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Physics

Made Easy

4 Virtual Notes
F
0 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Physics
R
M
Base quantities
4 Physical quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities.

Time, t

Mass, m Temperature, T

SI unit: second, s

SI unit: kilogram, kg SI unit: kelvin, K

Length,  Electric current, I

battery
Base ammeter
quantities
and SI units switch
bulb
SI unit: metre, m SI unit: ampere, A

Scalar quantities and vector quantities


Examples:
Length Volume
Physical Scalar quantities
Density Area
quantities Physical quantities
Mass Speed
Quantities which have
Temperature Distance
that can be magnitude only
Time Energy
measured

Vector quantities Examples:


Physical quantities which Displacement Velocity
have both magnitude Acceleration Force
and direction Momentum

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Measurements
Vernier callipers
Measuring instrument with an accuracy of 0.01 cm.

Positive zero error


inside jaws (measure internal diameter)
main
main scale scale
vernier
scale
measures depth zero error = +0.06 cm
vernier scale
Negative zero error
outside jaws
(measure main
external diameter) scale
object vernier
Main scale reading = 1.6 cm scale
Vernier scale reading = 0.05 cm zero error = (0.10 0.07) cm
Size of object = 1.65 cm = 0.03 cm

Micrometer screw gauge


Measuring instrument with an accuracy of 0.01 mm.

Positive zero error Negative zero error


sleeve (with main scale)
ball 10 0
anvil bearing ratchet knob
5 45
0 40
spindle thimble scale
lock
zero error = + 0.04 mm zero error = 0.06 mm

frame
Main scale reading = 7.50 mm 40
Vernier scale reading = 0.37 mm 35
Size of ball bearing = 7.87 mm

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Investigation method: Table and graph
Table Responding variables

Time for 10 oscillations, (s) Period of


Name, Length of oscillation,
symbol pendulum, T 2 (s 2 )
and unit t
 (cm) t1 t2 Mean, t T = (s)
10
10.0 6.2 6.4 6.3 0.63 0.40
20.0 8.9 8.9 8.9 0.89 0.79
30.0 10.7 10.9 10.8 1.08 1.17
40.0 12.4 12.6 12.5 1.25 1.56
50.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 1.40 1.96

Manipulated variables
 Title of the graph
Graph

y-axis is labelled

Responding
variables
Coordinates
are plotted
Suitable with a small
even scale cross mark ( )

Best adjusted
straight line

Mainpulated variables

Suitable
even scale x-axis is labelled

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CHAPTER 2 Forces and Motion

Distance travelled, displacement, speed and velocity


Distance travelled by Darren
P from his house to school
Darrens
house
= Length of path PQ + Length
of path QR
= s1 + s 2
R
Displacement, s
s = Distance of the final position
Post office s1
of Darren, R, from his initial
position P
= s 12 + s 22
Q s2
SMK Seri Perak Distance travelled
Speed =
Time taken
Displacement
Velocity =
Time taken
Acceleration
How to calculate acceleration?
Time interval, t
= 4 dot-spaces 0.02 s
= 0.08 s

direction
of motion

Initial velocity, u Final velocity, v


Time for 1 dot-space (1 tick)
1.0 cm 1.4 cm
= = 50.0 cm s1 1 = = 70.0 cm s1
0.02 s = = 0.02 s 0.02 s
50

Acceleration, a
vu (70.0 50.0) cm s 1
= = = 250 cm s 2 = 2.5 m s 2
t 0.08 s

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Equations of motion
Object uniform velocity
Object moving with uniform
moving velocity:
t=0 t=t
v v

s
s=vt

Object moving with uniform acceleration:

t=0 t=t
u v

vu
a =
t
1
v = u + at s = (u + v) t
2

1
v 2 = u 2 + 2as s = ut + at 2
2

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Graph of linear motion
Displacement-time graph

Gradient = Velocity

Displacement increases. No change in Displacement decreases. The cyclist


The cyclist is moving to the right. displacement. is moving in the opposite direction and
stopping at the starting point.

Velocity-time graph
Gradient = Acceleration
Area under the graph = Distance travelled

Velocity increases, positive Constant velocity, Velocity decreases until


acceleration. zero acceleration. zero, negative acceleration.

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Inertia
The tendency for an object to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight
line.

When a stationary
bus starts to
Object at move with forward
rest acceleration, the
passengers lurch
backwards.

When a moving bus


Object in stops suddenly, the
motion passengers lurch
forwards.

Relationship between mass and inertia


A shopper in a supermarket observes that it is always easier to start moving an empty trolley
than a full trolley.

(a) Empty trolley (b) Full trolley

Small mass, small inertia Big mass, big inertia

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Momentum
Momentum = Mass Velocity
p =mv
Principle of conservation of momentum
Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision

Type of collision Situation Important formula


Elastic Momentum is conserved:
uA uB vA vB
mAuA + mBuB = mAvA + mBvB
mA uA uB mB mA vA vB mB
mA mB mA mB Kinetic energy is conserved:
1 1
uA uB vA vB mAuA2 + mBuB2
mA Before mB mA After mB 2 2
collision collision
1 1
uA uB v = mAvA2 + mBvB2
mA uA uB mB mA v mB 2 2
mA mB mA mB
Inelastic uA uB Momentum is conserved:
v
mA mB mA mB mAuA + mBuB = (mA + mB )v

Kinetic energy is NOT


Before After conserved.
collision collision

Explosion
at rest
at rest

Before shooting
vB
vA at rest
vA vB mAvA + mBvB = 0
mB
mB
vB
mAvA
mA
Aftermshooting
B

mA
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Effects of a force
A force can...

(d) cause a moving object to stop (a) change the shape and size of an
Hazuri applies a force to object
stop the ball the ball is deformed temporary
(b) cause a stationary object to move
the ball flies off with a velocity

(c) cause a moving


Hazuri object to change
its direction of
Ben motion
Sanis header
produces a
force on the ball
to change its
Sani direction

Force, mass and acceleration Impulse and impulsive force


Newton second law of motion Impulse = Change in momentum
When a net external force acts on an = mv mu
object, the acceleration of the object is Impulse
directly proportional to the net force and Impulsive force, F =
inversely proportional to its mass. Time
Change in momentum
F =
a Time taken
m
mv mu
=
t
F = ma
Note: t is the time interval

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A long jumper lands on a pit filled with
loose sand so that the time interval of A golfer
impact on landing is increased, thus driving a
reducing the impulsive force acting on him. golf ball with
a club. The
Big t, small F impact time
between the
club and the
ball is very
short because
of their hard
and rigid
surfaces.
A large impulsive force is impacted on
the ball.
small t, large F

Gravity Gravitational field strength


Acceleration due to gravity, g The gravitational field strength is defined
An apple and a coconut are released as the ratio of the weight to the mass of
simultaneously at the same height. the object or weight per unit mass.
The apple and the coconut are at the
same level at all times. spring balance Gravitational
gravitational measure the field strength
t=0 gravitational
acceleration attraction
Weight W
is = =
t = 15 (weight) Mass m
independent on the object
of mass m
t = 25 mg Unit = N kg1

Earth
t = 35

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Three forces in equilibrium
Three forces in equilibrium can be represented by a closed triangle with the force arrows
following one another.

T2
T2 T1
T1
T1
T2 W 2
W
flowerpot T2

W T1
W

Resultant force
F1

30
30 Two forces acting on an object can be combined into a single
F2 force called the resultant force.

(a) Parallelogram method (b) Triangle method (tail-to-tip method)


(parallelogram of forces)
Resultant force connects the
tail of F1 to the tip of F2.
3
1 F1
F1, F2 and
resultant force, FR 30 FR start 2 1
Tail of F2 F2 F1
4 30 from the starting
3 same point. from tip 3
2
F2 30 30
of F1.
resultant force, FR

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Resolution of a force
A force can be resolved into two components which are perpendicular to each other.
Fy = F sin

F
F



FX = F cos

Work done
Work done = Force Displacement in the direction of the force

F F

F F

s s

Force, F parallel to the Force, F is not parallel to


displacement, s: the displacement, s :
W = Fs W = F cos s
= Fs cos

F F
Forces is perpendicular
mg mg to the displacement, s:
W = F cos 90 s = 0
s

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Energy
v
m

h
Chemical energy Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy= Work done
Chemical energy Potential energy Ek = Fs
= mas
Potential energy = Work done v2
Ep = mg h
= m  ]
2
1
Ep = mgh Ek = mv 2
2

Power Efficiency
Power = Rate of doing work
energy wasted
t=t (thermal energy)

energy work
t=0 input output
h
vertical
weight = mgh height

While running up a flight of stairs, work is petrol engine


done against the gravitational force.
Useful energy output
Efficiency = 100%
 Work done = mg h Energy input

Work done mgh


Power = =
Time taken t

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Elasticity
Factors affecting the elasticity of a spring

Factors Less stiff More stiff


Value of spring
constant, k

Small k Big k

Length of spring

Long spring Short spring

Diameter of wire

Thin wire Thick wire

Diameter of coil

Big diameter Small diameter

Type of material

Copper wire Steel wire

Arrangement of
spring

Series Parallel

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CHAPTER 3 Forces and Pressure
Pressure

P = AF P = F
A A
It is easier to walk on the field with sports
shoes compared to high-heeled shoes.
Force
Pressure = The base of a high-heeled shoe is small,
Area thus the pressure that acts on the ground
F is greater. So, the pointed heels of the
P = ladys shoes may sink into the soft ground
A
of the field.

Pressure in liquids

Pressure in liquids = hg

pressure
increases pressure acts in all directions
with
depth

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Application of atmospheric pressure

Straw Rubber sucker


atmospheric
pressure low pressure
atmospheric (partially
pressure vacuumed)

airtight
liquid
hook for
hanging

Pascals principle
The pressure applied to the surface of a fluid in a confined container is transmitted uniformly
in all directions throughout the fluid.
F1 F2 F1 = Input force A1 = Surface area of input cylinder
=
A1 A2 F2 = Output force A2 = Surface area of output cylinder

INPUT OUTPUT
object
being lifted

input a high output


force, F1 piston force, F2 is
produced
acting on the cylinder because of
surface area, the large surface
A1 of the small area of the piston,
piston and fluid A2 which
produces is acted by
high pressure high pressure
high pressure is transmitted

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Archimedes Principle
Archimedes principle states that for a body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, the
upward buoyant force acting on the body is equal to the weight of the fluid displaces.

W1 = Weight in air or actual weight


W2 = Apparent weight
W1 > W2
Buoyant force = W1 W2

Application of Archimedes principle in daily life


Submarine

purged air buoyant force

buoyant vent
force valve
opens
equal weight weight
pressure water
enters
floating
the ballast
tank diving

When water enters the ballast tank


SZ-43(b)
SZ-43(a)
A submarine floats in the sea because of a submarine, the weight of the
the buoyant force acting on the submarine becomes greater than the
submarine is the same as the weight of buoyant force. Thus, the submarine
the submarine. dives into the sea.

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Bernoullis principle
In a steady flow of a fluid, when the speed of the fluid is high, the pressure of the fluid
is low, and when the speed of the fluid is low, the pressure is high.
v ,P
v ,P

Application of Bernoullis principle 4


The difference in air pressure
2 Air flowing faster on the top surface of the wing
Aircraft produces the lifting force which
produces an area of low pressure. causes the aircraft to rise.

1 The flight of an aircraft lifting force


depends on the shape of
aerofoil. The wings and tail of
an aircraft are in the shape of
aerofoil.

3
The slower air flow below the
under surface of the wing
produces a region of high
pressure.
compressed buoyant force
air
Bunsen burner
3
1
weight The fast flowing The mixture of gas
rising gas produces a and air produces a
region of low complete
pressure. combustion.
SZ-43(c)
When water is forced out of the 2
The high atmospheric
ballast tank with compressed air, the pressure causes the
weight of the submarine becomes air to be sucked in air from atmosphere
less than the buoyant force. Thus, and mixed with the flows in
gas.
the submarine rises. gas supply

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CHAPTER 4 Heat

Specific heat capacity Specific latent heat


The specific heat capacity, c, of a The specific latent heat of a
substance is the quantity of heat energy substance is the amount of heat
required to produce a 1 C or I K rise in required to change the phase of
temperature in a mass of 1 kg. 1 kg of the substance at a constant
temperature.
Q
c = Q
m  =
m
Pt = mc
Pt = m

Latent heat
Latent heat is the total energy absorbed or released when a substance changes its physical
state completely at a constant temperature.
Latent heat of fusion is the heat absorbed when a solid melts at constant temperature.
Latent heat of vaporisation is the heat absorbed when a liquid changes into vapour at
constant temperature.

Latent heat absorbed

Vaporisation
Fusion (evaporates)

Solidification Condensation
Solid (freezes) Liquid (condenses) Gas

Latent heat released

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Heating curve
Temperature
(C) F

Gas

boiling point D E
Liquid + Gas

melting point B C
Liquid
Solid +
A
Solid Liquid

solid heating solid melting liquid heating liquid boiling gas heating
0 Time (s)
melting begins melting completes boiling begins boiling completes

Cooling curve
Temperature
(C) A

condensation B C
point

freezing D E
point Gas Gas + Liquid Liquid Liquid +
Solid Solid F
gas liquid
cooling gas condensing cooling liquid freezing solid cooling
Time (s)
condensation begins condensation freezing begins freezing completes
completes

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Gas laws

Boyles law Pressure law Charles law


Temperature = constant Volume = constant Pressure = constant

Action Decrease in volume Increase in temperature Increase in temperature


piston pushed
closed container
Before
heat heat

piston lifted
closed container
After
heat
heat

Result Pressure increase Pressure increase Volume increase

Relationship 1
P PT VT
V

P1 P2 V1 V2
Formula P1V1 = P2V2 = =
T1 T2 T1 T2

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CHAPTER 5 Light
Laws of reflection

Incident ray, reflected


ray and normal at the
point of incidence all lie in
normal the same plane.

incident ray reflected ray The angle of incidence,


i is always equal to the
i r angle of reflection, r.
i=r

Properties of an image
formed by a plane mirror:
virtual
upright
laterally inverted
laterally inverted
same size as the object
same size as the object
image distance, v
image distance, v
= object distance, u
= object distance, u
v
u

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Concave and convex mirrors
Ray diagrams
(a) Concave mirror

1 A ray parallel to the principal axis is


reflected to pass through F.

2 A ray through F is reflected parallel to


the principal axis.

3 A ray through C is reflected along its


own path.

(b) Convex mirror

1 A ray parallel to the principal axis is


reflected as if it came from F.

2 A ray towards F is reflected parallel to


the principal axis.

3 A ray towards C is reflected along its


own path.

Note: Any two of the rays 1 , 2 , and 3 can be used to determine the position of the image.

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Refraction of light
A phenomenon where the direction of light is changed when it crosses the boundary
between two materials of different optical densities.

i
the plane where the sin i
incident ray, refracted = Constant
r sin r
ray and normal lie
= Refractive index

Refraction of light (from water)

Apparent depth as seen by the eye. apparent


depth, d I
real
Real depth, i.e. the actual depth, D
depth of the fish.
O
Refractive index, n
c (velocity of light in air) Ray of light
=
v (velocity of light in medium) refracted away
from the normal.
D (Real depth)
= Ray of light from the
d (Apparent depth)
fish to the water-air
boundary.

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Total internal reflection
(a) angle of incidence < critical angle
The incident ray is partly reflected and partly refracted at the glass-air boundary.

B
refracted ray

C D
semicircular glass block
protractor
incident ray A
reflected ray

ray box

(b) angle of incidence > critical angle


The incident ray is totally reflected at the glass-air boundary.

protractor
C D
semicircular
glass block
incident A
ray
totally refracted ray

ray box

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Lenses
Ray diagrams

Convex lens
11 A ray of light which passes
through the optical centre, O
of the lens is undeviated.
22 A ray of light parallel to the
principal axis is refracted
and passes through the focal
point, F.
33 A ray of light which passes
through the focal point, F
is refracted parallel to the
principal axis.

Concave lens

11 A ray of light which passes through


the optical centre, O is undeviated.
22 A ray of light parallel to the principal
axis is refracted and appears to come
from the focal point, F on the same
side of the lens.
33 A ray of light which travels
towards the focal point,
F on the other side of the
lens is refracted parallel to
the principal axis.

Any two of the three rays 1 , 2 , and 3 are sufficient to


determine the position and characteristics of the image.

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Power of lenses
A measure of its ability to converge or diverge an incident beam of light.

1 100
P = or
f (in m) f (in cm)

Unit of power of a lens is m1 or dioptre, D.

Linear magnification
Ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object.

Real Image Virtual Image

u uv v

Image is formed
Image is formed
behind the lens
behind the lens
i i

o o ho ho

i
i
Image is formed
Image is formed
on the same side
on the same side
of the lens of the lens

Image height, IS h
Linear magnification, m = = i h v
Object height, RP h o m = i =
ho u
Image distance, OI v
OR m = =
Object distance, OR u

Lens equation

1 1 1
+=
u v f

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Optical instruments
Astronomical telescope
Distance between the two lenses = fo + fe
fo
Linear magnification =
fe

objective lens eyepiece

the parallel light rays construction


from distant object line
eye

I1 The eyepiece
produces a virtual,
magnified and inverted
image I2 at infinity.

virtual image,
I 2 at infinity

The objective lens converges the parallel


rays from the far object to form a real, objective
inverted and diminished image I 1 at the lens
focal plane of both lenses.

eyepiece

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Compound microscope

The image, I 1 acts as an object for the


fo < object distance < 2fo eyepiece. Image, I1 is at a distance less
than f e from the eyepiece so that the
eyepiece acts as a magnifying lens.

objective lens eyepiece

fo fe
construction line

object eye
real
Fo Fe image Fe

Fo O Fo I1

eyepiece

final
virtual
image, I2 25 cm

objective
lens
The final image is virtual, I1 = Magnification by
inverted and magnified. The objective lens
distance between the image I2 = Magnification by
and the eyepiece is 25 cm. eyepiece

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Camera

Shutter opens to allow light from


the object to pass through the
The position of the lens can lens to the film.
be adjusted to focus the light
from the object to form a
sharp image on the film.
Light sensitive film
for recording the
image.
object image

lens Image formed is


Focusing ring changes real, inverted and
shutter diminished.
the distance between
the lens and the film.
film cassette

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First published 2016
ISBN 978 983 47 1666 0
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