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Introduction

Cantilever beam is used to find the modulus of elascity of a thin film because that measurement
of a bulk materials is easier compared to thin film by showing the analysis of the frequency of
vibration of cantilever beam. One end of cantilever beam is fixed while the other end is free.
Free vibration of cantilever beam with natural frequency is starting with by initial displacement
height to the cantilever beam with h=30mm. And is displaced by (-10mm,-
5mm,0mm,5mm,10mm) from initial height. The beam will deflect to the curve when load is
removed by particular height measured from the meter rule. The larger the load the larger the
deflection. After the free vibration finished, we have conducted the experiment by 30mm,50mm
and with viscous damper in water which connected to the cantilever beam.

Damping is present in this experiment. Damping vibration means that energy have lost from the
system and finally vibration stops, which the amplitude of vibration decreases gradually from the
cantilever beam.

The cantilever beam is left to vibrate with no external force in free vibration. Such vibration will
not stops unless force being applied.
Figure 1
The simple cantilever beam shown in Figure 1 can be modeled as a
mass-spring system where the governing equation of motion is given by
m x =-kx or x + n2 x = 0

n is known as the natural circular frequency of the system and is given by

k
n=
m

Equation (1) is a homogeneous second-order equation linear differential equation, has the
following general solution:

x
(0)sin n t
x= n + x(0) cos n t .(1.2)

The natural period of the oscillation is established from n =2 or

=2
m
k .(1.3)

The natural frequency of the system is


fn =
1
=
1
2 k
m ...(1.4)

Viscously damped Vibration

Every mechanical system possesses some inherent degree of friction, which


dissipates
mechanical energy. Precise mathematical models of the dissipative friction
forces are usually
complex. Viscous damping force can be expressed by

Fd =c x .(1.5)

The equation of motion of a free-damped vibration system is given as m x +c x + kx=0. The


2
1
+

2
1
general solution is given as n t ...(1.6)



x= A1 e

2
The radicand ( 1 may be positive, negative or zero, giving rise to three categories of
damped motion: >1 (over-damped,figure 2), =1 (critically damped, Figure 2) and
<1 (under damped, Figure 3).
Figure 2
Figure 3

The frequency of damped vibration d= 1 n


2
.(1.9)

Natural frequency of a Cantilever Beam

Figure 4
The maximum deflection of the cantilever beam under a concentrated end force P is given by

P L3 P
y max = =
3 EI k .(1.10)

3 EI
Therefore the stiffness of the beam is given by k= L3 (1.11)

Where
L= length of the beam

b h3
I=moment of inertia, for rectangular area, I = 12

b= width of the beam


h=height of the beam
E= modulus of elasticity, for aluminium, E= 70GPa
Objective:

Part 1: To investigate the natural frequency of a natural frequency of a cantilever beam

Part 2: To find out relationship between both undamped and damped free vibration motion of a
cantilever beam.
Methodology

Procedure

1 Computer and the strain recorder is switched on.


2. Strain recorder application is started software by double click on the
DC104REng
shortcut icon on the computer desktop.
3. The strain recorder and the recorder application software is refer to the
operational manual for the operation
4.The viscous damper is removed if it is attached to the beam.
5. The beam, ymax (refer to Figure 4) by -20 mm, -15 mm, -10 mm, -5 mm, is
displaced and hold
0 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm and record the strain recorder
reading for each
displacement value manually from the Numerical Monitor screen of the
application
software.
6.The relationship of the displacement is obtained(of the free end of the
beam) and the strain
recorder reading by plotting an appropriate graph using a spreadsheet.
7. The beam is displaced by 30 mm and leave the beam to vibrate on its
own. Record the strain
recorder reading by clicking on the Play and Stop button.
8. Retrieve the recorded file by clicking on the Read USB button.
9. The graph of the beam displacement versus the time, t is plotted.
10. The experiment is repeated by using beam displacement of 50 mm.
11. The viscous damper is connected. Steps 7 and 10 is repeated by using
beam displacement of 30 mm and 50 mm, respectively.
Results:

Part1: Strain recorder reading for each displacement value

Initial Lengthen from Strain


displacement(cm initial (1)(mm)
) displacement(mm
)

35.5 +20 -230


34.5 +15 -180
34.0 +10 -110
33.5 +5 -60
33.0 0 0
32.5 -5 60
32.0 -10 120
31.5 -15 180
31.0 -20 230

Chart Title
230 300
180
200
120
60
100
0
lengthen from initial displacement(mm) 0 -60
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30
-110
-100
-180
-200 -230

-300

Strain(mm)

Result for Free vibration for 30mm:


Result for free vibration for 30mm
12

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Result for Free vibration for 50mm

Result for free vibration for 50mm


12

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Results for damped vibration in water for 30mm

Result for damped vibration in water 30mm


12

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Results for damped vibration in water for 50mm

Result for damped vibration in water 50mm


12

10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Discussion

For theoretical natural frequency, (fn)theo calcuation, according to damped


and undamped experiment, the following datas were needed.

1. Modulus of elasticity of aluminium(E) = 70GPa

2. Dimension of the cantilever beam = 926mm x 19mm x 6mm

3. Mass of the cantilever beam = 295g

4. Mass of the damper = 122g

By substituting the data above into the equation, we obtained,

bh
12
Moment of inertia, I=

(19 x 10 3)(6 x 10 3)
1010 m4
12
I= = 3.42 x

3EI
L
Stiffness of cantilever beam, k=

3 (70 109 )(3.421010)


k= = 90.45 Nm
1
(926 103 )

33
The equivalent mass of cantivalent beam, meq= ( 140 (m)

33 3
meq= ( (295 10 ) kg=0.07kg
140
k
1
fn meq
2
Natural frequency, =

1
= 2
90.45 Nm1
0.07 = 5.72Hz

Comparing with the frequency obtained in experiment 30mm without

1

damping,(fn)exp = = Hz

1 1
Experimental value(referred from graph)= = =1.552 Hz
T 21 316(328)

(theoretical valueexperimental value)


Percentage error%= 100
theoretical value

5.72 Hz1.552 Hz
= 100
5.72

=72.9%

Comparing with the frequency obtained in experiment 50mm without

1 1
damping, (fn) = T = 344298 =1.56 Hz

(theoretical valueexperimental value)


Percentage error%= 100
theoretical value
5.721.56
= 100 =72.7%
5.72

1 1
In vibration with damping(both for 30mm, (fn)= T = 248246 =0.50 Hz

(theoretical valueexperimental value)


Percentage error%= 100
theoretical value

(5.720.50)
= 100 =91%
5.72

1 1
In vibration with damping(both for 50mm(fn)= T = 372324 =0.02

(theoretical valueexperimental value)


Percentage error%= 100
theoretical value

5.720.02
100 =285%
5.72

2) Calculation for damped period:

m
k
=2

0.192
90.45
=2

0.289
s
Calculation for damped frequency:

1 1 k
2 m
fn = =

1 90.45
2 0.192
=

= 3.45Hz
In the experiment,we have use the apparatus and materials available such as explained
above.The theorectical natural frequency of free vibration at 30mm is 5.72Hz.And for the
experimental; value is 1.552Hz which percentage error is 72.9% which shows that the
experiment have a result which not accurate.This is greatly determine by the graph. It is believe
that the reason why the data not accurate is as our human error while doing the experiment.
When carry out the experiment, our hand is not removed from the table and hence making the
vibrations of the cantilever beam.Furthermore, there have parallax error occur as our
measurement is not correct as the meter rule which use to measure the length of cantilever beam
being displaced is not cling on it with almost correct of certain length. Secondly,the results of the
free vibration average data should be recorded in order to have a nice distribution graph. After
the damper is added in the water, the vibration become more unaccurate as the percentage error
show 91% for free vibration of 30mm in water with damper and 285% for 50mm for vibration
under water with damper.

Strain gauge is mounted on cantilever beam to act as resistance strain gages and to measure
forces, moments, and the deformations of structures and materials. Two of the strain gauge is mounted on
top of the beam and two mounted below the beam. The stress of the surface of bending beam can be

1 mV 3 V
E= = . . 10
calculated as following formula Thus k V mV

As the length of the strain gauge increase from one end to another end thus the strain decreases
from the bending cantilever beam.

Conclusion

As a conclusion, the cantilever beam is a device to measure the vibration of thin film as the bulk
product is really hard measured by it. The measurement which carried out by cantilever beam
should be very cautious while doing the experiment as the graph showing will depends on the
amplitude of vibration.So that the external forces should be avoided every particular subject.
Reference

1) http://www.me.unm.edu/~kalmoth/cantilever_lab.pdf
2) http://iitg.vlab.co.in/?sub=62&brch=175&sim=1080&cnt=1