Anda di halaman 1dari 8

Cairns Transit Network

Concept Design Report

Table of contents
12 Noise and vibration........................................................... 12.2
12.1 Introduction................................................................................. 12.2
12.2 Methodology ............................................................................... 12.2
12.2.1 Noise ................................................................................................... 12.2
12.2.1.1 Standards ................................................................................................ 12.2
12.2.1.2 Topographical factors .............................................................................. 12.3
12.2.1.3 Biological issues ...................................................................................... 12.4
12.2.2 Vibration .............................................................................................. 12.4
12.2.2.1 Vibration standards ................................................................................. 12.4
12.2.2.2 Key vibration issues ................................................................................ 12.5
12.3 Typical mitigation measures ..................................................... 12.5
12.3.1 Administrative controls ........................................................................ 12.5
12.3.2 Physical mitigation controls................................................................. 12.6
12.4 Recommendations for further investigations .......................... 12.7
12.5 References .................................................................................. 12.8

List of tables
Table 12.1: TMR Code of Practice traffic noise criteria .......................................................... 12.3

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.1
Cairns Transit Network
Concept Design Report

12 Noise and vibration


12.1 Introduction
The assessment of the Cairns Transit Network requires consideration of potential
noise and vibration impacts resulting from the construction and operation of the
project. Noise and vibration are not considered to be planning constraints rather
they are matters to be addressed in the impact mitigation phase for design,
construction and operation stages. However, there are some general matters for
discussion at the concept phase.

12.2 Methodology
This chapter is based on a desktop analysis of available information. An overview
only is provided, with material of a general nature being selected in order to
provide an appreciation of the noise and vibration issues likely to be of relevance
to the Cairns Transit Network. A detailed analysis of the potential noise and
vibration impacts from the transit network will be undertaken closer to construction
phase of the project.

12.2.1 Noise
Noise (defined loosely as unwanted sound) is usually addressed in the detailed
planning of transport projects (eg Maunsell McIntyre Pty Ltd & Environment North
(2000), SKM (2000), ASK (2009)) using the following approach:
identifying noise sensitive sites along the corridor
undertaking ambient (background) noise measurements at these and other
representative sites
preparing a model of noise contours based on topography and traffic data and
calibrating this against the ambient noise measurements
using the model to predict future noise based on future traffic and design
details
designing noise mitigation measures for areas where noise increases are
unacceptable (based on Department of Transport and Main Roads
standards).

12.2.1.1 Standards
At present there are no specific noise criteria applicable to busway and bus priority
corridors. However, Department of Transport and Main Roads (TMR) projects are
required to follow the Road Traffic Noise Management: Code of Practice
(Department of Main Roads (DMR) 2008). The code of practice sets the policy and
framework for the assessment, design and management of the impact of road
traffic noise, including construction noise and vibration, on the built environment
beside state controlled roads in Queensland. The purpose of the code of practice
is to provide guidance and instruction for the assessment and management of the
impact of road traffic noise, and to provide the means for all road projects to be
planned, designed and built in accordance with the agreed set of corporate
standards that include consideration of local circumstances.

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.2
Cairns Transit Network
Concept Design Report

The TMR Code of Practice defines noise sensitive sites as comprising:


residential buildings
educational, community and health buildings
outdoor educational and passive recreation areas (including parks).
Commercial, industrial and rural sites are not classified as noise sensitive sites.
There are different noise level criteria for different land uses and road types (see
Table 12.1). Most areas of the Cairns Transit Network will fall within the
Upgrading existing road criteria. However, there are some areas of the transit
network where the new road criteria will be applicable.
Table 12.1: TMR Code of Practice traffic noise criteria

Road type Receiver type Criteria

New road Residence 63 dB(A) L10 18hr

Health, community, 55 dB(A) L10 1hr


educational building

Park 63 dB(A) L10 12hr

Upgrading existing Residence 68 dB(A) L10 18hr


road

Health, community, 63 dB(A) L10 1hr


educational building

Park 63 dB(A) L10 12hr

It should be noted that the criteria in Table 12.1 only reflects the noise levels
during the day and evening. Recently there has been more emphasis on the
night/early morning noise levels, particularly with respect to heavy vehicles which
tend to be a higher proportion of the traffic volume during these times.
In Brisbane, bus noise has been considered to pose less of a noise emission
problem than normal traffic, on the basis that the noise is far less constant and
hence has less of an effect. In future impact management, advice on this issue
should be sought.
For more information on noise criteria, refer to the Department of Transport and
Main Roads: Road Traffic Noise Management Code of Practice (2008).
There are different noise criteria for rail projects, which follow the Queensland Rail
Code of Practice, Rail Noise Management (2007). Queensland Rail specifies that
major upgrades and new corridors are to achieve as far as reasonably possible
the planning level of 65 dB(A), assessed as the 24 hour average equivalent and
87 dB(A), assessed as a single event maximum sound pressure level.

12.2.1.2 Topographical factors


The level of traffic and the proximity to the noise source are two major factors
influencing noise. However, topography plays a major role in the transmission of
sound and hence the effects of noise. Key factors are:

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.3
Cairns Transit Network
Concept Design Report

topographic features between the source of the noise and the receptor (those
who may be affected by noise) can have an effect on noise levels (this can be
significant if existing topography is to be altered as part of the works)
noise can be reflected off flat surfaces such as rock cuttings and buildings,
meaning that the transmission of sound to locations within sight of the noise
source is not the only concern
noise is more evident the greater the altitude of the receptor receptors many
kilometres away at higher altitudes can experience noticeable noise (although
not of a level that mitigation will be called for under current guidelines).
Vegetation in itself has very little effect on noise transmission what is needed is
mass to absorb the noise waves (100m of woodland is the equivalent of a normal
timber noise barrier). However, noise is essentially a human response to sound,
and psychological factors such as hiding the noise source from sight can reduce
the annoyance to some extent.

12.2.1.3 Biological issues


Noise is not just a concern to humans. Research conducted for TMR on the effect
of noise on birds and frogs adjacent to the Kuranda Range Road (Dawe &
Goosem 2007) reveals that these animals are demonstrably adversely affected by
road noise. This is due to the masking effect that traffic noise has on calls that
individuals make for feeding and breeding, and this is thought to place additional
physiological demands on the animals (ie requires more energy). This may be of
relevance to some parts of the Cairns Transit Network (potentially the Central
Swamp and Barron Delta areas). However, as the transit network predominantly
travels through urban areas, this will not be a major concern.

12.2.2 Vibration
Residents and businesses may experience vibration during construction of the
project due to excavation, piling, drilling or compaction equipment. Vibration
velocity is recorded in millimetres per second (mm/s). Day-to-day activities (for
example, closing of doors) cause levels of vibration in floors and walls that exceed
1 mm/s. Visible movement and rattling of objects can be observed as low as 0.5
mm/s. Any vibration impacts will be managed in practically the same way as noise
impacts.
Vibration is mainly an issue only during construction. However, it is possible that in
some cases transport infrastructure (especially elevated structures) could transmit
vibration during operation and this should be checked during the detailed design
phase.

12.2.2.1 Vibration standards


Australian Standard (AS) 2187.2-1993 provides recommendation on the maximum
vibration limit allowed for residential (non-reinforced) and commercial (reinforced)
buildings. Australian Standard (AS) 2670.2-1990 provides recommendation on
potential disturbance to persons exposed to building vibration in the range of 8 Hz
and 80 Hz.
Standards cover:

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.4
Cairns Transit Network
Concept Design Report

human comfort criteria (continuous vibration, intermittent and impulsive


vibration excitation with several occurrences per day)
cosmetic damage criteria (ie damage to structures).
The TMR Code of Practice (DMR 2008) is also relevant to vibration.

12.2.2.2 Key vibration issues


The use of heavy plant and equipment in the construction of the transit network
may generate discernible vibrations at those sensitive locations closest to the work
activities. The level of vibrations generated as a result of these activities can be
expected to vary in intensity and character depending upon the combination of
plant in operation at any one time, and the location and duration of the individual
activities. Activities conducted as part of major transport infrastructure most likely
to be of concern are blasting, the use of vibrating rollers and rock hammers, and
pile driving.
Typical vibration levels from vibratory rollers can range up to 1.5mm/s at a
distance of 25m. Thus it is likely the use of equipment may be noticeable within
buildings, but the vibration levels are very unlikely to damage structures.
Vibration could be relevant to the Cairns Transit Network in the following respects:
in the vicinity of new cuttings if blasting is required (it is unknown at this stage
whether blasting would in fact be required. This will be determined in the
detailed design phase closer to construction)

adjacent to large embankments where vibrating rollers are to be used


near bridge sites where pile driving is involved.
It is known that the soft marine sediments of the city centre and the Portsmith
areas transmit pile driving vibrations for some distance and this needs to be
considered during future impact management and construction.
On roadways that are well maintained, regenerated noise and vibration from
individual vehicle movements is not considered to result in significant acoustical
disruption to residents.

12.3 Typical mitigation measures


Noise and vibration management strategies for both the construction and
operational phases may include a combination of administrative controls as well as
physical mitigation controls. The following list of controls may be appropriate for
certain activities and sites.

12.3.1 Administrative controls


monitoring and measurement of noise and vibration impacts
the noisiest works such as pile boring, concrete pumping and jack hammering
should be scheduled to be conducted during the day periods unless
unavoidable. If possible, these works should be conducted between the
hours of 9am and 3pm weekdays as receivers are generally least sensitive
during this time period
duration of noisy works should be kept as short as possible

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.5
Cairns Transit Network
Concept Design Report

vehicles should be shut down when unattended on site or when likely to be


left idling for an extended period of time
all vehicular movements to and from the site should only be made during the
scheduled nominal working hours unless approval has been granted by the
relevant authority
residents should be informed when night and evening works are scheduled to
occur
workers should use hand held radio transceivers to communicate across the
work site rather than shouting.
speed control of buses
quieter operating buses
improved traffic flow, allowing buses to reduce engine revving.

12.3.2 Physical mitigation controls


fit and maintain suitable mufflers for all internal combustion type engines
all pneumatic tools operated near a residential area may be fitted with an
effective silencer on their air exhaust port
equipment with the lowest noise rating should be used where work is
conducted in a residential area or other noise sensitive location
all mechanical plant should be silenced by best practical means using current
technology
noise suppression devices should be maintained to the manufacturers
specifications
site buildings, access roads and plant should be positioned such that the
minimum disturbance occurs to the locality as they can provide shielding
between the site and residences
create noise barriers between works and neighbouring residential receivers.
To be effective the noise barriers should extend down to ground level and
should block the line of sight between the source and receiver. The barrier
should be located as close as is safe and practical to either the source of the
noise or those who may be affected by the noise
partial or full enclosures may be constructed around noise emitting
components of equipment
noise barriers for mitigation of operational noise (where appropriate)
road wearing surface options, such as:
o open graded asphalt may reduce traffic noise emissions by 2dB(A)
o stone mastic asphalt may reduce traffic noise emissions by 1dB(A)
These should be further explored in future impact management planning.

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.6
Cairns Transit Network
Concept Design Report

12.4 Recommendations for further investigations


Studies will be required at the detailed design phase to investigate the need for
noise mitigation measures and vibration impacts associated with future
construction and operational phases. This will involve:
identifying noise sensitive sites along the corridor
undertaking ambient noise measurements at these and other representative
sites
preparing a model of noise contours based on topography and traffic data and
calibrating this against the ambient noise measurements
using the model to predict future noise based on future traffic and design
details
designing noise mitigation measures for areas where noise increases are
unacceptable (based on TMR standards).
Some design issues to be considered are:
noise problems are often associated with traffic traversing expansion joints on
bridges this needs to be considered during detailed design
vibration transmitted by thin elevated components of overhead structures.
It is expected that the noise assessment for the Cairns Bruce Highway Upgrade
will cover the section of Cairns Transit Network between Earlville and Edmonton.
Noise studies from other previous projects (eg the Cairns Western Arterial Road
(Brinsmead Kamerunga Road) and proposed Smithfield Bypass may provide
useful information and this should be utilised where possible.
Vibration will be an element of future impact management planning and will need
to address issues to mitigate construction impacts. In particular, condition surveys
will need to be undertaken in the vicinity of any blasting sites and the work
constantly monitored.
It should be recognised that advancements in bus and road technologies in future
years will mean that current measures for mitigation of noise emissions may
become outdated. Therefore, a comprehensive review of potential mitigation
strategies will be required at later design phases of the project. The review of
strategies may include incorporating quieter buses, alternative screening methods
and road design. Changes in legislation and standards are also likely to occur
over time. These changes may present criteria other than those currently available
for operational or construction noise, and any future investigation must review and
incorporate relevant legislation and standards.

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.7
Cairns Transit Network
Concept Design Report

12.5 References
ASK. 2009. Bruce Highway Upgrade - Phase 1: Planning Study Ray Jones Drive
to Wrights Creek, Cairns Road Traffic Noise & Air Quality Assessment.
Consultancy report prepared for Environment North, March 2009
Dawe, G. & Goosem, M. Noise Disturbance Along Highways Kuranda Range
Road Upgrade Project. JCU/CSIRO Tropical Landscapes Joint Venture.
Consultancy report prepared for Department of Main Roads June 2007
Kamst & Simpson. 2000. Kuranda Range Noise and Air Quality Impact
Assessment Study Route Option Phase. Working Paper 5 of Impact Assessment
Study (Maunsell McIntyre Proprietary Limited & Environment North 2000)
Sinclair Knight Merz. 2000. Southern Cairns Integrated Land Use and Transport
Study Impact Assessment Study. Consultancy report prepared for the Department
of Main Roads, November 2000.

Chapter 12
Noise and vibration
Page 12.8