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- Fem Meshing Rules
- IntroMEF
- Finite Element Methods
- Catalog
- Lecture 1 FEA1
- IFEM.ch07.Slides
- Amr_guaily--directionally Adaptive Least Squares Finite Element Method
- Info
- 4731775
- fea notes
- ansys
- Introduction to Finite Element
- Mid 2 marks
- Winkler Auc2008
- NRBCSAVIAC2007
- 7.Chapter 1 2 3 4 5 Fantas
- Static/dynamic contact FEA and experimental study for tooth profile modification of helical gears†
- Three-dimensional Numerical Modelling of Head Conduction in Curved Laminated Glass
- DS30_121
- AMM.321-324.1757

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1&2

B.H. Gardi College of Engineering & Technology Rajkot,

3

Babariya Institute of Technology Vadodara,

E-mail : someshwar1584@gmail.com1, pkkasundra@gardividyapith.ac.in2, sachin_daxini@rediffmail.com3

Abstract Numerical simulation using computers has of possible boundary conditions with a set of arbitrarily

increasingly become a very important approach for solving distributed nodes (or particles) without using any mesh

problems in engineering and science. It plays a valuable that provides the connectivity of these nodes or

role in providing tests and examinations for theories, particles. [7]

offering insights to complex physics, and assisting in the

interpretation and even the discovery of new phenomena. One important goal of the initial research is to

Grid or mesh based numerical methods such as FDM, modify the internal structure of the grid-based FDM and

CFD, FEM despite of great success, suffer from difficulties FEM to become more adaptive, versatile and robust.

in some aspects, which limit their applications in many Much effort is concentrated on problems to which the

complex problems. The major difficulties are inherited

from the use of grid or mesh. A recent strong interest is

conventional FDM and FEM are difficult to apply, such

focused on the next generation computational methods as problems with free surface, deformable boundary,

meshfree methods, which are expected to be superior to moving interface (for FDM), large deformation (for

conventional grid-based FDM and FEM in many FEM), complex mesh generation, mesh adaptivity, and

applications. The Element Free Galerkin (EFG) method is multi-scale resolution (for both FDM and FEM).

a meshless method because only a set of nodes and a

description of models boundary are required to generate The finite element methods are well established and

the discrete equations. In this paper the EFG method is powerful computational / simulation techniques which

applied to 2-D beam problem and results are compared are used for modeling and analysis of physical

with the analytical solution by using Timoshenko Beam phenomena in different fields of engineering and applied

Theory. The step by step algorithm for EFG MATLAB sciences. It has successfully been applied for a large

program is also provided inside. number of engineering applications, for example solid

Keywords FEM, EFG, MATLAB , FDM, CFD. mechanics, structure mechanics, electro magnetism,

geo-mechanics, bio mechanics, aerodynamics and so on,

I. INTRODUCTION but it is with some shortcomings as mentioned below:

1. For modeling large deformation problems,

Simulation of different engineering applications has considerable loss in accuracy arises when the

for many years been great importance in solving the elements in mesh become extremely skewed or

problem. This is done by solving partial differential compressed.

equation with initial values and boundary conditions.

2. The use of mesh in modeling these problems creates

The Finite Element Method (FEM) has been the

difficulties in the treatment of discontinuities which

standard tool for this kind of calculations. But under the

do not coincide with the original mesh lines.

last fifteen years a new mesh free method has been

under extensive research. [1] 3. Creation of a mesh for the problem domain

consumes major time of analyst using FEM

A recent strong interest is focused on the packages. It becomes a major component of the cost

development of the next generation of computational of a simulation project. The concern is more the

methods meshfree methods, which are expected to be manpower time, and less the computer time.

superior to the conventional grid-based FDM and FEM

4. It is very difficult to simulate the breakage of

for many applications. The key idea of the meshfree

material into a large number of fragments as FEM

methods is to provide accurate and stable numerical

is essentially based on continuum mechanics, in

solutions for integral equations or PDEs with all kinds

which the elements formulated cannot be broken.

85

International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (IJTARME)

5. Discontinuous secondary variables like stresses The principal attraction of mesh free methods is the

across element boundaries (due to piecewise possibility of simplifying adaptivity and problems with

nature of assumed shape functions), Post moving boundaries and discontinuities, such as phase

processing techniques are required to achieve changes or cracks. In crack growth problems, for

smooth stress distribution in structural problems. example, nodes can be added around a crack tip to

To overcome the above difficulties mesh free capture the stress intensity factors with the desired

methods have been developed which do not require a accuracy; this nodal refinement can be moved with a

mesh to discretize the problem and any connectivity propagating crack through a background arrangement of

between nodes. Mesh free methods are having following nodes associated with the global geometry. Adaptive

advantages as compared to finite element method: meshing for a large verity of problems including linear

and non linear stress analyses can be effectively treated

1. There is no need to provide in advance any

by these methods in a simple manner.

information about the relationship of the nodes, so

it provides flexibility in adding and deleting nodes The generalized step by step procedure for mesh

whenever and wherever needed. free methods is depicted in the below figure:

2. Since there is no need to create a mesh, and the

nodes can be created by a computer in a fully

automated manner, it saves a lot of human effort.

3. The approximate solution is constructed entirely in

terms of a set of nodes.

4. They can easily handle very large deformation

because connectivity can change with time. [2]

In spite of having above advantages over FEM

mesh free methods are not without disadvantages,

following are the drawbacks of Mesh free methods:

1. Since mesh free shape functions are rational

functions, therefore, it requires highly accurate

integration scheme to be applied.

2. It is to be noted that treatment of essential boundary

conditions is not straight forward as in mesh based

methods since the shape functions of mesh free

methods are not interpolants but approximants,

which implies that they do not satisfy the kronecker Fig.1.2 : Flow Chart Of Mesh Free Method Solution

delta property. Procedure [2]

There are various mesh free methods are developed

now a days to analyze well posed problems. Mesh free II. ELEMENT FREE GALERKIN METHOD

methods can be classified as below:

This meshfree method was developed in by the

group of Prof. Ted Belytschko based on the idea of

Lancaster and Salkauskas and probably motivated by

the purpose to model arbitrary crack propagation

without computational expensive re-meshing. In

Element Free Galerkin (EFG) we use the moving least

square (MLS) method for constructing the shape

functions. Moving least square method was first

proposed by Lancaster and Salkauskas (1981), as an

interpolation method. It was used in element free

methods by Belytschko et al. (1994), with use of

Lagrange multiplier to invoke essential boundary. [3]

The Boundary representation in meshfree methods is

done only by the arbitrary distribution of the nodes,

which may or may not be uniform. Fig. 1 shows the

boundary representation for meshfree methods only by

Fig. 1.1 : Classification of mesh free methods

86

International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (IJTARME)

the nodes and for FEM using the nodes & elements. The

field variables of interest are specified on these nodes.

(3)

STEP-5: The nodal discrete equations are obtained

using the constrained Galerkin weak form using the

Lagrange multiplier. Following are the governing

matrices for boundary condition, stiffness, force and

displacement respectively.

(4)

(5)

fem [3]

ELEMENT FREE GALERKIN METHOD (7)

distributed uniformly over the domain = (0, 1). The

selection of the number of nodes is random and the

convergence study has to be performed to arrive at the

optimum number of nodes, depending upon the (8)

accuracy and tolerance requirement of the solution. The

discretized bar is represented by fig. 2.2

(9)

(10)

These relations are for plane stresses. In which a comma

designates a partial derivative with respect to the

indicated spatial variable; E and are Youngs modulus

Fig. 2.2 : Mesh Free Representation of Beam and Poisons ratio respectively. [6]

STEP-2: The integration cells are constructed for four STEP-6 The above discrete nodal equations are

point gauss quadrature point and linear basis function assembled into global matrix:

for 2-D beam can be given by,

(1) (11)

STEP-3: The shape function is constructed by the STEP-7 The essential boundary condition is imposed.

MLS approximation method The specified displacement at fixed end is equal to zero,

hence q=0

(2)

STEP-8 The global matrix is solved to obtain the nodal

STEP-4: The approximate solution is obtained using displacement parameters.

shape function as:

87

International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (IJTARME)

The solution code using the MATLAB language is 4. Determine the domain of influence for each

developed and the resulting data and plots are recorded node in the mesh.

for further analysis.

5. Set up quadrature cells in the domain.

EFG APPLIED TO 2-D BEAM PROBLEM 6. Set up gauss points, weights and jacobian for

each cell

Consider a beam of length L = 48m subjected to

parabolic traction at the free end as shown in below 7. Loop over gauss points

figure 2.3 The beam has characteristics height D=12m

7.a Determine nodes in the neighborhood of the

and is considered to be of unit depth and is assumed to

gauss points

be in a state of plane stress with P= 1000N, = 0.3 and

E= 3.0 x 107 7.b Determine weights, shape function and shape

function derivatives

7.c Assemble B matrix

7.d Add contributions to K matrix

8. Determine nodes on traction boundary and

essential boundary.

9. Set up gauss points along traction boundary and

essential boundary

Fig.2.3 : Two Dimensional Beam Problem

10. Integrate forces along traction boundary to

The exact analytical solution for the displacement form f factor

of Timoshenko beam is given by the following

equations: [5] 11. Integrate lagrange multipliers along essential

boundary to form the G matrix and q vector

12. Enforce essential boundary conditions using

lagrange multipliers.

(13)

13. Solve for nodal parameters ui

14. Loop over gauss points

14.a Determine exact and analytical stresses at

quadrature points

14.b Assemble contributions to L2 error norm

(14)

15. Print total error in strain energy

We shall use this solution to examine the quality of the

EFG solution by comparing it to the exact solution for Table 2.1 Flow Chart Of 2-D EFG Program

both the displacements and strains along the bar. The for Beam [4]

program has been written in MATLAB, a language

which allows matrix manipulations to be performed COMPARISON OF EXACT ANALYTICAL

easily. The language is very similar to FORTRAN, and SOLUTION WITH EFG MATLAB SOLUTION AND

the program can be adapted easily. The program has FEM SOLUTION:

written with a minimum of generality, and it is aimed at

DISPLACEMENT (U) FOR 2-D BEAM

solving the specific problem outlined previously. The

step by step general algorithm of program is given EFG FEM

below: DISTANCE ANALYTICAL MATLAB SOLUTIO

IN INCH SOLUTION IN SOLUTION N IN

1. Define the physical dimensions and material INCH IN INCH in INCH in Y

properties. Y direction direction

4 -0.0002 -0.0002 -0.0003

3. Set up the nodal coordinates for a uniform

mesh. 8 -0.0004 -0.0004 -0.0007

88

International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (IJTARME)

16 -0.0014 -0.0014 -0.0016 The details of the Element Free Galerkin (EFG)

20 -0.0021 -0.0021 -0.0023 method and its numerical implementation have been

presented. The method has been applied on benchmark

24 -0.0028 -0.0028 -0.0023

problems of structures widely used in mechanical field

28 -0.0037 -0.0037 -0.0041 and it is observed that EFG method is quite promising

32 -0.0046 -0.0047 -0.0054 in the performance as the results calculated from

36 -0.0057 -0.0057 -0.0067 analytical solution and proposed mesh free method are

quite same. Thus, EFG is validated for its effectiveness

40 -0.0067 -0.0067 -0.0075 in solving structural problems.

44 -0.0078 -0.0078 -0.0081

48 -0.0089 -0.0089 -0.0091 IV. REFERANCES

[1] David V. Hutton, Fundamentals of finite

Table 2.2 Comparison of Results element analysis, Mc-Graw Hill, 2004

[2] G.R. Liu, Mesh Free Methods: Moving beyond

the finite element method, CRC Press, 2003

[3] J.S.Kushawaha, Significance of Dimensionless

Size of Support Domain

In Element Free Galerkin Method

[4] Victor Petersson, An Implementation of Mesh

Free Methods for Mechanical Problems at Large

Strains

[5] Timoshenko, S.P. and J.N.Goodier (1970).

Theory of Elasticity(Third edi.). New York:

McGraw Hill

[6] John Dolbow and Ted Belytschko, An

Introduction to Programming the Meshless

Element Free Galerkin Method

Fig. 2.4 : Comparison of Results

[7] G.R. Liu and M.B.Liu, Smoothed Particle

The comparison of above results shows good

Hydrodynamics a mesh free particle method

agreement between EFG results and exact analytical

solution but there is slight variation in results obtained

by FEM in Pro/Mechanica

89

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