Anda di halaman 1dari 39

Air Injection

Class Exercises
Combustion Exercise #1

Create a laboratory combustion tube simulation


Background
This is a 1-D Combustion tube (1.6896 meters long) with an area of
.007813 sq. meters
The tube is saturated with 65% water and 35% dead oil at a pressure
of 20,000 kPa and 103 Degree C
Nitrogen is being injected initially for 0.05652 day. Heater is added
and continuous till 0.0925 day. Air is injected during that time while
the heater is turned off. A nitrogen flush is then conducted
Total oil produced during the experiment is 0.00175 cu. ft
Total water produced during the experiment is 0.0038 cu. ft
Total gas produced during the experiment is 2.73 m3
Peak temperature observed is around 335 degree C

Combustion 13-2
Combustion Exercise #1

The experiment provides the following information


There are multiple reaction kinetics going on in the
combustion tube
Oxide is being formed and combusted with oxygen to form
CO2 and water
The following are the suggested stoichiometry
1Heavy + 7.851Oxygen 5.439Oxide
1HC5 + 3.5267Oxygen 2.4518Oxide
1HC4 + 2.2694Oxygen 1.57Oxide
1HC3 + 1.2618Oxygen 0.8789Oxide
1Oxide + 7.5126Oxygen 5.77CO2 + 6.3702Water

Combustion 13-3
Combustion Exercise #1

The file Combustion_Tube_Experimental_Data.fhf


contains the raw data of the experimental results. Use
this file in GRAPH to compare to the simulated values.

The datafile Combustiontube w no reaction.dat has


been created, use this file for all the exercise.

Load the Combustiontube w no reaction.dat into


BUILDER.

Combustion 13-4
Combustion Exercise #1

Create reaction kinetics to represent air injection mechanism by


using BUILDERs process wizard for LTO.

Make sure that only the heavier components are used for the
oxidation reaction (HC3 and heavier).

Use a air/fuel ratio = 2.0 m3/kg.

Check each reaction in Builder and note the material balances.


Compare each reaction to the recommended reaction kinetics
on the previous page.
Fix the injection gas composition so that 100% N2 is injected at
the beginning, then air (79% N2 & 21% O2) is injected at 0.0925
days, then 100% N2 is injected after 0.32 days.

Combustion 13-5
Combustion Exercise #1

Run the dataset and compare the results from the


combustion tube lab results using GRAPH and the
*.FHF file.
Try some matching runs to determine which
parameters are sensitive and which are not. Take
note especially of the *RTEMUPR and *RXCRITCON
keywords and what they do. Create an Excel spreadsheet that
plots the reaction rate vs. temperature relationship (see the
STARS help manual for the keyword *RENTH).
Create a plot of property vs. distance for temperature at a
number of different times. What can be observed from this plot?

Combustion 13-6
Combustion Exercise #1

C o m b u s tio n T u b e P lo t o f T e m p e ra tu re v s . D is ta n c e A lo n g th e T u b e

500

400

300
Temperature (C)

200

100
0 .0 0 0 .5 0 1 .0 0 1 .5 0 2 .0 0
D is ta n c e (m )
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 ( 0. 00 d a y)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .0 9 25 0 (0 .0 92 5 0 0 0 d ay )
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .1 5 00 0 (0 .1 5 d ay)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .1 8 00 0 (0 .1 8 d ay)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .2 1 00 0 (0 .2 1 d ay)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .2 4 00 0 (0 .2 4 d ay)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .2 7 00 0 (0 .2 7 d ay)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .3 1 83 3 (0 .3 2 d ay)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .4 0 00 0 (0 .4 0 d ay)
Te m p era tu re 2 0 0 4-0 1 -0 1 .4 7 29 2 (0 .4 7 d ay)

Combustion 13-7
Combustion Exercise #2

Create a combustion field scale model


Load the THAI_START_SI.dat file into Builder and save it
as THAI.dat. Launch the Component Properties Process
Wizard.

Select the combustion model and the HTO option. Make


sure only the Dead_Oil component is selected for
oxidation. Click Next, then Finish.

Examine the components and reactions for HTO that the


wizard has added.

Combustion 13-8
Combustion Exercise #2

Save the file

Extend the liquid viscosity vs. temperature tables

Required because combustion operates at very high


temperatures.

Open the Component Properties section of Builder, and select


the Viscosity tab. Add another entry in the viscosity vs.
temperature table at a temperature of 2000 C. Use the following
viscosities: 0.0, 0.2, 0.003, 0.2, 0.9 for Water, Dead_Oil,
Soln_Gas, CO2, LightOil respectively. Select OK.

Combustion 13-9
Combustion Exercise #2

Create well constraints to model O2 injection for the THAI


process

Open the Wells and Recurrent section in Builder. Double click


Injector and change the type to be an INJECTOR MOBWEIGHT
IMPLICIT well.

For the constraints, click the Constraint definition button and


add the constraint OPERATE MAX STG 1000.0 CONT REPEAT
and OPERATE MAX BHP 1200 CONT REPEAT.

Change the Injected Fluid to GAS, and input the gas


composition of 50% N2_CO and 50% Oxygen.

Enter a stream temperature of 20 C and a pressure of 1200 kPa.

Combustion 13-10
Combustion Exercise #2

Move to Producer, set the Type to be Producer, and set an operating


constraint of OPERATE MIN BHP 400 CONT REPEAT
In the I/O section add the facility to write restart files with a REWIND
parameter of 2
Save the data set and reload it into Builder. There should be no errors.
Add a heater to ignite the oil.
Builder does not yet support the heater option, so exit Builder, load the
data set in a text editor, and add the following lines before DATE 2006 1 15
HEATR CON 0
MOD
7:7 36:36 5:12 = 2.55e+008
UHTR CON 0
MOD
7:7 36:36 5:12 = 2.55e+007
TMPSET CON 70
MOD
7:7 36:36 5:12 = 500
AUTOHEATER ON
7:7 36:36 5:12
DATE 2006 1 15.0
Combustion 13-11
Combustion Exercise #2

Turn off the heater after 3 months by adding:


DATE 2006 3 1
HEATR CON 0
UHTR CON 0
DATE 2006 4 1
Note that the heater is required because there is only
1 oil component, and the activation energy for
reactions are set quite high
The process wizard sets the activation energies as a
function of molecular weight. Since the molecular weight of
Dead_Oil was 0.5 kg/gmole, the activation energy was set
high.

Combustion 13-12
Combustion Exercise #2

Its always a good idea to plot Arrhenius Constant Vs.


Temperature (note that this file is on your computers called
Reaction_Rate_SI.xls).

Reaction Rate vs. Tem perature

1.000E+03
9.000E+02
8.000E+02
Reaction Rate, 1/day

7.000E+02
6.000E+02
5.000E+02
4.000E+02
3.000E+02
2.000E+02
1.000E+02
0.000E+00
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Tem perature, Deg C

Cracking, rrf=100000000000000, eact=159293


Dead_Oil (Mw=0.5 kg/gmole) Burning, rrf=31250000000000, eact=151571.65665104
LightOil (Mw=0.12 Kg/gmole) Burning, rrf=24883200000, eact=85645.094733533
Coke (Mw=0.013 Burning, rrf=371293, eact=35205.2422101313

Combustion 13-13
Combustion Exercise #2

Run the data set. While it is running, periodically


open it in RESULTS 3D to track the combustion
progress.
This data set only has 7,644 grid cells, 8 components, and 4
reactions, but it will run for 2 hours 53 minutes on a 2 CPU
laptop.
Load the data set into Builder a put a STOP keyword at
2006-07-01. Save the data set and run it. Take a break this
will take about 20 minutes to run!

Combustion 13-14
Combustion Exercise #2

Examine the progress of the run in both RESULTS 3D


and GRAPH. Verify the following observations:
If the air injection rate is too low, then the combustion zone
occurs near the top of the reservoir, instead of along the
producing well.
Normally, CO2 generation, CO2 advancement ahead of the
front and oil viscosity reduction due to CO2 dissolution
contribute to a large percentage of the additional oil
recovery. However, due to low pressures in this data set,
these phenomenon are small.
Cracking and generation of the component Light_Oil,
Light_Oil burning, Coke lay down, and Coke burning.

Combustion 13-15
Combustion Exercise #3

Add another oil component to see how it affects the


combustion.
Load the data set THAI_Start_SI.dat into Builder.
Open the Components section of Builder and click on the
button Add/Edit a Component. Select the component
Dead_Oil and click the option button and select Copy
Current Component. Enter the name as Oil2, click OK, then
change the molecular weight to be 0.1 Kg/gmole.
Click OK and note the red X next to Liquid phase viscosity.
Click the Liquid phase viscosity tab and copy the entire
column of viscosity values from the Dead_Oil column to the
Oil2 column. Click OK, and the red X should be gone.

Combustion 13-16
Combustion Exercise #3

Launch the Component Properties Process Wizard.

Select the combustion model and the HTO option. Make


sure that both the Dead_Oil and Oil2 components are
selected for oxidation. Click Next, then Finish.

Change the input compositions (click the Specify Property


button) so that the oil mole fraction of Dead_Oil = 0.428808
and oil mole fraction of Oil2 = 0.42. Click OK, then OK again.

Combustion 13-17
Combustion Exercise #3

Repeat the steps done before with the single component file:
Extend the liquid viscosity vs. temperature tables
Create well constraints to model O2 injection for the THAI process
Add a heater to ignite the oil.
Save and Run the data set. Note that the Oil2 burning reaction
occurs at a much lower temperature (above 350 C).
Reaction Rate vs. Tem perature

1.000E+03
Cracking, rrf=33512000000000, eact=159293
Dead_Oil Burning, rrf=5E+34, eact=510000
9.000E+02
LightOil Burning, rrf=5E+34, eact=411996
8.000E+02 Coke Burning, rrf=100000000, eact=34826
Oil2 Burning, rrf=5E+34, eact=393639
7.000E+02
Reaction Rate, 1/day

6.000E+02

5.000E+02

4.000E+02

3.000E+02

2.000E+02

1.000E+02

0.000E+00
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Tem perature, Deg C Combustion 13-18
Combustion Exercise #4

Dynamic Gridding
This model is a good example of when CMGs Dynamic Gridding
option can really speed up the execution while providing excellent
quality results
Open the data set in Builder and save it as THAI_DYN.dat
Go to the Numerical section and click on the small black triangle.
Select Dynamic Grid Regions
Select New and OK to accept a new AMALGAMATE region at the
initial time
Check Conditional on tolerances and enter 20 C in the
Temperature cell. Note other parameters that can be used.
Since CO2 effects ahead of the front are significant, an additional
parameter of Global Mole fraction should be used. Enter a value of
GMOLAR=0.02.

Combustion 13-19
Combustion Exercise #4

In Amalgamation Block Size enter 3 3 3. This means that


each 3x3x3 (27) grid cell cube can be amalgamated into 1
large cube. Note that Z direction amalgamation may be
unwise if there is significant vertical heterogeneity.
Click on Add Entire Grid to assign the same
amalgamation properties to the entire grid. Note that the
wellbore grid cells are excluded from amalgamation.
Click OK.
Click on Numerical again and select Dynamic Grid.
This opens the numerical control section for DynaGrid. Set
DYNAGRID-TSINT to 20.

Combustion 13-20
Combustion Exercise #4

This keyword tells STARS to check the amalgamation and


deamalgamation status of the grid every 20 timesteps. This
is a reasonable first value and can be tuned later.
Save the data set and click on the box Validate With
STARS. Click No to not save the data set again, indicate
Run normal immediately, and click Run/Submit.
Note the new warning:
Best if the integers given by the *INTO keyword evenly divide
the amalgamation region. Adjustments were made.

Combustion 13-21
Combustion Exercise #4

Note the data set runs much more quickly (5 minutes on a 2


CPU laptop) and takes significantly less memory, so we will
use this data set from now on.
Note: the fine grid case should always be run once as
a test that the DynaGrid results are valid.
The following slide shows the comparison between the fine
grid case and the Dynagrid case.
The results are essentially the same.

Combustion 13-22
Comparison DynaGrid vs. fine grid

Producer
8.0
Oil Rate SC (m3/day)

THAI.irf
6.0 THAI_DYN.irf

4.0

2.0

0.0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
2,500
Gas Oil Ratio SC (m3/m3)

2,000

1,500

1,000
THAI.irf
500 THAI_DYN.irf

0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
0.40
THAI.irf
0.30 THAI_DYN.irf
Water Cut SC

0.20

0.10

0.00
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
500
Well Block Pressure (kPa)

480
THAI.irf
460 THAI_DYN.irf

440

420

400
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)

Combustion 13-23
Combustion Exercise #4

At the end of the run (6 months) load the .irf file into
Results 3D and examine the output. Note:
Combustion is occurring and all the oxygen is being used.
Cracking is occurring.
Nitrogen and CO2 are running ahead of the combustion
front, which accounts for most of the gas being produced.
Two cells in the producer are above 100 C.

Combustion 13-24
Properties @ 6 months
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
THAI Example THAI Example
Temperature (C) 2006-07-01 I layer: 7 Gas Mole Fraction(CO2) 2006-07-01 I layer: 7
110

110
Producer Injector Producer Injector

110

110
120

120
120

120
130

130
130

130
70 92 121 159 209 276 363 478 630 829 1,092 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
THAI Example THAI Example
Gas Mole Fraction(N2_CO) 2006-07-01 I layer: 7 Porosity - Current 2006-07-01 I layer: 7

110
110

Producer Injector Producer Injector

110
110

120
120

120
120

130
130

130
130

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 0.00 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.27 0.30

Combustion 13-25
Combustion Exercise #4

We can enrich the oxygen by changing the mix to 75:25


(O/N) from 50:50. Make this change in the injected stream.
If the total air rate remains the same then the oxygen flux
will also be increased which will further increase the heating
rate.
Save the data set as THAI_DYN_75_25.dat, and run it.
Note it has a few time step cuts due to the higher reaction
rates.
Look at the output in Results 3D. Note that the peak
temperature is much higher than the previous run (970 C vs.
678 C). Use Results 3D to find out when the entire injection
well reaches 260 C

Combustion 13-26
Production (75% O2 25% N2)

Producer
8.0
Oil Rate SC (m3/day)

THAI_DYN.irf
6.0 THAI_DYN_75_25.irf

4.0

2.0

0.0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
2,500
Gas Oil Ratio SC (m3/m3)

2,000

1,500

1,000
THAI_DYN.irf
500 THAI_DYN_75_25.irf

0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
0.250

0.200
Water Cut SC

0.150

0.100
THAI_DYN.irf
0.050 THAI_DYN_75_25.irf

0.000
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
500
Well Block Pressure (kPa)

480
THAI_DYN.irf
460 THAI_DYN_75_25.irf

440

420

400
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)

Combustion 13-27
Properties @ 6 months (75% O2 25% N2)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
THAI Example THAI Example
Temperature (C) 2006-07-01 I layer: 7 Gas Mole Fraction(CO2) 2006-07-01 I layer: 7
110

110
Producer Injector Producer Injector

110

110
120

120
120

120
130

130
130

130
70 95 128 174 235 318 431 583 790 1,069 1,447 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
THAI Example THAI Example
Gas Mole Fraction(N2_CO) 2006-07-01 I layer: 7 Porosity - Current 2006-07-01 I layer: 7
110

110
Producer Injector Producer Injector
110

110
120

120
120

120
130

130
130

130
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 0.00 0.03 0.06 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.27 0.30

Combustion 13-28
Combustion Exercise #5

Check how well you have done


Set up a case in which the reactions do not occur
Remove the reactions from the THAI_DYN_75_25.dat data
set, delete the Coke component, and change the injected
stream to 100% N2. Now you have a simple nitrogen flood
Set TFORM ZT and turn ISOTHERMAL ON in the NUMERICAL
section
Remove the DynaGrid trigger of temperature so that the only
remaining trigger is a global mole fraction difference of 0.02.
Save the data set as THAI_DYN_N2.dat and run. Compare
results with the combustion floods

Combustion 13-29
Remove reactions

Combustion 13-30
Delete the coke component

Combustion 13-31
Change stream composition

Combustion 13-32
Change DynaGrid tolerance

Combustion 13-33
N2 vs. Combustion

Producer
8.0
Oil Rate SC (m3/day)

THAI_DYN.irf
6.0 THAI_DYN_N2.irf

4.0

2.0

0.0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
5,000
Gas Oil Ratio SC (m3/m3)

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000 THAI_DYN.irf
THAI_DYN_N2.irf
0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
0.250

0.200
Water Cut SC

0.150

0.100
THAI_DYN.irf
0.050 THAI_DYN_N2.irf

0.000
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
800
Well Block Pressure (kPa)

700
THAI_DYN.irf
THAI_DYN_N2.irf
600

500

400 Combustion 13-34


2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Tim e (Date)
Combustion Exercise #6

Shut in the injection well completely and save the data set
as PRIMARY_DYN.dat. Run it and compare with the other
cases.
At this point you have a good idea how this form of
combustion Short Displacement Process works
compared to either primary production or cold nitrogen
flood.
As a final step, open the various files in Results Graph and
plot the oil production rate and cumulative oil production:
Combustion
Nitrogen flood
Primary production

Combustion 13-35
Primary Comparison

Producer
8.0
Oil Rate SC (m3/day)

6.0 THAI_DYN.irf
THAI_DYN_N2.irf
4.0 Primary_DYN.irf

2.0

0.0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Time (Date)
5,000
Gas Oil Ratio SC (m3/m3)

4,000
THAI_DYN.irf
3,000 THAI_DYN_N2.irf
Primary_DYN.irf
2,000

1,000

0
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Time (Date)
0.250

0.200 THAI_DYN.irf
THAI_DYN_N2.irf
Water Cut SC

0.150 Primary_DYN.irf

0.100

0.050

0.000
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Time (Date)
800
Well Block Pressure (kPa)

THAI_DYN.irf
700
THAI_DYN_N2.irf
Primary_DYN.irf
600

500

400 Combustion 13-36


2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Time (Date)
Combustion Exercise #7

Further exercises:

Run the data set for a longer period.

Introduce coke plugging.

Check the reaction rates. At what temperature should


combustion begin?

Use the spreadsheet Reaction_Rate_SI.xls to adjust the


performance of reactions which are starting too soon or too
late (slow them down or speed them up).

Combustion 13-37
The End
QUESTIONS??

Combustion 13-39