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UNIT I BASIC MANAGEMENT TOOLS

ISSUED BY: RAFAEL LUGO


SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
The main scientific methods applicable to
management problems are the observation and measurement.
The
school of scientific management was initiated at the beginning of this century b
y the American mechanical engineer Frederick W. Taylor,
The
Scientific management is the attempt to apply the methods of science to the prob
lems of the administration, in order to achieve high industrial efficiency.
FEATURES
Wages
high and low unit costs of production.
It
apply scientific methods to the overall problem, to formulate principles and est
ablish standardized processes.
The
Employees must be trained scientifically to upgrade their skills.
Must
cultivate a friendly atmosphere of cooperation between management and workers.
The
rationalization of productive work should be accompanied by a general structure
of the company that would make consistent the application of its principles.
PRINCIPLES
1. Planning: at work replacing the operator's individual approach, improvisation
and performance practice empirical methods based on scientific procedures.
2. Preparation / planning: scientifically select workers according to their skil
ls and prepare them, train them to produce more and better, according to the met
hod planned.
3. Control: control the work to certify that it is being implemented according t
o established standards and according to plan. 4. Execution: distinctly distribu
te powers and responsibilities for the implementation of the work to be discipli
ned.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT
The classical theory of management was developed by Frenchman Henri Fayol. In añ
o1916 about classical Fayol formulated his theory characterized by an emphasis o
n the structure that the organization should possess to be effective. According
to Taylor, the efficiency in the organizations is obtained through the rationali
zation of work of the operator and the sum of individual efficiency. However, in
the classical theory by contrast, is part of a whole and its organizational str
ucture to ensure efficiency in all parties involved, whether these bodies or per
sons. According to Fayol's core competency of an operator's technical capabiliti
es as the core competence of the director is the administrative capacity.
CLASSICAL ADMIINISTRACIÓN
Fayol part of the proposition that all companies may be divided into six groups:
technical functions related to the production of goods or services of the compa
ny. Business functions related to the purchase, sale and exchange. Financial fun
ctions related to search and management of capital. Security features related to
the protection of property and persons. Accounting functions related to invento
ry, records, reports, costs and statistics. Administrative functions related to
the integration of the other five functions. The administrative functions coordi
nate and synchronize the other functions of the company, always on top of them.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT
To clarify what are the administrative functions, Fayol defines the act of admin
istering such as planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling.
1. Planning: involves evaluating the future and use according to him. Organizati
on: provides all things useful to the operation of the business and can be divid
ed into physical and social organization. Address: leading the organization to f
unction. Its purpose is to achieve maximum performance from all employees in the
interest of global issues. Coordination: harmonizes all business activities, fa
cilitating their work and their results. Synchronize actions and adapting means
to ends. Control: is checking to see if all things happen in accordance with the
plan adopted. Its objective is to locate the weaknesses and mistakes to correct
and prevent recurrence.
2.
3.
4.
5.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Division of labor is the speciali
zation of tasks. Authority and responsibility: the first is the right to give or
ders, the other is a natural consequence of the first. Both must be balanced. Di
scipline: depends on obedience to the established agreements. Control unit: each
employee should receive orders from only one superior. Unity of direction: a he
ad and a plan for each group of activities which have a common goal. Subordinati
on of individual interests to general interests.€Remuneration of personnel: must
have a fair and guaranteed compensation for employees and for the organization.
Centralization: refers to the concentration of authority in the hierarchy of th
e organization. Scalar hierarchy or chain: the line of authority running from th
e top step to the lowest. Order: a place for everything and everything in its pl
ace. Equity: kindness and justice to achieve the loyalty of staff. Stability and
duration (in charge) of staff: the rotation has a negative impact on the effici
ency of the organization. Initiative: the ability to visualize a plan and ensuri
ng its success. Team Spirit: harmony and unity among the people are great forces
for the organization.
ADMINISTRATIVE MODELS

International Management: Focuses on the operation of international companies in


foreign countries. Try administrative issues relating to the flow of people, go
ods and money. Comparative Management: is defined as the study and analysis of m
anagement in different environments and the reasons why companies get different
results in different countries. Management By Objectives: It is practiced worldw
ide. However, despite their extensive applications, is not always clear what it
means. Some are considering it with an evaluation tool, others viewed as a motiv
ational technique, and finally some people consider it as a device for planning
and control.

ADMINISTRATIVE MODELS

Technology In Management: inside of each company coexist executed task, the theo
ry provides the workflow methods and operational processes and all the machinery
used to perform the task. Administration Strategy: The strategy represents what
the company wants to do, which is the business that it intends to undertake, wh
ich is the direction that will continue. The core of strategic management is the
preparation for tomorrow.

Administration Production And Operations: Operations One of the main areas in an


y business, whether it comes to business, governments or others, is the producti
on management and operations.
THE APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

The origins of this approach goes back to the Aristotelian concepts of "cause an
d effect," and that every integer is part of a larger. The modern theory of syst
ems developed by the contributions of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, who said there was
no independent physical or chemical element, all elements are integrated into r
elatively interdependent units.
APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Systems can be classified according to: * The degree of interaction with other s
ystems: open, half open or half closed and closed. * The composition of material
and objective: abstract and concrete. * Your ability to react: active, passive
and reactive. * Your internal mobility: static, dynamic, homeostatic and probabi
lity. * The degree of dependence: independent and interdependent.
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN ELENFOQUE
In any system you can find four basic elements for its operation: 1. Inputs or i
nputs: the system supplies necessary to fulfill its mission. 2. Processing: the
transformation of inputs. 3. Check or product: the outcome of the process. 4. Fe
edback: is the response of the systems that have received as an input the produc
t of a previous system or the response of the environment.
GENERAL THEORY OF SYSTEMS
The TGS is a new discipline that began in 1954. This seeks to achieve the status
of a general science on a par with mathematics and philosophy. General Systems
Theory provides the ability to research the systems approach. This research conc
epts, methods and knowledge pertaining to the fields and systems thinking. In th
is context, the term "systems approach" and "general systems theory applied" are
used synonymously.

ORGANIZATIONS AS A SYSTEM

An organization is a socio-technical system included in a wider society is the i


nteracting influence each other. It can also be defined as a social system, comp
osed of individuals and working groups that meet a certain structure and within
a context which partly controls and carry out activities using resources in purs
uit of common values.
MODELS OF KATZ AND KAHN

Katz and Kahn developed a model of wider and more complex organization through t
he application of systems theory and organizational theory.€They compared the po
tential use of mainstream sociological and psychological in organizational analy
sis, suggesting that the theory of organizations is free of restrictions and lim
itations of previous approaches and use the general systems theory.
MODELS OF KATZ AND KAHN

Entrada_Proceso_Salida: All social structure depends on the inputs it receives f


rom the environment, none is self-sufficient. Inputs are processed or processed
to create outputs. This cycle forms the basis of interaction with the environmen
t. Series: The systems are cycles of events, energy exchanges. Entropy: The proc
ess by which all organized forms tend to exhaustion, disorganization, disintegra
tion and death. Open systems delay replenishing energy entropic process, a proce
ss known as negative entropy or negantropía. Information as input: Living organi
sms receive informational inputs that provide clues about the environment around
them. Homeostasis: Open systems maintain a steady state, responding to changes
corrective changes. Differentiation: Tendency to the complexity of structure. Eq
uifinality: Based on different conditions and by different routes, systems can a
chieve the same result. Limits or boundaries: barriers between.
FEATURES
1. Import (income): The organization receives inputs from the environment and ne
ed renewed energy supplies from other institutions, or persons, or the material
environment. No social structure is self-sufficient nor self-contained. 2. Proce
ssing (processing): Open systems transform the available energy. The organizatio
n processes and transforms its inputs into finished products, labor, services, e
tc. 3. Export (output): Open systems export certain products to the environment.
4. Systems as cycles of events to repeat: The operation of any system consists
of repeated cycles of import-export-processing. 5. Negative entropy: Open system
s need to move to stop the process to replenish energy entópico indefinitely mai
ntain its organizational structure.
SYSTEMS THEORY

The systems theory is a specific branch of general systems theory. System means
all of different parties that interact with each other and are in turn bounded f
rom the external.
FEATURES

In translating this model to the organizations, are factors and characteristics.


As to their constitution or specific physical systems, where teams are composed
of, for machinery and objects and real things. Can be described in quantitative
terms desempeño.Sistemas abstract, when are composed of concepts, plans, assump
tions, and ideas. As to their nature: Locked, are systems which do not exchange
with the environment that surrounds them, are tight as any environmental influen
ce. Open, are the systems that have trade relations with the environment through
inputs and outputs. The open systems exchanging matter and energy with the envi
ronment regularly. They are primarily adaptive, that is, to survive. Must be con
stantly adjusted to environmental conditions.
A)
B)
CONCEPT MODEL
Basically we talk about business models that are copied, adapted and generaliz
ed to the same requirements as these are usually not rigid. These are represente
d through techniques, processes, models and systems.
FEATURES

They are applied to produce a change. For your application requires the use of d
ifferent tools. Models that can be applied to more than one type of company. Mod
els that change the way human resource performance of the company, through the t
ools applied.
TYPES OF MODELS
Autocratic model: It was the prevailing pattern in the Industrial Revolution. Th
is model depends on the power. Those in command must have power. THE MODEL OF CU
STODY: This depends on economic resources, if an organization lacks sufficient r
esources to the offer of payment of pensions and other benefits will be impossib
le to adopt this model. sufficient to order, which means that the employee who d
oes not comply with orders will be punished.
TYPES OF mdel
THE MODEL OF SUPPORT: Had its origins in the principle of supportive relationshi
ps. It came to the conclusion that an organization is a social system whose most
important element is to be employed.€The studies indicated the importance of ha
ving knowledge of group dynamics and implement supportive supervision. The suppo
rt model depends on the leadership instead of power and money.
COLEGIAL MODEL: The term refers to a collegial group of people with common purpo
se, they tend to be more useful in working conditions of schedule, intellectual,
and circumstances that allow a wide scope of work.
Thank you for your attention ...