A low voltage CMOS transresistance-based variable gain amplifier. IEEE
International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2004: 809 (Conference publication)
[5] Guo Z Y. Optical readout infrared imaging system at room temperature. PhD Dissertation, University of
Science and Technology of China, 2005 (in Chinese) (Dissertation)
[6] Sato K. Multi-wavelength semiconductor laser array having phase-shift structures. USA Patent,
US6088374, 1998 (Patent)
Each reference item should contain one and only one publication;
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