Anda di halaman 1dari 2

ï ®

The beauty of life


The child with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. By: Ps. Jaime Botel
lo Valle
Definition / description: This is a developmental disorder characterized by: lac
k of attention or dispersion, extreme restlessness, talkativeness, in mostly poo
r school performance, also accompanied by risk or impulsive behavior, aggression
, intolerance and standards both social discipline, family, school, problems wit
h socialization.
HISTORY: He was known by various names: "minimal brain dysfunction-Hyperkinesia-
hyperkinetic-Hyperactivity Syndrome
ï ®
Criteria for screening:
In my professional experience as a psychologist having worked for 15 years in a
multi-care center for preschool children at the age of 4 years and is recognized
the child with these behaviors. It is recommended that the diagnosis is before
age 7 years and 6 months. The general components are taken into account: it is a
maladaptive behavior, generalized to two or more situations, full of impulsiven
ess and anxiety. And usually whoever is first detected in pre-school teacher.
Observable behaviors in these children: "They are easily distracted in school ac
tivities, not paying attention to detail. "Very short attention span. -Difficult
to respond when spoken to. "Disorganized. Non-compliance with those tasks that
require intellectual effort. "Undisciplined. "They move continuously. He rose fr
om his place amiss. Present-risk behaviors: jumping fences, roofs, crossing the
street unexpectedly, are injured easily. "They're noisy. "They're tireless physi
cally. "I do not know turns. "Abruptly interrupt the communication of others. "R
ude and disrespectful (behavior problems).
Other behaviors that may exist: motor incoordination, language problems low IQ,
so it will have learning problems, unconsciousness, depression, anxiety, low sel
f-esteem (as a result of the abuse they receive from their family or school). As
a result we see is failure and dropout, with many chances of falling into the h
ands of criminal groups or drug addiction (by his eagerness to explore and learn
all.)
Gender differences and implications: There are more such problems in baby boys t
han girls. In my list of 30 psychological assistants play therapy, 25 were boys
and 5 girls. Etiology: You may think that this disorder is associated with hered
ity (genetic), scientific studies have identified chromosomes that communicate t
his failure. Existing another percentage of children whose problem is congenital
. In interviews with the parents of these children found that they were born muc
h earlier than 9 months (immaturity) and the mother suffered threats of abortion
during pregnancy (bleeding).
Brain structures involved in this issue: "The frontal lobe. "The hypothalamus. "
The ascending reticular system (wakefulness and sleep). "The limbic system (emot
ions). -The motor area. - And finally: The neurotransmitters, such as: dopamine,
serotonin, norepinephrine.
Assessment: This should include an interdisciplinary team that can be approached
from different professional views the child as would be: The pediatrician, pedi
atric neurologist, paidopsiquiatra, paidopsicólogo, teacher specializing in lea
rning disabilities, speech therapist, social worker, speech therapist, teacher p
sychomotor, music therapist.
Studies to be performed: "Observation and assessment by general practitioners. -
EEG by the pediatric neurologist. "The pediatrician should always apply a recogn
ition on the Apgar scale, with its complement of all other reflections. "Psychom
etric studies: test of child development: Denver, Vineland, Gesell, Infant intel
ligence tests: WISC, Raven Child. Tests of maturity: Bender. Projective tests: t
est family, child Apperception Test, the human figure.
School-Test: Handling of colors, shapes, numbers, phrases, dictates: writing and
understanding, lecutra, counting, memorization activities, retention of educati
onal materials, etc. -Language tests: scale development and use of language. -Ev
aluation by a teacher in psychomotor tests, for assessing body balance, mobility
, stewardship of the body, obstacle recognition, rhythm and timing, proper breat
hing. -Music therapist: Assessment of musical meaning and use in their regular t
herapy.
Treatments: There must be a team also very comprehensive and well integrated, in
terconnected to perform an intervention as accurate as possible, long time.€Her
e are some: a) Play therapy by an expert psychologist (ludoterapeuta). b) Someti
mes the problems passing the family and the dysfunction that leads to this probl
em will require family therapy or couples, just as for advice on how to handle y
our child. c) Medical therapy: the pediatric neurologist shall prescribe, and on
ly he, the drugs that it deems most appropriate for each child. They usually use
methylphenidate (Ritalin), piracetam (Nootropil, DINAGE) with other combination
s either to treat depression and childhood anxiety, inattention and restlessness
.
Motor Therapy: To strengthen muscles and help to ripen the nervous system. -Lang
uage therapy if the child has language problems, misunderstandings, problems in
communication. Learning Therapy: To help in the areas where it presents problems
in children of primary level it is usual that they are in Spanish and mathemati
cs. It is worth putting a teacher to help in the afternoon to review activities
that are difficult to develop academically. "Sport should be an extremely import
ant part in these children on a daily basis.
PROGNOSIS: Many of these children continue with school and behavioral problems (
often depending on family management) throughout their school life, what will be
happening is that as they progress to middle and higher levels of education wil
l self-controlled, and some of these young people with concerns persist handled
himself very positive, participating in many activities and if they have an aver
age IQ, probably will end his college career.
Having a child with such impatient lot, especially dads, because the child is di
sobedient, does not obey orders, etc. Discipline problems in school and the cons
tant calls to the family by teachers is another part that defeat, perhaps, the b
est dad. However, my experience is that over time and with patience, prudence an
d tact, professional help may be obtained over the years to the desired positive
result. But for those families who decide to break up, this factor may be impor
tant to affect physical and psychological welfare of the child. I wish with all
my heart the best of luck to those who already have at home a restless child. Si
ncerely, Ps. Jaime Botello.