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University

Moulay Ismail
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Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers MEKNES

FINAL REPORT OF THE PROJECT OFFICE STUDY III


Title:
Design and Dimensionnent one-bladed wind
Directed by: Mohamed Amine Hamdaoui
Supervisor: Mr M Ali CHAABI. Arbaoua.
Academic Year 2007-2008
CONTENTS
1. Introduction ............................................... ................
.................................. .............................................
..... ...................... 3 1.1 1.2.. 1.3 1.4.. 1.5. 1.6. .............. Hist
ory .................................................. .........................
......................... .................................................. Tec
hnology ................................................ 3 .....................
............................. ..................................................
............. 3 Importance of the wind resource assessment ....................
........ ............................................ 3 turbines in the world ..
................................................ ...............................
................... ......................... 3 Impacts of Wind on the environme
nt ............... .................................................. ..........
................... 4 Prospects for the future of wind technology in Morocco ...
....... .................................................. 4
2. Description of a Wind ........................................... ...........
....................................... ........................................
..... 5 3. Technical Study .................................................. ..
................................................ ...............................
................... .......... 6 3.1 3.2.. 3.3 3.4.. 4.1 4.2.. 4.3. 4.4 4.5.. 4.
6. 4.7 4.8.. 4.9 4.10.. 4.11. 4.12. 4.13. 4.14. 4.15. Blades Fixed .............
.................................... ...........................................
....... .................................................. ................ 6 bl
ades rotating .............................. ...................................
............... .................................................. .............
....... 9 Act (Np - Vv) and (β - x) ................. ..........................
........................ .................................................. ....
............... 10. Fv Cp Act ............................................... ..
................................................ ...............................
................... ............... 11. Circuit Diagram ........................
....................... .................................................. .....
............................................ 14 Sizing the cylinder ............
................................... ............................................
...... ........................... 16 Sizing distri utor jack .................
.................................................. Sizing ......................
18 ...................... flow control ........................................
.......... ..................... 19 Pressure and Power (Receiver 1) ............
......... .................................................. Sizing Engine .....
............................. 19 ............ ..................................
................ .................................................. ........ 19
Sizing distri utor of motor .................................... ...............
................................. 20. Sizing engine governor ...................
.......................... ........................................... 21 Pressu
re and Power (Receiver 2 ) ................................................. ...
............................................... ...... 21 Sizing pump ..........
............................. ..................................................
21 ...................... ........................ dimensioning lines .........
......................................... .................................. 23
Calculation of the set pressure and the pressure relief valve .... .............
..................................... . ........................................
..... 24 Pump Motor .................................................. .........
..................................... 24 Energy alance. .......................
........................................................ .......................
........................... ........... 25 Brakes: .............................
..... .................................................. .......................
.......................... 25
4. Hydraulic Design ............................................ ...............
................................... ......................... 14
5. La our CATIA (See attached CD and Drawing) ..................................
.... .................................................. ........ 27 6. Conclusio
n ...................................... .......................................
........... .................................................. .................
............... 27

1. Introduction
1.1. History There has long as men have devised ways to harness the wind. It was
found among the Persians and the region of Mesopotamia, paddles, the wind was t
urning. Towards the twelfth century appeared in Europe , to Greece, the first wi
ndmills, rotating strange machines that were primarily used to replace animals f
or exacting work. However, this wind tur ine, one of the older machines can prov
ide mechanical power, was a out ecoming a museum piece if it were not for the t
wo oil shocks of the 70s and especially the many concerns as o jectively ased o
n the risks posed to the environment from the use of fossil fuels as the threat
depletion of their reserves exploita le in a future that will soon see the day.
1.2. Technology Principles of wind are so old that the design of it has changed
little over the centuries, ut the materials and technology have evolved. The te
chnical development of modern wind tur ines has orrowed a lot to the Aviation a
nd lades today are made of fi erglass and composite materials including car on
fi er (lightweight and dura le). Most modern wind tur ines are horizontal axis a
nd are fitted with three lades, ut there are two lades of wind tur ines or a
single There are also other variations of wind tur ines, mainly the rotor and th
e Darrieus Savonius rotor turning, unlike previous wind around a vertical axis.
1.3. Importance of wind resource assessment Due to weather and shape of landform
s, the wind is pro a ly one of the sources of energy that ranges from the most r
andom. Because of the irregularity of the wind the economic interest of wind ene
rgy can e significant in a given place and negligi le in yet another neigh or.
That's why wind power must e prospected as is the case for many other sources o
f energy. 1.4. The tur ines in the world electric power from wind capacity in th
e world was almost 9362MW in late 1998 and has grown 64% over 1996, with Germany
, in first position, alone holds 2875 MW. For over 15 years, there has een a gr
adual decrease costs and increase mechanical relia ility of the tur ines total i
nvestment cost is currently around U.S. $ 1,200 / kW and the technical relia ili
ty exceeds 95%. In same time the power unit is continuously increasing. The aver
age unit capacity of the tur ines used in wind farms in Germany with up to 50 kW
in the mid-'80s, declined in 1998 a700 kW.
1.5. Impacts of wind on the environment Reducing the emission of greenhouse gas
and other polluting and exhausti le resource su stitution y another non-exhaust
i le. We can summarize the impacts of wind up records dateessentially noise enge
ndered y the rotation of the rotor lades and the potential hazard in some case
s, wind tur ines in operation, the ird life. Regarding noise, considera le effo
rts have een made in order to reduce it to a lower level. The manufacturers hav
e reduced this potential nuisance y improving the aerodynamics of the lades, f
inding ways to reduce the noise of the gears in the car, and more recently, y c
ompletely removing the gear ox . As for the impact of wind tur ines on irds, se
veral scientific studies have shown that most irds identify and avoid the prope
ller turns. It is nevertheless essential to ensure that the location of a propos
ed settlement of wind tur ine is not located in a corridor for migrating irds,
or near a reeding site. 1.6. Future prospects of wind technology in Morocco Wit
h oth wind fields important (especially to the north and south) and a scientifi
c and technological potential to the am itions of our country, Morocco has the a
ssets necessary to develop and take advantage of this technology. It is a le to
create a dynamic that can lead traders to invest in this sector. This can cause
the emergence of an industrial ase with great potential for the creation of But
employment in the meantime, the small steps made so far can e classified as im
portant. Indeed, as part of the production policy of concessional electricity in
itiated y the ONE, it is planned to produce a wind farm 50 MW Koudia Al Baida i
n the province of Tetouan and a project to install 200 MW is eing prepared.
2. Description of a wind
A wind tur ine transforms the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy. It
consists of: • A mast allows the rotor to place high enough to allow its movemen
t (necessary for horizontal axis wind tur ines) and / or place the rotor at a he
ight allowing it to e driven y a strong wind and regular at ground level. The
mast houses usually a part of electrical and electronic components (modulator, c
ontrol, gear ox, generator, etc..). • A rotor, consisting of several lades (usu
ally three) and the nose of the wind. The rotor is driven y energy from the win
d, it can e directly or indirectly coupled to a pump (the case of wind pumps) S
ource : Wikipedia and more generally to an electrical generator. The rotor is co
nnected to the car via the hu . • A oat, clim the mast, housing the mechanical
parts, tires, some electrical and electronic components required for the operat
ion of the machine . • Emergency rake, this mechanism is triggered automaticall
y when the speed reaches a certain threshold through a speed sensor. In case of
slow wind, the rake is released and the wind runs freely again.
3. Technical Study
Thus:
dS-C1 r1 r2
With

r-r2
We will do our study in two cases: - - Fixed Blades: Blades no rotation rotation

C2
3.1.Pales fixed
In the case of fixed pitch, we have:
We set
3.1.1. Torque engine nacelle effort per lade is:
The goal is to find the maximum value of F. For this we will maximize over θ the
n compared to Cx, Cz. Differentiating the function with respect to θ, we find: W
ith
It must maximize over Cx, Cz, why we selected a profile NACA23012.This profile i
s characterized by the polar euation: With the problem is to find the maximum o
f the function:

MATLAB program
% Declaration of constants rhoair = 1.25, C1 = 0.6 C2 = 1.7; r1 = 14.0, r2 = 1.0
, V = 25, Cz = -0.9:0.01:0.9; for i = 1: 181 = 0.25 * rhoair gama * ( C1 + C2) *
(r1-r2) * V ^ 2 a = Cz (i) / (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) F (i) = gama * (Cz (i)
* sin ( atan (a)) + (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) * cos (atan (a))) end plot (Cz,
abs (F)) title ('Variation of torue Pod function Cz ') xlabel (' Cz '), ylabel
(' C (Nm) ');
Result:

Thus the maximum stress on a blade is then the maximum torue on the crown of th
e pod is: With d: distance between the center of the platform and the blade, it
takes from 3 meters

3.1.2. Couple on the blade's normal force on the blade is:


In the same way as the previous paragraph, we must maximize the function:

MATLAB program
rhoair = 1.25, C1 = 0.6 C2 = 1.7; r1 = 14.0, r2 = 1.0, V = 25, Cz = -0.9:0.01:0.
9; for i = 1: 181 = 0.25 * rhoair gama * (C1 + C2) * (r1-r2) * V ^ 2; if Cz (i)
== 0 F (i) =-gama * 0036; else a = (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) / Cz (i); F (i) =
gama * (Cz (i) * cos (atan (a)) - (0036 +0.0666 * Cz (i) ^ 2) * sin (atan (a)))
end end plot (Cz, abs (F)) title ('Change the "normal force on the blade accord
ing Cz') xlabel ('Cz'), ylabel ('F (N)');
Result:

Thus:
To calculate the torue induced by this effort, we calculate the center of thrus
t of the blade.
the center of pressure P x, y is defined by: y C1
For ease of calculation, is the center of pressure of the surface S1 and the cen
tral thrust of the surface S2. We have:
S1
S2 C2
x
With: The calculation gives: And

To maximize torue, it is assumed that the axis of the blade is the axis OY. The
torue induced by the normal force on the blade chord is: Then
3.2.Pales rotating
In the CAS fixed pitch, we have:
With
As in the previous paragraph, we calculate the maximum torue in the crown of th
e car and the torue in the blade. We find:

Note
and

To calculate the power of the engine causing the crown of the car, we must choos
e the gear ratio between crown and pinion gears of the car. And that while keepi
ng yields mechanical transmission.
3.3.Loi (Np - Vv) and (β - x)
After displacement Δx, we have the following figure: A A 'α JB
λ
θ
B '
μ
λ
I
β
O OBA ': initi  configur tion A'B'O': configur tion fter disp cement Δx We wi
ll compute x = f (β) with x the displacement of the cylinder.

Consider the triangle A'B'J:


Was
π sin (π - α) sin α sin 2 sin (θ) 2 = = = JB 'A' B 'AB + Δx - Δx AB + BJ - BJ
⎧ A'B '= AB = With ⎨ ⎩ BJ = OB' = OB sin β sin β sin β = a
cos (α) =
Δx + - a sin (β) (I)
Consider the triangle O'B'B:
Thus:
(Π - β)) cos (β) sin (β) sin λ sin (2 = 2 = = B 'BO' B 'O' B
λ =
π-β
2
Bec use the tri ng e is isosce es O'B'B.
B 'B =  *
cos (β) 2
sin (β)
h s
Consider the tri ng e A'BB ':
W s
π-β π sin (π - ()) sin (β) 2 sin α sin (μ) sin (2 - λ) 2 2. = = = = BB 'A' B 'AB
sin (β) 2 (II) sin α =  * β *) cos (2 sin (β)
From ( ), we h ve:
And fter (I) nd (II) we find th t:
β ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ sin 2 (β) sin (2) + Δx ⎟ ⎛ -  sin (β) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = a * * 1 + ⎟ ⎜ β) ⎝ ⎠
⎜ cos (2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
2
Δx = 2 - (a * tan (β 2) * sin (β)) 2 + sin (β) -
We know the race of the lade is β
= 40 °. We take a = = 40cm and 50cm.
So will the cylinder stroke: Stroke = 24.82 cm If we derive the a ove relation w
e find the relationship etween the speed of the piston and the cylinder rotatio
n speed of the lade:
⎛ ⎞ ⎞ ⎛  * sin (β) ⎜ (  * t n (β / 2) * sin (β)) * ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 2 cos 2 (β 2) +  *
t n (β 2) * cos (β ) ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ ° x = ⎜ ⎝ *  * cos (β) - ⎟ β 2 2 - (a * tan (β 2
) * sin (β)) ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
°
If we t ke
β = 23.27 * 10

°
-3
r d / s
(Ie d. Rot ted 40 ° in 30s).
We find the ver ge speed of piston cy inder:
3.4.Loi Fv - Cp
It iso tes the r AB,€we find the fo owing eu tion (See di gr m next p ge)
With
Hence:
This force is induced y  sing e de, three des were for:

So
Kinem tic system you
Rotor B de Rotor
C1 A P te
Bie  B
O1
Cy inder rod C O1 A Body of Fv B γ β Rotor
α
Fp
C C1
O1
O
Schem tic of the l de pitch module

4. Desin hydr ulic


4.1.Schém  circuit
4.2.Dimensionnement the cylinder
We h ve the followin d t : • • • •
4.2.1. Choice
Thus:
So ccordin to the c t lo ATOS (B015.pdf), we find:
Piston di meter = 125 mm
To c lcul te the di meter of the stem, we use the criterion of verific tion slee
ve: It w s: Stroke = 400mm So Li = 800mm So: F = 12,000 N, K = 2
The di meter of the stem must e  ove 45, then from the st nd rd v lues, we h v
e:
Rod di meter = 56 mm
Thus our chosen cylinder is: • • • •
4.2.2. Audit Ref: 125/56 * 400 CK P 0 piston rod 56 mm 125 mm 400 mm Stroke
W s: Gold Cylinder resists ucklin.
4.2.3. C lcul tion flow cylinder
nd nd
It w s: So: Given the  sence in the c t lo,  ch rt or method to find the volu
metric efficiency, we c n t ke for ex mple then:
4.2.4. Pressure nd Power's ctu l cylinder
The pressure tr nsmitted y the cylinder: The power tr nsmitted y the cylinder:
4.3.Dimensionnement distri utor of cylinder
Accordin to the c t lo ATOS (E010.pdf), we selected:
DHO-0711 / 2 XK
This le ds to  distri utor pressure:
4.4.Dimensionnement flow control
The lo d must tr nsl te with  velocity V = 0.08 m / s, which is equiv lent to 
de it side rod
Accordin c t lo ATOS (C321.pdf), we selected:
QV20/2/K
This component in turn induces  loss, nd from the c t lo): You must turn the
"kno " five times to et the desired flow.
4.5.Pression nd Power (Receiver 1)
Let us c ll the whole cylinder + Dist. Cylinder + Reul tor, receiver 1. Thus:
And ll this c n e considered s  receptor for the pump.
4.6.Dimensionnement Enine 4.6.1. Choice
Power
There re two v lue for Or So
Accordin c t lo PARKER-CALZONI, we selected: • • • •
Ref: C p city:
4.6.2. C lcul tion yields
From the r ph  ove, there re:
nd nd
4.6.3. C lcul tion of ctu l flow
W s:>>
4.6.4. C lcul tion of pressure nd enine power
It h s the power in the enine is written: And the power  sor ed y the enine
is:>>>>
4.7.Dimensionnement distri utor of motor
Accordin to the c t lo ATOS (E010.pdf), we selected:
DHO-0711 / 2 XK
This induces  distri utor pressure:
4.8.Dimensionnement enine overnor
Accordin c t lo ATOS (C321.pdf), we selected:
QV20/2/K
This component in turn induces  loss, nd from the c t lo): You must turn the
"kno " three times to et the desired flow.
4.9.Pression nd Power (Receiver 2)
Let us c ll the whole enine + Dist. Motor + Reul tor, receiver 2. Thus:
And ll this c n e considered s  receptor for the pump.
4.10. Sizin the pump 4.10.1. Choice
It w s for the desin of  pump usin the criterion of power:
Now we
is lre dy included in the powers of receivers, nd we t ke, we
And you h ve imposed Hence
So ccordin to the c t lo ATOS (A005.pdf)  ove, we selected: • • • •
Ref: C p city:
4.10.2.
Determin tion of speed nd volumetric efficiency
The oper tin system requires th t the pump provided t le st 60 l / min. then 
fter followin c t lo, we h ve:
the
In ddition there is the volumetric efficiency:
>
4.10.3.
Determin tion of torque pump nd mech nic l perform nce
We nelect in the first p rt, the pressure drops line rly, we h ve:
In ddition there is the volumetric efficiency:
>>>>
(Receiver 2) (Receiver 1)
4.11. Sizin pipes 4.11.1. Forcem in
To determine the di meter of the disch re pipe, we impose the speed limit of oi
l in the pipe, then we h ve:>>
PIPE R8-16
Estim ted losses for
- - -
Aver e speed of flow Reynolds num er λ = 0.03, t king L = 3m.
4.11.2.
Suction
To determine the di meter of the disch rge ie, we imose the seed imit of oi
 in the  
  i e, then we h ve:>>
R4-32 I E
Estim ted osses for
- - -
Aver ge ve ocity Reyno ds num er λ = 0.048, t king L = 1 meter
4.12.
C cu ting the set ressure nd the ressure re ief
Since there is no simu t neous oer tion etween the two receivers defined  ove
, Then we must t ke the m ximum ressure over the different ressure osses = 15
5.82 r Then
norm ized
According to the c t og ATOS C010.df, we se ected:

AER S -CART-15 / 200 / F
4.13.
 
um Motor
According to  c cu tions m de y t king  s fety f ctor s = 1.25, the drivi
ng motor of the um is:

N = 1200 rm = 20 kW
4.14.
Energy B nce
The tot  yie d of the f ci ity is:
Then
4.15.
Br kes:
The industry offers  wide v riety of r king system. In this section we choose
 system of hydr u ic disc r ke in the c t ogs of the com ny Twif ex. Br king
is done y sring, nd the oening is m de y oen w ter (under ressure of  r
oom). It w s: So we dimensioned with  s fety f ctor of 1.5
Choice of disc r ke:
Sizing the r king system:
According to the ch rt e ow cons, the gr fted ressure is reuired to oen
We then se ected  r king system:
XSH MX 9.6
Amendment to dd the circuit r king system
5. Work CATIA (See tt ched CD nd Dr wing) 6. Conc usion
This roject owed us to r ctice different techniues of design nd design in
hydr u ic engineering. As rosects: • Design of o d-sensing hydr u ic system
to incre se erform nce • Design nd construction of  coo ing system • Use of 
um with servo to e imin te the rge osses in the choke