Anda di halaman 1dari 8

LPG merupakan bahan bakar berupa gas yang dicairkan (Liquified Petroleum

Gasses) merupakan produk minyak bumi yang diperoleh dari proses distilasi bertekanan
tinggi. Fraksi yang digunakan sebagai umpan dapat berasal dari beberapa sumber yaitu dari
Gas alam maupun Gas hasil dari pengolahan minyak bumi (Light End). Komponen utama
LPG terdiri dari Hidrokarbon ringan berupa Propana (C3H8) dan Butana (C4H10), serta
sejumlah kecil Etana (C2H6,) dan Pentana (C5H12).
LPG digunakan sebagai bahan bakar untuk rumah tangga dan industri. LPG terutama
digunakan oleh masyarakat tingkat menengah keatas yang kebutuhannya semakin meningkat
dari tahun ketahun karena termasuk bahan bakar yang ramah lingkungan. Sebagai bahan
bakar untuk keperluan rumah tangga, LPG harus memenuhi beberapa persyaratan khusus
dengan tujuan agar aman dipakai dalam arti tidak membahayakan bagi si pemakai dan tidak
merusak peralatan yang digunakan serta effisien dalam pemakaiannya.
Oleh sebab itu untuk menjaga faktor keselamatan, LPG dimasukan ke dalam tabung yang
tahan terhadap tekanan yang terbuat dari besi baja dan dilengkapi dengan suatu pengatur
tekanan. Disamping itu untuk mendeteksi terjadinya kebocoran LPG, maka LPG sebelum
dipasarkan terlebih dahulu ditambahkan zat pembau (odor) sehingga apabila terjadi
kebocoran segera dapat diketahui. Pembau yang ditambahkan harus melarut sempurna dalam
LPG, tidak boleh mengendap. Untuk maksud itu digunakan etil merkaptan (C2H5SH) atau
butil merkaptan (C4H9SH). Sedangkan dibidang industri produk elpiji digunakan sebagai
pengganti freon, aerosol, refrigerant / cooling agent, kosmetik dan dapat pula digunakan
sebagai bahan baku produk khusus.

Jenis LPG
Sesuai dengan penggunaannya sebagai bahan bakar elpiji dibedakan atas:
1. LPG Mix
Adalah camuran propane dan butana dengan komposisi antara 70- 80% dan 20-30% volume
dan diberi odorant (Mercaptant) dan umumnya digunakan untuk bahan bakar rumah tangga.
2. LPG propane dan Elpiji butana.
Adalah elpiji yang masing-masing mengandung propane 95 % dan butana 97,5 % volume dan
diberi odorant (mercaptant), umumnya digunakan untuk keperluan industri.

Persyaratan LPG
Syarat-syarat utama dalam pemakaian LPG adalah harus dipenuhinya:
1. Syarat Pembakaran
Pada saat digunakan sebagai bahan bakar untuk kompor LPG harus memberi warna api
kompor yang biru dan tidak memberi asap. Agar api kompor berwarna biru, maka komposisi
campuran propana dan butana harus minimum 97,5%.Sebaliknya jika LPG mengandung
fraksi C5+(C6 heavier) lebih dari maksimumnya yaitu 2,0% maka nyala api kompor agak
kemerah-merahan. Jadi agar syarat pembakaran menjadi baik maka komposisi C2 harus
maksimum 0,2% vol, C3 dan C4minimum 97,5% vol serta kandungan C5+(C6 heavier)
maksimum 2,0% vol.
2. Syarat Penguapan
Kemampuan menguap adalah sifat penting dalam penggunaan, LPG harus cukup mudah
menguap agar mudah dinyalakan diwaktu dingin. Seperti diketahui saat dalam tabung gas
LPG adalah berbentuk cair, namun saat dipakai dalam kompor (pada tekanan atmosfer)
dengan cepat LPG berubah menjadi gas. Untuk memenuhi persyaratan penguapan maka
Tekanan Uap LPG tidak boleh lebih dari 120 psig.
3. Syarat Keselamatan
Dalam pemakaiannya sebagai bahan bakar rumah tangga, jika terjadi kebocoran maka LPG
harus cepat dapat dideteksi dengan diberi bau yang khas, agar baunya cepat dikenali saat
terjadi kebocoran maka pada LPG diberi campuran Ethyl atau Buthyl mercaptan sebanyak
50/100 AG.
Saat masih di pabrik, jika terjadi kebocoran LPG di malam hari akan sangat berbahaya,
karena Spesific Grafity LPG sama dengan atau lebih besar dari SG udara, maka LPG akan
terdistribusi merata di atas tanah pada malam hari.
Untuk menjaga agar cairan LPG tidak merusak tabung gas dalam penyimpanan atau merusak
kompor dalam penggunaannya dengan terjadinya proses pengkaratan maka harus ada
persyaratan pemeriksaan Copper strip pada 100oF selama 1 jam dengan nilai maksimum No.
1.
4. Syarat Kebersihan
Syarat kebersihan secara umum adalah dibatasinya kandungan air dan kandungan belerang,
dimaksudkan agar pada penggunaannya LPG tidak memberikan kotoran sama sekali.
Sifat LPG
Perlu diketahui, gas LPG bersifat flammable(mudah terbakar). Dalam batas flammabality,
LPG adalah sumber api yang terbuka. Sehingga letupan (percikan api) yang sekecil apapun
dapat segera menyambar gas LPG.
Maka untuk menjaga keamanan pastikan bahwa bau gas LPG telah hilang sama sekali dari
dalam rumah, walaupun membutuhkan waktu yang agak lama. Hal ini karena sifat gas LPG
yang sangat lamban berputar di udara.
Sebagai bahan bakar, gas LPG mudah terbakar apabila terjadi persenyawaan di udara. Untuk
mencegah hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan perlu diketahui beberapa sifat khususnya.
1. Tekanan gas LPG cukup besar, sehingga bila terjadi kebocoran LPG akan membentuk
gas secara cepat, memuai dan sangat mudah terbakar.
2. LPG menghambur di udara secara perlahan sehingga sukar mengetahuinya secara
dini.
3. Berat jenis LPG lebih besar dari pada udara sehingga cenderung bergerak kebawah.
4. LPG tidak mengandung racun.
5. Daya pemanasannya cukup tinggi, namun tidak meninggalkan debu dan abu (sisa
pembakaran).
6. Cara penggunaannya cukup mudah dan praktis.

Parameter Uji dan Spesifikasi LPG


Parameter uji LPG beserta spesifikasinya sebagai berikut:

Analisa Satuan Metoda Min Max

Specific Gravity at 60 / To be
ASTM D-1657
60oF Reported

Komposisi: ASTM D-2163

C2 %Vol - 0,2

C3 + C4 %Vol 97,5 -

C5 + (C5 and heavier) %Vol - 2,0

RVP at 100oF psi ASTM D-1267 - 120

Weathering test at 36oF %Vol ASTM D-1837 95 -

Total Sulfur grams/100cuft ASTM D-2784 - 15+)

Copper Corrosion 1
ASTM D-1838 - No. 1
hours/1000F

Ethyl or Buthyl
mL/1000 AG 50*)
Mercaptan added

No Free
Visual
Water Content Water

+
) Sebelum ditambah ethyl atau buthyl mercaptan
*) Tidak dilakukan di laboratorium
Ref. Dirjen migas no. 25K/36/DDJM/1990,Tgl. 14 Mei 1990

Proses Pemisahan LPG


Proses pemisahan LPG berlangsung pada tekanan tinggi dan terjadi pada dua buah kolom
pemisahan yaitu:
1. Deethanizer
Deethanizer adalah proses pemisahan kandungan gas etana yang terkandung didalam umpan
yang berasal dari puncak kolom stabilizer pada proses distilasi, dengan menggunakan prinsip
distilasi bertekanan tinggi. Pada proses Deethanizer ini akan beroperasi dengan baik apabila
semua etana yang terkandung dapat dipisahkan, sedang cairan di dasar kolom yang berupa
cairan propana dan butana akan dipisahkan di kolom Depropanizer, sedang gas
etana akan keluar dari puncak kolom serta dialirkan sebagai gas sistim atau untuk diproses
lebih lanjut.
2. Depropanizer
Di kolom depropanizer ini umpannya dari cairan dasar kolom deethanizer yang akan
dipisahkan antara Propana dan Butana, sistim proses di depropanizer dan di deethanizer
sama, baik kondisi maupun peralatannya. Adapun proses depropanizer diatur dengan tekanan
tinggi dan temperatur relatif rendah. Diharapkan fraksi ringan akan menguap dan keluar dari
puncak kolom sebagai produk propana, sedang cairan yang ada didasar kolom sebagai produk
Butana.
ASTM D-1657
Significance and Use
5.1 The density or relative density of light hydrocarbons and liquefied petroleum gases is
used in custody transfer quantity calculations or to satisfy transportation, storage, and
regulatory requirements.
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the density or relative density of light
hydrocarbons including liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) having Reid vapor pressures
exceeding 101.325 kPa (14.696 psi).
1.2 The prescribed apparatus should not be used for materials having vapor pressures higher
than 1.4 MPa (200 psi) at the test temperature. This pressure limit is dictated by the type of
equipment. Higher pressures can apply to other equipment designs.
1.3 The initial pressure hydrometer readings obtained are uncorrected hydrometer readings
and not density measurements. Readings are measured on a hydrometer at either the reference
temperature or at another convenient temperature, and readings are corrected for the
meniscus effect, the thermal glass expansion effect, alternate calibration temperature effects
and to the reference temperature by means of calculations and Adjunct to D1250 Guide for
Petroleum Measurement Tables (APIMPMS Chapter 11.1) or API MPMS Chapter 11.2.4
(GPA TP-27), as applicable.
1.4 Values determined as density or relative density can be converted to equivalent values in
the other units or alternative reference temperatures by means of Interconversion Procedures
API MPMS Chapter 11.5, or Adjunct to D1250 Guide for Petroleum Measurement Tables
(API MPMS Chapter 11.1) or API MPMS Chapter 11.2.4 (GPA TP-27), as applicable.
1.5 The calculations required in Section 11 shall be applied to the initial pressure hydrometer
reading with observations and results reported as required by Section 11 prior to use in a
subsequent calculation procedure (measurement ticket calculation, meter factor calculation,
or base prover volume determination).
1.6 Annex A1 contains a procedure for verifying or certifying the equipment for this test
method.
1.7 The values in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. US Customary values shown in
adjacent parentheses are for information only and may not be exactly equivalent. Both SI and
customary units have been rounded so that they may not be exactly equivalent.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety
and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM D-2163
Significance and Use
5.1 The hydrocarbon component distribution of liquefied petroleum gases and propene
mixtures is often required for end-use sale of this material. Applications such as chemical
feed stocks or fuel require precise compositional data to ensure uniform quality. Trace
amounts of some hydrocarbon impurities in these materials can have adverse effects on their
use and processing.
5.2 The component distribution data of liquefied petroleum gases and propene mixtures can
be used to calculate physical properties such as relative density, vapor pressure, and motor
octane (see Practice D2598). Precision and accuracy of compositional data are extremely
important when these data are used to calculate various properties of these petroleum
products.
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of individual hydrocarbons in
liquefied petroleum (LP) gases and mixtures of propane and propene, excluding high-purity
propene in the range of C1 to C5. Component concentrations are determined in the range of
0.01 to 100 volume percent.
1.2 This test method does not fully determine hydrocarbons heavier than C5 and non-
hydrocarbon materials, and additional tests may be necessary to fully characterize an LPG
sample.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in
parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety
and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D-1267
Significance and Use
5.1 Information on the vapor pressures of liquefied petroleum gas products under temperature
conditions from 37.8 to 70C (100 to 158F) is pertinent to selection of properly designed
storage vessels, shipping containers, and customer utilization equipment to ensure safe
handling of these products.
5.2 Determination of the vapor pressure of liquefied petroleum gas is important for safety
reasons to ensure that the maximum operating design pressures of storage, handling, and fuel
systems will not be exceeded under normal operating temperature conditions.
5.3 For liquefied petroleum gases, vapor pressure is an indirect measure of the most extreme
low temperature conditions under which initial vaporization can be expected to occur. It can
be considered a semi-quantitative measure of the amount of the most volatile material present
in the product.
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the gage vapor pressures of liquefied
petroleum gas products (WarningFlammable gas. Harmful when inhaled.) at temperatures
of 37.8C (100F) up to and including a test temperature of 70C (158F).
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in
parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety
and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to
use. For specific warning statements, see 1.1 and Annex A2.

ASTM D-1837
Significance and Use
Volatility, expressed in terms of the 95 % evaporated temperature of the product, is a measure
of the amount of least volatile components present in the product. Coupled with a vapor
pressure limit, it serves to ensure essentially single-component products in the cases of
commercial grades of propane and butane. When volatility is coupled with a vapor pressure
limit which has been related to density, as in the case of the commercial PB-mixture, the
combination serves to assure essentially two component mixtures for such fuels. When
coupled with a proper vapor pressure limit, this measurement serves to assure that special-
duty propane products will be composed chiefly of propane and propylene and that propane
will be the major constituent.
1. Scope
1.1 This test method is a measure of the relative purity of the various types of liquefied
petroleum (LP) gases and helps to ensure suitable volatility performance. The test results,
when properly related to vapor pressure and density of the product, can be used to indicate
the presence of butane and heavier components in propane type LP-gas, and pentane and
heavier components in propane-butane and butane type fuels. The presence of hydrocarbon
compounds less volatile than those of which the LP-gas is primarily composed is indicated by
an increase in the 95 % evaporated temperature.
1.2 When the type and concentration of higher boiling components is required,
chromatographic analysis should be used.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in
parentheses are for information only.
1.4 WARNINGMercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous
material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its
vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when
handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material
Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPAs
websitehttp://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htmfor additional information. Users should be
aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may
be prohibited by law.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety
and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM D-2784
Significance and Use
It is important to have the sulfur content of liquefied petroleum gases at low enough
concentration to meet government regulations. The presence of sulfur can result in corrosion
of metal surfaces. Sulfur can be poisonous to catalysts in subsequent processing.
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the determination of total sulfur in liquefied petroleum gases
containing more than 1 g/g. Specimens should not contain more than 100 g/g of halogens.
1.2 To attain the quantitative detectability that the test method is capable of, stringent
techniques must be employed and all possible sources of sulfur contamination must be
eliminated. In particular, cleaning agents, such as common household detergents which
contain sulfates, should be avoided.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in
parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety
and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

ASTM D-1328
Significance and Use
5.1 Copper corrosion limits provide assurance that difficulties will not be experienced in
deterioration of the copper and copper-alloy fittings and connections that are commonly used
in many types of utilization, storage, and transportation equipment.
1. Scope
1.1 This test method covers the detection of the presence of components in liquefied
petroleum gases which can be corrosive to copper.
NOTE 1: For an equivalent copper strip test applicable to less volatile petroleum products,
see Test Method D130.
1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in
parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated
with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety
and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to
use. For specific warning statements, see 7.1, 10.3.1, and Annex A1.