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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE

Introduction

Motherhood is the most satisfying gift in a womans lifetime event. It is Gods

best masterpiece that He alone has the right to give it or take it away. On the other

hand, one of the most dilemmas worldwide facing today is pregnancy among

teenagers.

According to Reece, C. (2013). Understanding the risk factors associated with

teenage pregnancy in Gugulethu, Western Cape, teenage pregnancy is classified as

pregnancy that occurs any time after the start of puberty, and before the age of 20 .

Teenage pregnancy is a pregnancy in human females under the age of 20 at the

time that the pregnancy ends. A pregnancy can take place in a pubertal female

before menarche which signals the possibility of fertility. But in most cases, it usually

occurs after menarche. In well-nourished girls, menarche usually takes place

around age of 12 or 13.

The consensus that teenage pregnancy comprises problem for the young mother

leads to an emphasis on outcome rather than underlying causes and furthermore

assumes that this phenomenon is more problematic for young women.

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Most of the teenagers were unmarried lived and received emotional and financial

support from their families of origin. (Macintyre, S.,& Cunningham-Burley)

Teenage pregnancy will end into various unfavorable outcomes. In fact there

are DOH programs and campaigns that aim to lessen such problem. According to

the DOH, there are 5 danger toos in pregnancy. They are too young, too old, too

close, too many and too sickly. Too young tops them all for it has a higher risk of

developing complications during mothers pregnancy and even to their babies. Since

they are too young and uneducated about sex education and remained unaware of

its adverse effects, they still have got the higher chances of getting more babies that

might be too close in space. These will surely put their health into risk.

Worldwide statistics, teenage pregnancy rates range from 143 per 1000 in

some sub-Saharan African countries to 2.9 per 1,000 in South Korea. In the United

States, 82% of pregnancies in those between 15 and 19 are unplanned.

In the Philippines, teenage parenthood is widespread among the poor 2/3 of

the countrys poorest girls give birth before the age of 20, According to the Philippine

Statistical Authority as of May 2014, every hour, 24 babies are delivered by teenage

mother. Moreover, The Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality on May 2014 revealed

that there are14 percent of Filipino girls ages 15 to 19 are either get pregnant for the

first time or are already mother.

Substantial number of young people who got pregnant have borne their child

at ages 18 and 19. Maternal and infant deaths are greater among this age group.

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Children of teenage mothers are likely to be of low birth weight and oftentimes

experience development and learning problems later in life.

In 2012, the City Health office of Tagbilaran had 303 pregnant teenagers to

which rated as 9% of the 101,137 projected populations. In 2013, there were 243

pregnant mothers in the city and rated as 6.7% of its 103,383 projected population.

In Barangay Manga, a total of 30 pregnant teenagers as of year 2012-

2014.Giving birth as a teenager is believed to be bad for young mother because the

statistics suggest that she is more likely to dropout school, to have no or low

qualifications, to be unemployed or low paid, to live in poor housing conditions, to

suffer from depression and to live in poor welfare. Similarly, the child of teenage

mother is likely to live in poverty, to grow without a father, to become a victim of

neglect or abuse, to do less well at school.

In society in which economic advancement is linked to educational attainment

leaving the school undermines in both subtle and direct ways, the effort to involve in

nations development.

The mounting effects of teenage pregnancies threaten not only the health and

the future of the young adolescents but also their children. This will only aggravate

the poverty and economic conditions of our country.

Rationale

The researchers, as the public health midwives, were eager to know the pre-

disposing factors of engaging sex early that resulted to teenage pregnancy as basis

for preventive measures. Thus, this study was conducted to minimize the incidences

3
of mortality and morbidity cases due to teenage pregnancies. It is hoped that through

this study, the researchers can contribute to the increase awareness of parents and

adolescents regarding this matter. Through greater awareness, little by little teenage

pregnancies would be prevented and the adolescents can nurture their health in

preparation for their future.

As a member of the health care team, the researchers play a critical role in

tackling the problem. This study would contribute to the knowledge of the researcher

in better understanding of the issues, to protect the vulnerable populations, to

improve the interest of the children as well, to gain more insight into the problem

which will enable to respond positively and effectively in helping adolescents in

preventing and dealing with teenage pregnancy. The outcome of the study could

also assist any other government sector in program development and

implementation.

Theoretical Background

Many theories fit to the topic of teen pregnancy. It elaborates on how teenage

pregnancies affect society as a whole. It focuses on stability and public values.


One of the best theories that the researchers would like to emphasize is the

Psychosocial Development theory of Erik Erikson. He developed and stresses the

importance of culture and society in the development of individuals personality. He

further states that each stage of persons development has its own opposing forces

that need to be solved. Adolescents have this Developmental task of forming sense

of IDENTITY vs. ROLE CONFUSION. By this, they will be able to know what kind

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of person they will become by adjusting to a new body image, seeking emancipation

from parents, choosing a vocation and finding a value system.


Period of adolescence is also named as genital phase by Sigmund Freud,

this period has its main events of establishing new sexual aims and finding of new

love objects.
In relation to the Psychosocial Development theory of Erik Erikson,

adolescent has its own capability of finding their own freedom from whatever way

they wanted. Familys love, support and orientation are the greatest factors in

straightening the paths of all adolescents.


Teenage pregnancy is usually the result when adolescent does not met this

important stage of his development. Most of the teens really need guidance to

resolve the conflict of this stage. Teens who failed to conquer this stage usually

result to having a miserable life living.


Teenagers who got pregnant are having their problems resolve in any

negative forms, like feeling and finding the most of their love and happiness from

other people like peers, instead of their family. They think that their personal agonies

and anxieties will be vanished by the support of others.


Teenage pregnancy is usually the result when adolescent does not met this

important stage of his development. Most of the teens really need guidance to

resolve the conflict of this stage. Teens who failed to conquer this stage usually

result to having a miserable life living.

Related Literature

Teen pregnancies in the Philippines By Rebecca B. Singson Philippine Daily

Inquirer Filed Under: People, Lifestyle & Leisure MANILA, Philippines said that

sexual revolution has ushered in a period in which the average adolescent

experiences tremendous pressures to have sexual experiences of all kinds. Filipino


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teens get a higher exposure to sex from the Internet, magazines, TV shows, movies

and other media than decades ago, yet without any corresponding increase in

information on how to handle the input. Parents at home and teachers in school feel

equally inadequate or uneasy to discuss the topic of sex with youngsters. The

problem mounts because the barkada (gang) has a more profound influence than

parents do and they exert pressure and expect the adolescent to conform to the rest

of them. In fact, female adolescents whose friends engage in sexual behavior were

found to be more likely to do the same compared to those who do not associate with

such peers. If the teen perceives her peers to look negatively at premarital sex, she

was more likely to start sex at a later age.


There are many reasons teen pregnancies should be avoided. Heres a low

down on the facts:


Risk for malnutrition
Risk for inadequate prenatal care
Risk for abortion
Risk for fetal deaths
Risk for acquiring cervical cancer

Risks for the teen mother


With early termination of formal education comes limited employment

opportunities. They also face greater financial difficulties and marital conflict. With a

lower capacity for earning and less emotional maturity, relationships are under more

stress for breaking. Young unmarried mothers also face social stigmas that can have

harmful psychological and social impact

Risk for the baby


Children of teen moms also face negative health, cognitive, and behavioral

outcomes. This may result from lack of maturity, and emotional quotient or simply

from ignorance due to a lack of lifes experiences. Children born to teenage mothers

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are less likely to receive proper nutrition, health care, and cognitive and social

stimulation. As a result, they may have an underdeveloped intellect and attain lower

academic achievement. Children born to teenage mothers are at greater risk for

abuse and neglect. Thirteen percent (13%) of the boys born to teenage mothers are

more likely to be incarcerated whereas 22 percent of the girls born to teenage

mothers are more likely to become teenage mothers.

How to prevent teen pregnancy?


1.Keep them at home with an intact family set up. The social institutions

surrounding the youth jointly form a web of influence that either shield or lay them

open to the lure of sexual risk-taking.


2. Keep them in school. The other social institution that shields the youth

from engaging in risk taking behavior is the school. Teens leaving school at an early

age are more likely influenced by other group of women to have their first sexual

experience outside of marriage.


3. Keep talking to them. Increased parental communication decreases

the likelihood of young Filipinos to engage in sexual risk-taking activities. It

has been found out that the mother, in particular, has a special role in the guidance

as well as open communication lines with her daughter. It was associated with less

chance for the teen to engage in intercourse or have fewer sexual partners.
4. Keep them morally and spiritually guided. Orienting them with the

proper values early helps them imbibe it in their lives and keeps them from

succumbing to peer pressure. Preventing teen pregnancies requires a collaborative

effort on the part of the parents, the school and government. They need to ensure

that the right information is transmitted to children especially during their pre-teen

years and that they are well-monitored and supported emotionally and

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psychologically. We cant watch what our kids do all the time, but then again, we

wont have to if they are equipped to make better decisions for themselves.

Related Studies
According to the study of Catriona Macleod entitled The Causes of

Teenage Pregnancy: Review of South African Research Part 2By Department of

Educational Psychology, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa

3867, South Africa which states that the Contributory factors which have been

investigated by South African researchers include: reproductive ignorance; the

earlier occurrence of menarche; risk- taking behaviour; psychological problems; peer

influence; coercive sexual relations; dysfunctional family patterns; poor health

services; socio-economic status; the breakdown of cultural traditions; and the

cultural value placed on children.


In the study ofAcharya, Dev Raj; Bhattarai, Rabi; Poobalan,

Amudha; Teijlingen, Edwin R. van; Chapman, Glyn entitled Factors associated with

teenage pregnancy in South Asia said that,Majority of teenage girls are reported with

basic knowledge on sexual health however, very few of them have used the

knowledge into practice and many risk factors are a part of socio-economic and

cultural influences.
Most of the teenagers who were unmarried, lived and received emotional

and financial support from their families of origin. Thus, it should be assumed that

many of the deleterious outcomes attributed to teenage pregnancies are set before

pregnancy and are extrinsic to young age. Macintyre, S., & Cunningham-Burley, S.

(1993).

Legal Bases

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Family Code of the Philippines Executive Order Art. 5. States that, Any

male or female of the age of eighteen years or upwards is the requisite of marriage.

Republic Act 10354.The Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of

2012 states that Adolescent refers to young people between the ages of ten (10) to

nineteen (19) years who are in transition from childhood to adulthood andAdolescent

and youth reproductive health guidance and counseling is one of the reproductive

health care programs.

Philippine Constitution: The 1987 Constitution states that it is the right and

duty of parents to ensure the welfare of and instill proper moral development in their

children under 18. It also stipulates that the State has an obligation to help parents in

this endeavor. Such emphasis has set the tone and focus of much policy and

programming surrounding adolescent SRH in the Philippines, which has been

described as indirect and cautious.19 The Constitution does not make any

reference to youths sexual or reproductive rights.


Adolescent and Youth Health Policy: The Adolescent and Youth Health

(AYH) Policy was issued by the DOH in April 2000 under Administrative Order No.

34-A series 2000. It recognizes adolescents and youth ages 1024 as the priority

group in terms of pressing health needs and states as its mission ensuring access to

quality comprehensive health care and services for all Filipino youth and

adolescents. This order provides for the creation of the AYH Sub-program under the

Program for Childrens Health Cluster for Family Health. It also provides guidelines

for the creation of public youth-friendly health service centers and specifies

implementing mechanisms.

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THE PROBLEM

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study aims to know the profile of the respondents ,reasons or factors why

they engage sex early which resulted to teenage pregnancy , to know their level of

knowledge of sex education and the level of awareness of its consequences of the

teenage mothers in Manga District . The result of the study would be the basis of

proposed intervention measures .

It furthers answers the following sub-problems.

1. What is the profile of teenage mothers in the context of:


1.1. Age
1.2. Civil status
1.3. Religion
1.4. Highest Educational Attainment
1.5. Organizational Affiliation/ Involvement
1.6. Background on sex education
1.7. Parents Occupation
1.8. Ways of engaging sexual contact

2. What are the predisposing factors that drive adolescents to engage into early

sexual contact?

3. What is the level of their awareness on the consequences of teenage pregnancy?

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4. Is there a significant degree of relationship between the profile and the

predisposing factors of teenage pregnancy ?

5. Is there a significant degree of relationship between the profile and level of

awareness on the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

6. Is there a significant degree of relationship on the predisposing factors and the

level of awareness on the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

7. What preventive measures can be proposed based on the findings of teenage

pregnancy cases in Manga District in Tagbilaran City?

NULL HYPOTHESES

This study intends to either accept or reject the following null hypothesis:

1. There is no significant degree of relationship between the profile and the

predisposing factors of teenage pregnancy .

2. There is no significant degree of relationship between the profile and level of

awareness of the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

3. There is no significant degree of relationship on the factors and the level of

awareness of the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The researchers yearn to create this research project gainful and worthy to

various independents, specifically:

1. Teenagers- The study will enlighten their minds not to engage on early

sexual contact by knowing its cause and consequences. By this research, the

youth can be aware about the preventive measures of getting pregnant at the

young age, including teachings about sex education, and family planning

methods.

2. Healthcare Team- The study will help the health care workers lessen the

burden of handling risk pregnancies and will lower the ratio of maternal and

child mortality and morbidity rate.

3. Parents/ Guardians- The study will lessen the agony of the parents in terms

of financial assistance, and emotional mystery of social embarrassment and

family standard degrades.

4. Community- The study will help the entire community to minimize negative

impact of having teenage pregnant residents, and increase their awareness

on the disadvantages of teenage pregnancy.

5. School Institution- The study will help every school institution to lessen the

rate of their out of school youth, for teenage pregnancy will result to students

dropouts.

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PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY, BASIS FOR
PROPOSED INTERVENTION MEASURES

Framework

Teenager

Boyfriend/ sexual
partner

Predisposing factors
Poverty
Teenage Pregnancy
Lack of
parental
guidance
Ignorance
Pregnancy Outcomes Peer pressure
Lack of Education Alcohol and
Unemployment drug abuse
Lower income Media
Struggle financially Curiosity and
Live in Poverty experimentatio
Health n
complications on Victim of
mother and baby
Family rejection
Giving up

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

DESIGN

To achieve the purpose of the study, descriptive, quantitative method will be used in

this study of the teenage mothers of Manga District, Tagbilaran City in terms of their

profile, reasons, causes of engaging early sexual contact and level of their

knowledge of the consequence of teenage pregnancy.

ENVIRONMENT

The 30 respondents were located at Manga district Tagbilain City .

Map of Manga District, Tagbilaran City

Figure 1 Map of Manga District

Manga District, Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Philippines is a place located at

latitude (9.693240) and longtitude (123.863289) on the map of Philippines.

The barangay is manned by Brgy. Capt. Leda Saco. It has a total household of 878;

barangay health center is under the management of the PHM. Barangay Manga is

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approximately 6 kilometers from the main heart of Tagbilaran City. Respondents of

this research will be the teenage pregnant women, teenage mothers and once a

teenager mother of barangay Manga.

RESPONDENTS

All 30 females under twenty years old who were teenage mothers in Manga

District in 2012 to 2014.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

To make the data gathering easier, researchers design a questionnaire as a

tool to be utilized, to gather important information. A standardized questionnaire was

be used. To quantify the responses of the reasons and level of awareness of the

consequence to teenage pregnancy will be given weight equivalent for the statistical

purpose. To wit:

Symbol Description Meaning Weight Equivalent

FA Fully Aware Complete 3


awareness of the
consequences

SL Slightly Aware Partial awareness of 2


the consequences

UA Unaware Lack of awareness of 1


the consequences

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RESEARCH PROCEDURES

A permit was asked from the Barangay Captain of Manga and to the Public

Health Midwife regarding the study. Researchers personally interviewed the

respondents using the questionnaires to get the accurate responses.

The researchers stated the purpose of the research and gave proper

instruction to the respondents and ask the respondents directly so that the

questionnaires will be retrieved immediately.

With the support of the Barangay Health Workers we were able to get the

answers from the respondents.

Statistical Treatment

The responses of the respondents were tallied and collated in pertinent tables

for the purpose of analysis and interpretation and then statistically treated to test the

hypotheses.

To obtain the percentages, the frequency of response is divided by the total

number of cases and then multiplied by one hundred, thus:

Percentage = F/N x 100

Where:

F = is the frequency of responses

N = is the number of cases.

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For statistical purposes, the answers under study will be categorized as ,

Fully Aware, Slightly Aware and Unaware with the weights equivalents of 3,2,1,

respectively. The equivalent zero will not be used because any number multiplied by

zero results to zero, thus nullifying the response frequency with this weight

equivalent.

Weighted mean. This technique is used to compute central tendency where other

values are given importance and computed using this formula:

WM = F x
N

Where :
WM = weighted mean

Fx = summation of frequency of scale value x

N = number of cases

Or the sum of the products of the response frequencies by corresponding weight

equivalents divide by the number of cases. The responses are categorized

further, a lower level may be considered thus, the arbitrary scale:

1.00 - 1.66 Un aware

1.67 2.33 - Slightly Aware

2.34 3.00 - Fully Aware

The composite weight means:


Sum of weight means
Number of items

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Chi- Square. To ascertain the degree of relationship between the profile of the

respondents and factors of teenage pregnancy the data are subjected to chi square

test using the formula ( Angeles, 2005 )

x = ( f - f )

where :

x = correlation coefficient

f = observed frequency

f = expected frequency

To prove the significance of the obtained chi-square ratio, it will be checked

against the table of significant values of the chi-square at .05 level

Pearson Correlation Coefficient. To ascertain the degree of relationship between

the predisposing factors of teenage pregnancy and the level of awareness on the

consequences of teeneage pregnancy, the data are subjected to Pearson correlation

test using the formula:

r= NY-(X) (Y)
(NX2-(X)2)(NY2-(Y)2

Where:

N= Number of respondents

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Y= summation of predisposing factors

Y= summation of level of awareness

To prove the significance of the obtained by Pearson Correlation Ratio, it will

be checked against the table of significant values of the pearon correlation at .05

level .

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Pregnancy- is the physical condition of a woman or female animal carrying

unborn offspring inside her body, from fertilization to birth.

Teenage Pregnancy- Is a pregnancy in human females under the age of 20

at the time that the pregnancy ends.

Prenatal Care- is a special care during the existing or happening of

pregnancy but before birth.

Mortality- is the number of deaths that occur at a specific time, in a specific

group, or from a specific cause.

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Morbidity- is the presence of illness or disease.

Risk- is a chance of something wrong to happen. The danger that injury,

damage or loss will occur.

Family Planning- is the use of control methods to choose the number and

timing of children born into a family.

Sexual intercourse- is an act carried out for reproduction or pleasure

involving penetration, especially one in which a man inserts his erect penis

into a womans vagina.

Fertility- is the quality or condition of being fertile, this time usually pregnancy

occurs.

Responsible Parenthood- is an act of being good parents, as accountable

for the action of attaining a successful, healthy and happy family life living.

Consequence- is something that follows as a result or cause of the actions

you did.

Awareness- is acquiring knowledge of something .Well informed about what

is going on in the world or about the latest developments about the sphere of

activity.

Preventive measures- is an important action that stops something from

happening.

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Sex education- is the imparting and acquiring of knowledge through teaching

and learning about the sexual concepts. A training or instruction of a particular

subject.

Complications- is something that makes something else more difficult or

complex. A problem that arises in addition to the initial condition.

Psychosocial development- is a development relating to both psychological

and social aspects of every individual.

Poverty- is a deficiency or lack of something to take care of ones basic

needs.

CHAPTER II

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This research is basically descriptive in nature, at such it sought to assess the

factors that resulted to teenage pregnancy in Manga district .

To achieve the objectives of the study, the following factors were considered

into the profile of the teenage mothers of Manga District in Tagbilaran City in terms

of age, religion, highest educational attainment, civil status ,organizational

affiliations, sex education background and parents occupation.

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The nature of sexual contact whether by force or teenagers own will and their

background on sex education and level of awareness on the concequences.

Personal Profile of Teenage Mothers.

Age. Figure 2 states the age of respondents .It shows that most of the clients who

engaged in early sexual intercourse are within the age range of 17-18 to which rated

as (70 percent), ages 14-16 (16.70 percent) and 19 years of age is (13.30 percent).

Age

13% 17%
Age 14-16 Age 17-18 Age 19

70%

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Educational Attainment

3% 3%3%
Elementary Level
23% Elementary graduate
27% High school Level
High school Graduate
College Level
Vocational

40%

FIGURE 3- EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Educational Attainment Figure 3 shows that most of the respondents are high

school graduate which has 40%, followed by 26.7% of high school level, 23.3%

college level, and a triple tie of for elementary level, elementary graduate and

vocational

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Religion

7%

Roman Catholic
Born Again

93%

FIGURE 4- RELIGION

Religion. In figure 4, majority of the respondents were Roman Catholics which

comprises 93.30 % compared to Born Again which is 6,70%.

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Civil Status

17%

Sinlgle
Married

83%

FIGURE 5- CIVIL STATUS

Civil Status. This figure shows that most of the teenage mothers were

single comprising 83.30% while 16.70% were already married.

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Organizational Affiliation

10%

Yes
None

90%

FIGURE 6- ORGANIZATIONAL AFFILIATION

Organizational Affiliation. In Figure 6, majority of the respondents has no

affilliation to any organization which has 90% compared to the remaining 10% which

has been affiliated to an organization.

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Nature of Sexual Intercourse

100.00%

90.00%

80.00%

70.00%

60.00%
Engaging Sexual
50.00% 96.70% intercourse by:

40.00%

30.00%

20.00%

10.00%

0.00% 3.30%

Own Will
By Force

FIGURE 7- NATURE OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.

Nature of sexual intercourse. This figure shows how the respondents engage in

sex whether by force or by own will. Majority of the respondents of 96.70% revealed

that they engage in sex at their own free will while 3.30% said that they were forced

to engage in sex.

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Background on sex education

17%
Yes
No
83%

FIGURE 8- BACKGROUND ON SEX EDUCATION

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Background on Sex Education. Figure 8 shows that, 83.30% the respondents

has no background on sex education and 16.70% has a background on sex

education.

Parent's occupation

7%
self-employed
Gov't. Employee
33%
53% Private Employee
Unemployed
7%

FIGURE 9- PARENTS OCCUPATION

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Parents Occupation . This figure shows that, 53.30% of the respondents were

self-employed, 6.7 % are government employee, 33.3 % are private employee and

6.7% are unemployed.

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE

PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Analysis of Variance to determine whether there is a significant degree of

variance between the profile of the respondents and the predisposing factors of

teenage pregnancy. Analysis of Variance

( ANOVA ) test was used.

Table 1
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
AGE

Age Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.17 3.5 1.33
14-16 0 0.17 2 0.64 3 2.10 5

0.17 14.7 5.6


17-18 1 4.05 15 0.006 5 0.06 21

0.13 14.7 1.07


19-20 0 0 .13 4 0.51 0 1.07 4

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square x2 = 8.74
Critical Value of X2 at 4 df and 0.5 level of significance=9.488

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Result= Insignificant

Age .Table 1. The computation thereat yielded a t of 8.74 which was lower than the

critical value of t of 9.488 at 6 df and at 0.05 level of significance; hence

,insignificant which led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis.

TABLE 2.
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
CIVIL STATUS

Civil status Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.83 17.5 6.67
single 1 0.03 16 0.13 8 0.27 25
0.17 3.5 1.33
married 0 0.17 5 0.64 0 1.33 5

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 2.57
2
Critical Value of X at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991
Result= Insignificant

Civil Status. In table 2, the resultant f of 2.57 was lower than the critical value

of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Hence , the null hypothesis is accepted.

TABLE 3
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
RELIGION

Religion Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.93 19.6 7.47
Roman 1 0.005 19 0.02 8 0.04 25
Catholic

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0.07 1.4 053
Born Again 0 0.07 2 0.26 0 0.53 5

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 0.925
Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991
Result= Insignificant

Religion. Table 3, yielded on f of 0.925 which was lower than the critical

value of f of 0.925 of the critical value of 2df at 0.05 level of significance. Thus,

insignificant which also led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis.

TABLE 4
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
Educ. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total
attain.
factors
0.03 0.7 0.27
Elementary 0 0.03 0 0.7 1 1.48 1
level
0.03 0.7 0.27
Elementary 0 0.03 0 0.7 1 1.98 1
graduate
0.27 5.6 2.13
Highschool 0 0.27 4 0.46 4 1.64 8
level
0.4 8.4 3.2
Highschool 0 0.4 10 0.30 2 0.45 12
graduate
0.923 4.9 1.9
College 1 0.02 6 0.25 0 1.9 7
level
0.03 0.71 0.3
Vocational 0 0.03 1 0.12 0 0.3 1

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 11.53

Critical Value of X2 at 10 df, and 0.5 level of significance=18.307

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Result= Insignificant

Educational Attainment.The computation yielded on f of 11.53 which is

lower than the critical value of f 18.307 at 0.05 level of significance. Therefore

insignificant which means that the null hypothesis is accepted.

TABLE 5.
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
ORGANIZATIONAL AFFILIATION
Org. affil. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.1 2.1 0.8
YES 0 0.1 3 0.39 0 0.8 3
0.9 18.9 7.2
NO 1 0.01 18 0.04 8 0.09 27

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 1.443

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Insignificant

Organizational affiliation. Table 5 shows that the resultant f of 1.443 was

very much lower than the critical value of f of 5.991. Thus, insignificant. Therefore

the null hypothesis is accepted.

TABLE 6
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
SEX EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors.
0.17 3.5 1.33
YES 1 4.05 4 0.07 0 1.33 5
0.83 17.5 6.67
NO 0 0.83 17 0.01 8 0.27 25

33
Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 6.56
Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991
Result= Rejected

Sex Educational Background.The resultant f of 6.56 was higher than the

critical value f of 5.991 which means that it is significant . Thus the null hypothesis is

rejected.

TABLE 7
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
NATURE OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors.
0.07 20.3 7.73
Own will 1 0.0001 20 0.04 8 .009 5

0.03 0.7 0.27


By force 0 0.03 1 0.13 0 0.27 25

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2= 0 .44

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Rejected

TABLE 8
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
PARENTS OCCUPATION

34
Parents Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total
Educ
factors
0.17 3.5 1.33
Self- 1 0.17 10 5 0.08 16
employed 0.07
0.07 1.42 0.53
Govt. 1 0.7 1 0.28 0 0.53 2
employee
0.03 0.71 0.27
Private 0 0.03 8 0.13 2 0.27 10
employee
0.02 4.2 1.6
Unemploye 0 0.02 1 0.01 1 0.1 2
d
Column 2 20 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 8.26

Critical Value of X2 at 6 df, and 0.5 level of significance=12.592

Result= Insignificant

Parents Occupation.The computed f of 18.57 was much lower than the

critical value of 28.869at 0.05 level of significance which is insignificant. Hence, the

null hypothesis is accepted.

Degree Of The Relationship Between Profile And Predisposing Factors.

TABLE 9
TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFILE AND
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

PROFILE CHI- CRITICAL DEGREE RESULT NULL


SQUARE VALUEAT .05 OF HYPOTHESIS
FREEDOM
RESULT LEVEL OF
SIGNIFICANT
Age 8.74 9.488 4 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED

Civil status 2.57 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED

Religion 0.925 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED

35
Educational 11.53 18.307 10 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED
Attainment

Organization 1.43 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED


al affiliation
Sex educ. 6.56 5.991 2 SIGNIFICANT REJECTED
Background
Nature Of 0.44 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED
Sexual
Intercourse
Parents 18.57 28.869 18 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED
occupation

Table 9 shows the degree of relationship between the profile and the predisposing

factors thus:

Age . The Age computation is yielded on f of 8.74 which was lower than the

critical value of f of 9.488 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, insignificant which led

to the acceptance of the null hypothesis.

Civil Status. The result of civil status which was 2.57 was lower than the

critical value of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Hence , the null hypothesis is

accepted.

Religion. The result of religion yielded on f of 0.925 was lower than the

critical value of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, insignificant which

also led to the acceptance of the null hypothesis.

Educational Attainment . When the result of f in education of 0.925 was

very much lower than the critical value of f of 18.307. Thus, insignificant. Therefore

the null hypothesis is accepted.

36
Organizational Affiliation. The computed f of 1.43 organizational affiliation

was much lower than the critical value of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance which is

insignificant. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted.

Sex Educational Background.. The computation thereat yielded an f of 6.56

on sex education background which is much higher than the critical value of f of

5.991 at 0.05 level of significance, which means that this is significant. Thus the null

hypothesis is rejected.

Nature Of Sexual Intercourse. The computation thereat shows that the

computed f of 0..44 was very much lower than the critical value of f of 5.991 at

0.05 level of significance . This proves that this is insignificant. Therefore the null

hypothesis is accepted.

Parents Occupation. The computation thereat shows that the computed f of

18.57 was very much lower than the critical value of f of 28.869 at 0.05 level of

significance . This proves that this is insignificant. Therefore the null hypothesis is

accepted.

PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF ENGAING EARLY SEXUAL CONTACT.

As ranked, the composite means are as follows; Curiosity and experimentation

ranked first as the predisposing factors with a weighted mean 2.70 or Strongly

Agree, followed byPeer pressure of 2.67 or Strongly Agree,followed by a tie of Media

influence and Poverty of 2.40 weighted mean or Strongly Agree, lack of parental

37
guidance and ignorance of 2.33 or Slightly Agree and Alcohol abuse and Molestation

of 1.33 or Disagree.

These composite means garnered an overall composite mean of 2.28 or Slightly

Agree.

TABLE 10
PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY

Factors Disagre Slightly Strongl Mean Descriptive value


e agree y agree

Poverty 1 16 13 2.40 Strongly agree

Lack of parental guidance 2 17 11 2.33 Slightly agree


Ignorance 3 14 13 2.33 Slightly agree

Peer pressure 2 6 22 2.67 Strongly agree

Alcohol and drug abuse 22 6 2 1.33 Disagree


Media influence 2 14 14 2.40 Strongly agree
Curiosity and 1 7 22 2.70 Strongly agree
experimentation
Victim of molestation 28 0 2 1.33 Disagree

LEGEND:
DA -Disagree -1.0 --1.66
SL -Slightly Agree -1.67 2.33
SA -Strongly Agree -2.34 3.0

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE

PROFILE AND THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS

38
Analysis of Variance to determine whether there is a significant degree of

variance between the profile of the respondents and level of awareness on the

consequences of teenage pregnancy. Analysis of Variance

( ANOVA ) test was used

TABLE 11
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
AGE

Age Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
0.67 3.33 1.0
14-16 2 2.64 3 0.03 0 1.0 5

2.8 14. 4.2


17-18 2 2.23 16 0.29 3 0.34 21

0.53 2.67 0.8


19-20 0 0 .53 1 1.4 3 6.05 4

Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square x2 = 12.15
Critical Value of X2 at 4 df and 0.5 level of significance=9.488
Result= Significant

Age .Table 1. The computation thereat yielded a t of 12.15 which was higher than

the critical value of t of 9.488 at 6 df and at 0.05 level of significance; hence

,insignificant which led to the rejetion of the null hypothesis.

TABLE 12.
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
CIVIL STATUS

39
Civil status Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
3.33 16.7 5
single 4 0.13 18 0.10 3 0.087 25
0.67 3.5 1.0
married 0 0.53 2 0.53 3 4.0 5

Column 4 21 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 6.23

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Significant

Civil Status. In table 2, the resultant f of 6.23 was lower than the critical value of f

of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Hence , the null hypothesis is rejected.

TABLE 13

CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS

RELIGION

Religion Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
3.73 18.7 5.6
Roman 1 0.02 20 0.09 4 0.46 25

Catholic
.27 1.33 0.04
Born Again 0 0.27 0 1.33 2 6.4 5

Column 4 20 6 30

total

40
Chi-square X2 = 8.57

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Significant

Religion. Table 3, yielded on f of 8.57 which was higher than the critical value of f

of 5.991 of the critical value of 2df at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, significant

which also led to the rejection of the null hypothesis.

TABLE 14
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Educ. attain. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
0.13 06.7 0.2
Elementary 1 5.82 0 0.67 0 0.2 1
level
0.13 06.7 0.2
Elementary 1 5.82 0 0.67 0 0.2 1
graduate
1.07 5.33 1.6
Highschool 1 0.004 7 0.52 0 1.6 8
level
1.6 8.0 2.4
Highschool 1 0.23 11 1.13 0 2.4 12
graduate
0.93 9.67 1.4
College 0 0.93 2 1.53 5 9.26 7
level

0.13 0.67 0.2


Vocational 0 0.13 0 0.67 1 3.2 1

Column total 4 20 6 30

41
Chi-square X2 = 34.98
Critical Value of X2 at 10 df, and 0.5 level of significance=18.307
Result= Significant

Educational Attainment.The computation yielded on f of 34.98 which is

much higher than the critical value of f 18.307 at 0.05 level of significance.

Therefore significant which means that the null hypothesis is rejected.

TABLE 15

CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS

ORGANIZATIONAL AFFILIATION

Org. affil. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

Awareness
04 2.1 0.6
YES 0 0.1 2 0.4 1 0.27 3
3.6 18.9 5.4
NO 4 0.01 18 0.04 5 0.03 27

Column 4 20 6 30

total

Chi-square X2 = 0.74

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Insignificant

Organizational affiliation. The computed f of 0.74 organizational affiliation

was much lower than the critical value of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance which is

insignificant. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted.

42
TABLE 16

CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS

SEX EDUCATION BACKGROUND

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
0.67 3.33 1.0
YES 0 .67 1 1.63 4 9.0 5
3.33 17.5 5.0
NO 4 0.13 19 0.32 2 1.8 25

Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 13.55

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Significant

Sex Educational Background.. The computation thereat yielded an f of

13.55 on sex education background which is very much higher than the critical

value of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Which means that this is significant.

Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

TABLE 17

CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS

PARENTS OCCUPATION

Parents Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total


Educ
awareness

43
0.17 3.5 1.33
Self- 3 0.17 14 0.07 1 0.08 18
employed
0.07 1.42 0.53
Govt. 0 0.7 0 0.28 2 0.53 2
employee
0.03 0.71 0.27
Private 1 0.03 5 0.13 2 0.27 8
employee
0.02 4.2 1.6
Unemploye 0 0.02 1 0.01 1 0.1 2
d
Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 11.23

Critical Value of X2 at 6 df, and 0.5 level of significance=12.592

Result= Insignificant

Parents Occupation. The computation thereat shows that the computed f of

11.23 was lower than the critical value of f of 12.592 at 0.05 level of significance .

This proves that this is insignificant. Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted.

TABLE 18
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
NATURE OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
3.87 19.33 5.8
Own will 4 0.004 19 0.01 6 .007 29

0.13 06.7 0.2


By force 0 0.13 1 0.16 0 0.2 1

Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2= 0 .511

44
Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Rejected

Nature Of Sexual Intercourse. The computation thereat shows that the

computed f of 0.511 was very much lower than the critical value of f of 5.991 at

0.05 level of significance . This proves that this is insignificant. Therefore the null

hypothesis is accepted.

LEVEL OF AWARENESS ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE

PREGNANCY.

Table 19

Level Of Awareness On The Consequences Of Teenage Pregnancy

UA SA FA Mean Descriptive
Value
Lack of education 2 1 27 2.83 Fully Aware

Lower income/unemployment 2 1 27 2.83 Fully Aware

Struggle financially and will live in 2 1 27 2.83 Fully Aware


poverty
26 1 3 1.23 Unaware
May develop complications and other
health issues
Will be judged by the society 28 3 9 1.7 Slightly Aware

Family rejection 19 2 9 1.7 Slightly Aware

Giving up your ambitions and 24 1 9 1.4 Unaware


adolescent life
LEGEND:

UA -Unaware -1.0 --1.66


SA -Slightly Aware -1.67 2.33
FA -Fully Aware -2.34 3.0

45
A triple tie of Lack of education , lower income or unemployment and

struggle financially and will live in poverty ranked highest with a weighted mean of

2.83 or Fully Aware, a tie of Judge by society and family rejection ranked second of

1.7 weighted mean or Slightly Aware, May develop complications and other health

issues ranked third of 1.23. weighted mean or Unaware and a weighted mean of 1.4

or Unaware for Giving up your ambitions and adolescent life . Thus the composite

mean of 1.79 or Slightly aware.

Degree Of The Relationship Between Profile And Level Of Awareness.

The Analysis of Variance was used to ascertain whether there is a

significant degree of variance the profile and level of awareness on the

consequences of teenage pregnancy.

Table 17 shows the degree of relationship between the profile and the level of

awareness thus:

Table 20

TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROFILE AND


THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS
Level of CHI- CRITICAL DEGREE RESULT NULL
Awareness SQUARE VALUE AT .05 OF HYPOTHESI
profile RESULT LEVEL OF FREEDO S
SIGNIFICANT M
Age 12.15 9.488 4 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T
Civil status 6.23 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T
Religion 8.57 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T
Educational 34.98 18.307 10 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
Attainment T
Organization 0.74 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED

46
al affiliation NT
Sex 13.55 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
Educational T
Background
Parents 11.23 12.592 6 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
Occupation NT
Nature Of 0.51 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
Sexual NT
Intercourse

Age . The Age computation is yielded on f of 12.15 which was higher than the

critical value of f of 9.488 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, significant which led to

the rejection of the null hypothesis.

Civil Status. The result of civil status which was 6.23 was higher than the

critical value of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Hence , the null hypothesis is

rejected.

Religion. The result of religion yielded on f of 8.57 was higher than the

critical value of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Thus, significant which also

led to the rejection of the null hypothesis.

Education . When the result of f in education of 34.98 was very much

higher than the critical value of f of 18.307. Thus, significant. Therefore the null

hypothesis is rejected.

Organizational Affiliation. The computed f of 0.74 organizational affiliation

was much lower than the critical value of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance which is

insignificant. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted.

Sex Educational Background.. The computation thereat yielded an f of

13.55 on sex education background which is very much higher than the critical

47
value of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance. Which means that this is significant.

Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

Parents Occupation. The computation thereat shows that the computed f of

11.23 was much lower than the critical value of f of 12.952 at 0.05 level of

significance . This proves that this is insignificant. Therefore the null hypothesis is

accepted.

Nature Of Sexual Intercourse. The computation thereat shows that the

computed f of 0.511 was very much lower than the critical value of f of 5.991 at

0.05 level of significance . This proves that this is insignificant. Therefore the null

hypothesis is accepted.

Degree Of The Relationship Between the Predisposing Factors And Level Of


Awareness.

The Analysis of Variance was used to ascertain whether there is a

significant degree of variance the profile and level of awareness on the

consequences of teenage pregnancy.

Table 21 shows the degree of relationship between the profile and the level of

awareness thus:

Table 21

TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACTORS AND

THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS

Level of PEARSON CRITICAL VALUE DEGREE RESULT NULL


Awareness CORRELATI AT .05 LEVEL OF OF HYPOTHESIS
Factors ON TEST SIGNIFICANT FREEDOM
RESULT
-0.549 0.375 28 INVERSELY ACCEPTED
SIGNIFICAN

48
T

Table 21 shows that the computed f of -0.549 was very much lower than the

critical value of f of 0.375 at 0.05 level of significance .The negative result proves

that factors and the level of awareness are inversely significant to each other.

Therefore, it means that the respondents completely agree to the predisposing

factors of teenage pregnancy and yet they lack awareness on the consequences of

becoming pregnant at early age.

CHAPTER III

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of findings which were analyzed and

interpreted in the previous chapter. The summary found the basis for inferring

conclusions and offering recommendations.

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to know the profile of the respondents , reasons or factors

why they engage sex early which resulted to teenage pregnancy , to know their level

of knowledge of sex education and the knowledge of its consequences of the

teenage mothers in Manga District . The result of the study would be the basis of

proposed intervention measures .

It furthers answers the following sub-problems.

49
1. What is the profile of teenage mothers in the context of:
1.9. Age
1.10. Civil status
1.11. Religion
1.12. Highest Educational Attainment
1.13. Organizational Affiliation/ Involvement
1.14. Background on sex education
1.15. Parents Occupation
1.16. Nature of Sexual Intercourse

2. What are the predisposing factors that drive adolescents to engage into early

sexual contact?

3. What is the level of their awareness on the consequences of teenage pregnancy?

4. Is there a significant degree of relationship between the profile and the

predisposing factors of teenage pregnancy ?

5. Is there a significant degree of relationship between the profile and level of

awareness of the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

6. Is there a significant degree of relationship on the factors and the level of

awareness of the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

7. What preventive measures can be proposed based on the findings of teenage

pregnancy cases in Manga District in Tagbilaran City?

NULL HYPOTHESIS

This study intends to either accept or reject the following null hypothesis:

50
1. There is no significant degree of relationship between the profile and factors

engaging early sexual contact of teen ager.

2. There is no significant degree of relationship between the profile and level of

knowledge of the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

3. There is no significant degree of relationship on the factors and the level of

awareness of the consequences of teenage pregnancy.

DESIGN

To achieve the purpose of the study, descriptive, quantitative method will be

used in this study of the teenage mothers of Manga District, Tagbilaran City in terms

of their profile, reasons, causes of engaging early sexual contact and level of their

knowledge of the consequence of teenage pregnancy.

RESPONDENTS

All 30 females under twenty years old who were teenage mothers in Manga

District in 2012 to 2014.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

To make the data gathering easier, researchers design a questionnaire as a

tool to be utilized, to gather important information. A standardized questionnaire was

be used. To quantify the responses of the reasons and level of awareness of the

consequence to teenage pregnancy will be given weight equivalent for the statistical

purpose. To wit:

51
Symbol Description Meaning Weight Equivalent

FA Fully Aware Completely aware on the 3


consequences
SL Slightly Aware Partially aware on the 2
consequences
UA Unaware Lack of awareness on the 1
consequences

RESEARCH PROCEDURES

The researchers asked permission from the barangay captain of Manga and

to the public health midwife regarding the study. Researchers personally interview

the respondents using the questionnaires to get the accurate responses.

The researchers stated the purpose of the research and gave proper

instruction to the respondents and ask the respondents directly so that the

questionnaires will be retrieved immediately.

With the support of the barangay health workers we were successfully get

the responses of the respondent s.

52
Statistical Treatment

The responses of the respondents were tallied and collated in pertinent

tables for the purpose of analysis and interpretation and then statistically treated to

test the hypotheses.

To obtain the percentages, the frequency of response is divided by the total number

of cases and then multiplied by one hundred, thus:

Percentage = F/N x 100

Where F = is the frequency of responses

N = is the number of cases.

For statistical purposes, the answers under study will be categorized as ,

Fully Aware, Slightly Aware and Unaware with the weights equivalents of 3,2,1,

respectively. The equivalent zero will not be used because any number multiplied by

zero results to zero, thus nullifying the response frequency with this weight

equivalent.

Weighted mean. This technique is used to compute central tendency whereother

values are given importance and computed using this formula:

WM = F x
N

Where :
WM = weighted mean

53
Fx = summation of frequency of scale value x
N = number of cases

Or the sum of the products of the response frequencies by corresponding weight

equivalents divide by the number of cases. The responses are categorized

further, a lower level may be considered thus, the arbitrary scale:

1.00 - 1.66 Un aware

1.67 2.33 - Slightly Aware

2.34 3.00 - Fully Aware

The composite weight means:


Sum of weight means
Number of items

Chi- Square. To ascertain the degree of relationship between the profile of the

respondents and factors of teenage pregnancy the data are subjected to chi square

test using the formula ( Angeles, 2005 )

x = ( f - f )

where :

x = correlation coefficient

f = observed frequency

f = expected frequency

To prove the significance of the obtained chi-square ratio, it will be checked

against the table of significant values of the chi-square at .05 level

54
Pearson Correlation Coefficient. To ascertain the degree of relationship between

the predisposing factors of teenage pregnancy and the level of awareness on the

consequences of teenage pregnancy, the data are subjected to Pearson correlation

test using the formula:

r= NY-(X) (Y)
(NX2-(X)2)(NY2-(Y)2

Where:

N= Number of respondents

Y= summation of predisposing factors

Y= summation of level of awareness

THE FINDINGS

PERSONAL PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS

Age. It has been observed that majority of teenage mothers were aged 17 to

18 years of age, insignificant.

Civil Status .Majority of respondents were single of 83.30% and 16.70%


were married . Thus insignificant.

Religion. Most of the respondents were Roman Catholics with the result of

f of 0.925 was lower than the critical value of f of 5.991 at 0.05 level of

significance. Thus, insignificant..

55
Educational Attainment . The result of f in education of 0.925 was very

much lower than the critical value of f of 18.307. insignificant therefore null

hypothesis is accepted.

Organizational affiliation. The computed f of 1.43 organizational affilliation

was much lower than the critical value of 5.991 at 0.05 level of significance which is

insignificant. Hence, the null hypothesis is accepted.

Sex educational Background. The result yielded an f of 6.56 on sex

education background which is very much higher than the critical value of f of 5.991

at 0.05 level of significance. Which means significant. Thus the null hypothesis is

rejected.This result is in agreement of the study of Acharya, Dev Raj; Bhattarai,

Rabi; Poobalan, Amudha; Teijlingen, Edwin R. van; Chapman, Glyn entitled Factors

associated with teenage pregnancy in South Asia said that majority of teenage girls

are reported with basic knowledge on sexual health however, very few of them have

used the knowledge into practice and many risk factors are a part of socio-economic

and cultural influences.

Parents occupation. The computed f of 18.57 was very much lower than

the critical value of f of 28.869 at 0.05 level of significance . This proves that this is

insignificant. Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted.

PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF ENGAING EARLY SEXUAL CONTACT

The composite means are as follows; Curiosity and experimentation ranked

first as the predisposing factors with a weighted mean 2.70 or Strongly Agree,

56
followed byPeer pressure of 2.67 or Strongly Agree, followed by a tie of Media

influence and Poverty of 2.40 weighted mean or Strongly Agree, lack of parental

guidance and ignorance of 2.33 or Slightly Agree and Alcohol abuse and Molestation

of 1.33 or Disagree. This is in agreement of the study of Catriona Macleod entitled

The Causes of Teenage Pregnancy: Review of South African Research states that

socio economic status is one cause of teenage pregnancy.

LEVEL OF AWARENESS ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF TEENAGE


PREGNANCY.

Loss of education , lower income or unemployment and struggle financially

and will live in poverty ranked highest with a weighted mean of 2.83 or Fully Aware,

a tie of Judge by society and family rejection ranked second of 1.7 weighted mean

or Slightly Aware, May develop complications and other health issues ranked third of

1.23. weighted mean or Unaware and a weighted mean of 1.4 or Unaware for Giving

up your ambitions and adolescent life . Thus the composite mean of 1.79 or Slightly

Aware.

CONCLUSIONS

Anchored on the preceding findings, the following generalizations are

extracted.

Majority of teenage mothers were young which comprises 70% belongs to

age bracket of 17-19 yrs. Old .Most of them were high school graduate,

57
roman catholics , and were single and not affiliated to any organization. The

profile of the respondents did not affect the predisposing factors of teenage

pregnancy.
Many of the teenage mothers were having sex with their own free will and

majority has no background on proper sex education. This is true because

younger age were hot and aggressive in their decision making . Guidance

and proper education should be implemented.


Most of the respondents were having no background on sex education thus it

affect teenage pregnancy for the computed result of f of 6.56 is higher than

the critical value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance which was 5.991 ,

significant.
With this result , proper education which focus on sex education to the

adolescents or teenage should be given a priority .


Respondents were fully aware of the consequences of teenage pregnancy

such as loss of education , lower income or unemployment and struggle

financially and will live in poverty .


There is a contrast of respondents no background of sex education which

affects teenage to become pregnant and being fully aware of the

consequences of teenage pregnancy . This means that despite of the

respondents awareness of the consequences of teenage pregnancy , yet

they still indulge into early sex considering that they have lack of education.
The predisposing factors of teenage pregnancy are Curiosity and

experimentation ,Peer pressure , Media influence and Poverty, lack of

parental guidance , ignorance , Alcohol abuse and Molestation .

58
RECOMMENDATIONS

The result of the study should be presented to the City Health Office , Local

Government and Parents and Guardians Association.


The Adolescent Reproductive Health program of DOH should be implemented

properly.
In the community level, the midwife has the responsibility of planning for a

preventive measures for teenage pregnancy.

PROPOSED INTERVENTION MEASURES

General objective: to be able to help prevent the increasing rate of teenage

pregnancy.

Specific objectives: to enlighten the teenagers about the consequences of engaging

in sex at the early stage of their lives.

To educate the teenagers on sexuality.

To educate the parents on how they should stand at best to meet

the needs of the teenage child.

TABLE 22

PROPOSED PREVENTIVE MEASURES ON TEENAGE PREGNANCY

Target Strategies/ Approaches Goals


Respondents
Adolescents To help adolescents
Spiritual enrichment program
become responsible

Comprehensive Education and sexually.

counseling on sexuality

Empowering youths on how to

59
say NO to sex at early age or

Abstinence program

Youth sports developments

programs

60
Parents To guide and help
Education programs on parents
parents on how to
talking about teens about
teach their children
pregnancy prevention
sexually.
Healthcare Screen and counselling To be able to
Providers
adolescents provide a free
Provide teen-friendly sexual
services regarding
and reproductive health care
reproductive health
services
Locate continuing care including safe

education opportunities sex

Communities Community programs that include To be able to


broad-based strategies to reach
develop educational
many of the youth in the community
and recreational
such as personality and musical
contest, scholarships grants, and programs that can
media campaigns.
divert the attention

of the youths

instead of sex.

LITERATURE CITED

61
Macleod, C. (1999). The" causes" of teenage pregnancy: review of South African

research--Part 2. SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY,29(1), 8-16.

Acharya, D. R., Bhattarai, R., Poobalan, A., Teijlingen, E. R. V., & Chapman, G.

(2014). Factors associated with teenage pregnancy in South Asia.

Reece, C. (2013). Understanding the risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy

in Gugulethu, Western Cape. Some communities imagined, 67-92.

Macintyre, S., & Cunningham-Burley, S. (1993). Teenage pregnancy as a social

problem: a perspective from the United Kingdom.

Journal sources

.Teen pregnancies in the Philippines By Rebecca B. Singson Philippine Daily

Inquirer .

APPENDIX A
INTERVIEW GUIDE

PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY, BASIS FOR

PROPOSED INTERVENTION MEASURES

DIRECTION: Please answer with your sincere and honest responses. Rest assured

that your answers will be kept confidential.

RESPONDENTS PROFILE

1.Age

62
Below 13_______
14-16 _______
17-19 _______
19-20 _______
2.Civil Status
Single _______
Married_______
Widow________
Separated ______
3. Religion
Roman Catholic _____
Protestant _______
Iglesiani Cristo_______
Others ____________

4.Educational Attainment
Elementary Level ______
Elementary Graduate ______
High school Level ______
High school Graduate ______
College Level ______
5. Organizational affiliation/ involvement _______________
6.Respondents Occupation _________________________
Nature of the job _____________________________
Length of service _____________________________
7.Parents Occupation___________________________
Nature of the job _____________________________
Length of service _____________________________
9. Engaging sexual intercourse by.
own will _____
By Force _____

10. Predisposing factors or reasons of engaging early sexual contact. Rate 1 to 3.


Where each corresponding number means:

1= disagree
2= slightly agree
3= strongly agree
1 2 3
Poverty

Lack of parental guidance

63
Ignorance

Peer pressure

Alcohol and drug abuse

Media

Curiosity and experimentation

Victim of molestation

11. Your level of awareness on the consequences of becoming pregnant at an early age. Check 1 if
you are not aware, 2 if you are slightly aware, 3 if you are fully aware.

1 2 3
Loss of education
Lower income/unemployment
Struggle financially and will live in poverty

May develop complications and other health issue both the


mother and the baby
Will be judged by the society
Family rejection
Giving up your adolescent life

14. Do you have a background on sex education?


Yes _______
No _______

APPENDIX B

Table 1
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
AGE

Age Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.17 3.5 1.33
14-16 0 0.17 2 0.64 3 2.10 5

64
0.17 14.7 5.6
17-18 1 4.05 15 0.006 5 0.06 21

0.13 14.7 1.07


19-20 0 0 .13 4 0.51 0 1.07 4

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square x2 = 8.74
Critical Value of X2 at 4 df and 0.5 level of significance=9.488
Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX C

TABLE 2.
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
CIVIL STATUS

Civil status Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.83 17.5 6.67
single 1 0.03 16 0.13 8 0.27 25
0.17 3.5 1.33
married 0 0.17 5 0.64 0 1.33 5

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 2.57
2
Critical Value of X at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991
Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX D
TABLE 3
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
RELIGION

Religion Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.93 19.6 7.47
Roman 1 0.005 19 0.02 8 0.04 25
Catholic
0.07 1.4 053
Born Again 0 0.07 2 0.26 0 0.53 5

65
Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 0.925

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX E
TABLE 4
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
Educ. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total
attain.
factors
0.03 0.7 0.27
Elementary 0 0.03 0 0.7 1 1.48 1
level
0.03 0.7 0.27
Elementary 0 0.03 0 0.7 1 1.98 1
graduate
0.27 5.6 2.13
Highschool 0 0.27 4 0.46 4 1.64 8
level
0.4 8.4 3.2
Highschool 0 0.4 10 0.30 2 0.45 12
graduate
0.923 4.9 1.9
College 1 0.02 6 0.25 0 1.9 7
level
0.03 0.71 0.3
Vocational 0 0.03 1 0.12 0 0.3 1

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 11.53

Critical Value of X2 at 10 df, and 0.5 level of significance=18.307

Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX F
TABLE 5.

66
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
ORGANIZATIONAL AFFILIATION
Org. affil. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors
0.1 2.1 0.8
YES 0 0.1 3 0.39 0 0.8 3
0.9 18.9 7.2
NO 1 0.01 18 0.04 8 0.09 27

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 1.443

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX G
TABLE 6
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
SEX EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors.
0.17 3.5 1.33
YES 1 4.05 4 0.07 0 1.33 5
0.83 17.5 6.67
NO 0 0.83 17 0.01 8 0.27 25

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 6.56

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Rejected

APPENDIX H

67
TABLE 7
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
NATURE OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

factors.
0.07 20.3 7.73
Own will 1 0.0001 20 0.04 8 .009 5

0.03 0.7 0.27


By force 0 0.03 1 0.13 0 0.27 25

Column 1 21 8 30
total

Chi-square X2= 0 .44

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Rejected

APPENDIX I

TABLE 8
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND PREDISPOSING FACTORS
PARENTS OCCUPATION
Parents Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total
Educ
factors
0.17 3.5 1.33
Self- 1 0.17 10 5 0.08 16
employed 0.07
0.07 1.42 0.53
Govt. 1 0.7 1 0.28 0 0.53 2
employee
0.03 0.71 0.27
Private 0 0.03 8 0.13 2 0.27 10
employee
0.02 4.2 1.6
Unemploye 0 0.02 1 0.01 1 0.1 2
d
Column 2 20 8 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 8.26

Critical Value of X2 at 6 df, and 0.5 level of significance=12.592

68
Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX J
TABLE 9
TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROFILE AND
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

PROFILE CHI- CRITICAL DEGREE RESULT NULL


SQUARE VALUEAT .05 OF HYPOTHESIS
FREEDOM
RESULT LEVEL OF
SIGNIFICANT
Age 8.74 9.488 4 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED

Civil status 2.57 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED

Religion 0.925 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED

Educational 11.53 18.307 10 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED


Attainment

Organization 1.43 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED


al affiliation
Sex educ. 6.56 5.991 2 SIGNIFICANT REJECTED
Background
Nature Of 0.44 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED
Sexual
Intercourse
Parents 18.57 28.869 18 INSIGNIFICANT ACCEPTED
occupation

APPENDIX K

TABLE 10
PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY

Factors Disagre Slightly Strongl Mean Descriptive value


e agree y agree

Poverty 1 16 13 2.40 Strongly agree

Lack of parental guidance 2 17 11 2.33 Slightly agree


Ignorance 3 14 13 2.33 Slightly agree

69
Peer pressure 2 6 22 2.67 Strongly agree

Alcohol and drug abuse 22 6 2 1.33 Disagree


Media influence 2 14 14 2.40 Strongly agree
Curiosity and 1 7 22 2.70 Strongly agree
experimentation
Victim of molestation 28 0 2 1.33 Disagree

LEGEND:
DA -Disagree -1.0 --1.66
SL -Slightly Agree -1.67 2.33
SA -Strongly Agree -2.34 3.0

APPENDIX L

TABLE 11
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
AGE

Age Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
0.67 3.33 1.0
14-16 2 2.64 3 0.03 0 1.0 5

2.8 14. 4.2


17-18 2 2.23 16 0.29 3 0.34 21

0.53 2.67 0.8


19-20 0 0 .53 1 1.4 3 6.05 4

Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square x2 = 12.15
Critical Value of X2 at 4 df and 0.5 level of significance=9.488
Result= Significant

APPENDIX M

70
TABLE 12.
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
CIVIL STATUS

Civil status Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
3.33 16.7 5
single 4 0.13 18 0.10 3 0.087 25
0.67 3.5 1.0
married 0 0.53 2 0.53 3 4.0 5

Column 4 21 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 6.23
Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991
Result= Significant
APPENDIX N
TABLE 13
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS

RELIGION

Religion Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
3.73 18.7 5.6
Roman 1 0.02 20 0.09 4 0.46 25
Catholic
.27 1.33 0.04
Born Again 0 0.27 0 1.33 2 6.4 5

Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 8.57
Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991
Result= Significant

APPENDIX O
TABLE 14

71
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Educ. attain. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
0.13 06.7 0.2
Elementary 1 5.82 0 0.67 0 0.2 1
level
0.13 06.7 0.2
Elementary 1 5.82 0 0.67 0 0.2 1
graduate
1.07 5.33 1.6
Highschool 1 0.004 7 0.52 0 1.6 8
level
1.6 8.0 2.4
Highschool 1 0.23 11 1.13 0 2.4 12
graduate
0.93 9.67 1.4
College 0 0.93 2 1.53 5 9.26 7
level

0.13 0.67 0.2


Vocational 0 0.13 0 0.67 1 3.2 1

Column total 4 20 6 30

Chi-square X2 = 34.98
Critical Value of X2 at 10 df, and 0.5 level of significance=18.307
Result= Significant

APPENDIX P

TABLE 15
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
ORGANIZATIONAL AFFILIATION
Org. affil. Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
04 2.1 0.6
YES 0 0.1 2 0.4 1 0.27 3
3.6 18.9 5.4
NO 4 0.01 18 0.04 5 0.03 27

72
Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 0.74

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX Q
TABLE 16

CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS

SEX EDUCATION BACKGROUND

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
0.67 3.33 1.0
YES 0 .67 1 1.63 4 9.0 5
3.33 17.5 5.0
NO 4 0.13 19 0.32 2 1.8 25

Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 13.55

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Significant

APPENDIX R

TABLE 17

CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS

PARENTS OCCUPATION

Parents Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total


Educ

73
awareness

0.17 3.5 1.33


Self- 3 0.17 14 0.07 1 0.08 18
employed
0.07 1.42 0.53
Govt. 0 0.7 0 0.28 2 0.53 2
employee
0.03 0.71 0.27
Private 1 0.03 5 0.13 2 0.27 8
employee
0.02 4.2 1.6
Unemploye 0 0.02 1 0.01 1 0.1 2
d
Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2 = 11.23

Critical Value of X2 at 6 df, and 0.5 level of significance=12.592

Result= Insignificant

APPENDIX S
TABLE 18
CHI-SQUARE TEST ON THE PROFILE AND LEVEL OF AWARENESS
NATURE OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE

Sex educ Disagree Slightly Agree Strongly Agree Row total

awareness
3.87 19.33 5.8
Own will 4 0.004 19 0.01 6 .007 29

0.13 06.7 0.2


By force 0 0.13 1 0.16 0 0.2 1

Column 4 20 6 30
total

Chi-square X2= 0 .511

Critical Value of X2 at 2 df, and 0.5 level of significance=5.991

Result= Rejected

74
APPENDIX T

Table 19

Level Of Awareness On The Consequences Of Teenage Pregnancy

UA SA FA Mean Descriptive
Value
Lack of education 2 1 27 2.83 Fully Aware

Lower income/unemployment 2 1 27 2.83 Fully Aware

Struggle financially and will live in 2 1 27 2.83 Fully Aware


poverty
26 1 3 1.23 Unaware
May develop complications and other
health issues
Will be judged by the society 28 3 9 1.7 Slightly Aware

Family rejection 19 2 9 1.7 Slightly Aware

Giving up your ambitions and 24 1 9 1.4 Unaware


adolescent life
LEGEND:

UA -Unaware -1.0 --1.66


SA -Slightly Aware -1.67 2.33
FA -Fully Aware -2.34 3.0

APPENDIX U

Table 20

TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PROFILE AND


THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS
Level of CHI- CRITICAL DEGREE RESULT NULL
Awareness SQUARE VALUE AT .05 OF HYPOTHESI
profile RESULT LEVEL OF FREEDO S
SIGNIFICANT M
Age 12.15 9.488 4 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T
Civil status 6.23 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T
Religion 8.57 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T

75
Educational 34.98 18.307 10 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
Attainment T
Organization 0.74 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
al affiliation NT
Sex 13.55 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
Educational T
Background
Parents 11.23 12.592 6 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
Occupation NT
Nature Of 0.51 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
Sexual NT
Intercourse

APPENDIX V

Table 21

TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FACTORS AND

THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS

Level of PEARSON CRITICAL DEGREE RESULT NULL


Awareness CORRELATI VALUE AT .05 OF HYPOTHESI
Factors ON TEST LEVEL OF FREEDO S
RESULT SIGNIFICANT M
-0.549 0.375 28 INVERSELY ACCEPTED
SIGNIFICA
NT

APPENDIX W

TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN


THE PROFILE AND THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS
Level of CHI- CRITICAL DEGREE RESULT NULL
Awareness SQUARE VALUE AT .05 OF HYPOTHESI
profile RESULT LEVEL OF FREEDO S
SIGNIFICANT M
Age 12.15 9.488 4 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T

76
Civil status 6.23 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T
Religion 8.57 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
T
Educational 12.93 18.307 10 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
Attainment NT
Organization 0.74 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
al affiliation NT
Sex 13.55 5.991 2 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
Educational T
Background
Parents 13.29 12.592 6 SIGNIFICAN REJECTED
Occupation T
Way Of 0.51 5.991 2 INSIGNIFICA ACCEPTED
Engaging NT
Sexual
Intercourse

APPENDIX X

TESTING THE SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE


FACTORS AND THE LEVEL OF AWARENESS
RESPONDENTS X(predisposing Y (level of X2 Y2 XY
factors) awareness)
1 1.88 2.71 3.53 7.34 4.88
2 2.13 3.00 4.54 9.00 6.39
3 2.13 2.43 4.54 5.90 5.18
4 2.00 2.43 4.00 5.90 4.86
5 2.13 1.86 4.54 3.46 3.96
6 2.38 1.43 5.66 2.04 3.40
7 2.88 1.57 8.29 2.46 4.52
8 2.25 1.86 5.06 3.46 4.18
9 2.75 1.86 7.56 3.46 5.12
10 2.00 1.86 4.00 3.46 3.72
11 2.25 2.00 5.06 4.00 4.50
12 2.38 1.00 5.66 1.00 2.38
13 2.00 2.14 4.00 4.58 4.28
14 2.38 1.00 5.66 1.00 2.38
15 2.25 2.14 5.06 4.58 4.82

77
16 1.88 3.00 3.53 9.00 5.64
17 1.88 1.86 3.53 3.46 3.50
18 1.88 2.29 3.53 5.24 4.31
19 1.75 1.86 3.06 3.46 3.26
20 1.88 1.86 3.53 3.46 3.50
21 2.25 2.14 5.06 4.58 4.82
22 2.13 2.14 4.54 4.58 4.56
23 2.00 2.29 4.00 5.24 4.58
24 1.63 2.71 2.66 7.34 4.42
25 2.13 2.43 4.54 5.90 5.18
26 2.38 2.14 5.66 4.58 5.10
27 2.25 1.86 5.06 3.46 4.19
28 2.63 1.86 6.92 3.46 4.89
29 2.13 1.86 4.54 3.46 3.96
30 2.50 1.86 6.25 3.46 4.65
X=65.09 Y=61.45 X =143.57
2
Y =132.32
2
XY=131.13

Critical value of r at .05 level= .375


Result= Inversely Significant
Null hypothesis= Accepted

78