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The human resource management (HRM) policies and practices has emerged as important topic
in the fields of human resource management, industrial relations, and industrial and
organizational psychology. The work on HRM practices and its relationship with employees
motivation and job satisfaction argument that the use of High Performance Work Practices,
including comprehensive employee recruitment and selection procedures, incentive
compensation and performance management systems, and extensive employee involvement and
training, can improve the knowledge, skills, and abilities of a firm's current and potential
employees, increase their motivation, reduce shirking, and enhance retention of quality
employees while encouraging nonperformers to leave the firm (Jones & Wright, 1992; U.S.
Department of Labor, 1993). In an organizations or a firms, human resource management (HRM)
practices work as mediator between HRM strategy and HRM outcome. Sheppeck and Militello
(2000) focus HRM strategy into four groups: employment skill and work policies, supportive
environment, performance measurement and reinforcement and market organization whereby
Guest (1997) divides in to three categories: differentiated on innovation, focus on quality and
cost-reduction. As supported by Lee and Lee (2007) HRM practices on work performance,
namely training and development, teamwork, compensation/incentive, HR planning,
performance appraisal, and employee security help improve firms business performance
including employees productivity, product quality and firms flexibility.
In general term, Intention to quit is the psychological process that an individual goes through
when they are considering alternative employment options due to some measure of
dissatisfaction with their current employment situation. The ultimate decision to leave results
when job dissatisfaction is at a level sufficient that the employee has reached a decision on the
desirability of movement and the perceived ease of movement. There are many potential causes
for turnover; sometimes the causes are related to the HR practices of the organization and can be
managed. These include such things as non-competitive compensation, high stress, working
conditions, monotony, poor supervision, poor fit between the employee and the job, inadequate
training, poor communications, and other organization practices (Mushrush, 2002). In order to
address these issues, organizational leaders need to be aware of the needs and environmental
circumstances surrounding their employees. Management tries to manage employees
dissatisfaction by adapting different HR practices like skill development program, establishing
effective communication system, incentive and reward policies, work enrichment and so on.
Commitment of the organization, to the employee, can be expressed through HR practices and
impact on intention to quit or retention. High commitment HR practices that affect employee
commitment include: staffing, developmental appraisal, competitive and equitable
compensation, and comprehensive training and development activities (Whitener, 2001, p. 517).
Considering the substantial costs associated with turnover, employers need to implement HR
practices that reduce turnover as much as possible.
Rational Behind the study
Employees turn over or managing their intention to quit is a major concern of human resource
(HR) managers working with any organisation. Aspects of career incentives are important for the
employees to take decision to leave or stay with the organization. Management tries with HR
strategies to enhance the employees job satisfaction and reduce the turn over or intention to
quid. According to Cranny, Smith and Stone (1992) job satisfaction is a combination of cognitive
and affective reactions to the differential perceptions of what an employee wants to receive
compared to what he or she actually receives. Job satisfaction is a factor that would induce the
employee to work in the long term position. Regardless of job satisfaction the organization or
firm would confront with the cost of recruitment caused by turnover. For this reason, the
organization should pay attention to manage employees intention to quit or switch over the
present organization. Accessibility of the researcher with the employees working in some
medium and small sector organsiation located at Dehradun has motivated researcher to select this
topic for the proposed research.
Review of Related Literature
A number of studies are being conducted in the past to predict the Human Resource Management
practices and its impact on employees switching intention. Whitener, (2001) conducted a study
from the social exchange theory perspective and revealed that organizations which exhibit a
high level of commitment to their employees through HR practices, are rewarded with increased
organizational effectiveness, employee involvement and commitment to the organization.
Huselid (1995) found nearly one thousand firms, which invest in high performance HR
management practices, including: comprehensive employee recruitment and selection
procedures, incentive compensation and performance management systems, and extensive
employee involvement and training. These practices were found to have both an economically
and statistically significant impact on employee turnover and productivity
David G. Allen, Lynn M. Shore and Rodger W. Griffeth in their study on The Role of
Perceived Organizational Support and Supportive Human Resource Practices in the Turnover
Process developed a model investigating antecedents of perceived organizational support
(POS) and the role of POS in predicting voluntary turnover. Results suggest that perceptions of
supportive human resources practices (participation in decision making, fairness of rewards, and
growth opportunities) contribute to the development of POS, and POS mediates their
relationships with organizational commitment and job satisfaction.

Delery & Doty (1996) studied the impact of recruitment & selection center, skill-oriented
training & development programs, career progression, justified performance rating system, job
involvement, employee engagement and performance-based rewards management on
performance of strategic business units and found that implementation of HRM practices in an
effective manner maximizes profitability of businesses. Simirarly Majumder (2012) found that
to gain an insight into the current HRM practices (recruitment and selection systems,
compensation package, job security, career growth, training and development, management style,
job design and responsibilities, reward and motivation and working environment) and its impact
on employees satisfaction on the private banking sector in Bangladesh. The study revealed that
most of the employees are dissatisfied with compensation package followed by reward and
motivation, career growth, training and development, management style, and job design and

According to Ajila and Abiola (2004), intrinsic rewards are intangible or psychological rewards
like employees inner satisfaction, appreciation of seniors, job autonomy and recognition while
extrinsic rewards are tangible in nature like pay, fringe benefits, bonuses and promotions etc.
Godard (2001) based on a telephone survey of 508 employees in Canada collected in 1997,
studied the effects of innovative workplace practices on an extensive number of indicators for a
workers well-being. His findings indicate that a moderate use of high performance human
resource management practices increases workersbelongingness, empowerment, task
involvement, job satisfaction, esteem, commitment, and citizenship behavior Hussain and
Rehman (2013) examined the relationship between the HRM practices implemented by the
organization on employees intention to stay and work effectively for the organization. The result
of the study explored that HRM practices viz-a-viz: person-organization fit, employment
security, communication and training and development are contributing strongly in developing
the employees intentions to stay with organization. Further, strong positive inter-relationships
were found between HRM practices and employees retention and such practices enhances
employees retain ability of organizations.

Lamba and Choudhary (2013) revealed that how HRM practices provide an edge to
employees commitment towards an organization goal in the global competitive market. The
study concluded that HRM practices such as training & development, compensation and welfare
activities has significant effect on organizational commitment and are associated with superior
organizational performance, which help in retention of knowledgeable and skilled employees.
Martin (2011) conducted an investigation to find out the influence of HRM practices on job
satisfaction, organizational commitment and influence on intention to quit. HRM practices
include recruitment & hiring, compensation & benefits, training & development, and supervision
& evaluation. The result of research found a significant relationship between perceptions of
human resource practices and intention to quit, mediated by organizational commitment and job
Byars and Rue, 1997; Moorhead and Griffin, (1999) found that Job satisfaction has a
significant influence on employees organizational commitment, turnover, absenteeism,
tardiness, accidents, and grievances. Choi (2010) studied the effect of HRM practices on
financial performance of organization, productivity of employees and their turnover and
concluded that financial performance of organization and productivity of employees can be
improved by effective HRM. The implementation of HRM practices in organization also helps to
reduce employee turnover and retention of motivated workforce.