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It is the Romans that we owe the most famous mythological traditions.

For them,
Vulcan is one of three son of Jupiter and Juno. This: child reigned supreme in t
he bowels of burning volcanoes. Therefore, it was made for the patron saint of b
lacksmiths as legend said he had set up his forge in the depths of a crater call
ed Vulcano and the Aeolian islands located in Sicily. The etymology of the word
"volcano" comes from there .. The Roman poets imagined Vulcan forging arrows bra
ss to Apollo and Diana, the shield of Achilles chiselling, hammering the invinci
ble armor of Hercules. Today, these legends and cults exist in Indonesia, Japan,
the New Hebrides, Mexico and even Hawaii. But Japan remains the kingdom of the
cults of all kinds. The Japanese belief sometimes goes too far, and the crater o
f Mihara-yama swallows every year several desperate, tired of life, committing s
uicide by jumping from the top of its walls. Expression of the ancient wrath of
the gods, volcanoes terrify men since time immemorial. Some civilizations are go
ne forever because of catastrophic explosions.
Volcanic
We know that a volcano is composed of three parts: â ¢ a reservoir of magma at dep
th, or â ¢ a volcanic vents which communicate the interior of the Earth to the sur
face and finally, â ¢ the volcanic mountain, which is either a crater, a crater co
ne, a dome, a lava flow or a deposit product explosion. A single volcano can hav
e several reservoirs of magma. It was believed that the chambers of molten rock
were at great depths, thousands of kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth.
Scientists have proven that they are much more superficial. It is through flues
or the molten rock reaches the surface. What we see is the culmination of a long
process that began in a tank through the fusion of rock, has continued with the
rise of magma responsible for gas, before ending with the arrival of these mate
rial to the surface. What we call "volcano" is the natural unit, which connects
the deep zones and the surface of the Earth and allows the emergence of volcanic
products.
Questions on text
1. Name the three parts which form a volcano. has ).............................
................... ............................................. ..............
. b )................................................ ..........................
........................ ..... ..... c) ........................................
........ .................................................. ......... 2. Kill th
e following sentence: A crater, a crater cone, a dome and lava flow are four for
ms ... ......................... ...............................................
... ................................... ........................................
.......... .................................................. .......... 3. Wher
e was believed able to trace the reservoirs of magma before scientists can make
other discoveries? .................................................. ..........
........................................ .............. 4. Write the synonym of
molten rock. .................................................. ................
.................................. .............. 5. Add a subtitle to three par
agraphs. Paragraph 1: ............................................... ..........
........................................ ................. Paragraph 2: ........
....................................... ........................................
.......... ................. Paragraph 3: ......................................
......... .................................................. .................
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The lava flows in
Magma is a mixture of molten rock at very high ___________ consisting largely of
silicates and oxygen mix containing gas and water __________. The most importan
t feature of _________ to the point of view of the volcanic activity, is its flu
idity, which depends on the amount of silicates in it (usually 70%). The magma i
s said acid, it is pasty and its melting point is around 1200 _________. At larg
e depths, because of pressures on them, the rocks composing the magma remains so
lid despite the weather, but when the pressure decreases, the high temperature m
akes them immediately begin to melt, while depression sucks them up. Water vapor
and dissolved gases form bubbles with larger rising rapidly to the __________.Â
€The gas from the magma are released into the atmosphere, therefore more or less
violent according to the type of obstacles they encounter. If magma is fluid an
d the gas does not meet _________ serious volatilization occurs fairly calm and
lava burst easily. However, if the magma is very fluid, its surface will consoli
date very quickly on contact with air. The gas will therefore be very difficult
to free himself: frequent explosions, but low intensity, in this case represent
the normal __________ __________. If, after a long period of rest, the _________
___ is blocked by the solidified __________
previous eruptions, the gas will break through in a violent manner: we shall the
n see ___________de of the explosive type, with projection of large amounts of a
sh and lapilli.
Place the following words at the right place in the text
Barriers degrees Celsius volcanoes magma lava activity chimney surface temperatu
re steam eruptions
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WHAT IS A VOLCANO?
A volcano may be defined as a chimney communicating between the deep layer of mo
lten rock (magma) with the surface of the globe. It offers activities called pha
ses of eruptions and periods of rest. The products released during eruptions are
either gaseous (or combustible fuel) or liquid (more or less fluid lava) or is
solid (blocks, bombs, cinders, ash ...). Volcanoes are a few emerging role of va
lve. This means that the Earth has to get rid of the overflow of heat. It is thr
ough flues or the molten rock reaches the surface of the volcanic cone. The temp
erature of the lava varies from 400 to 1200 ° C temperature differences are due
to the composition of the lava, and it affects the velocity of it. When the mag
ma from the magma chamber and rises to the surface, it is called lava. The lava
rock is actually a liquid that is the result of the chemical evolution of magma.
The latter being a mixture of molten rock and dissolved gases. The finer debris
are called ash, and the impact of large blocks of oval are called bombs. All vo
lcanoes are located in fragile areas of the crust. There are also many volcanoes
on Earth at the bottom of the ocean (where the eruptions are more frequent). Mo
st active volcanoes are located around the Pacific Ocean, forming a "ring of fir
e."
Complete legends diagram below:
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FOUR KINDS OF ERUPTION
We distinguish between active volcanoes, which occur, or occurred at a historic
time, by eruptions and extinct volcanoes (such as the volcanos in Auvergne, or t
he volcano of Agde), dormant for geologic time It has four kinds of volcanic eru
ptions:
The lava emitted are fairly viscous, which promotes explosive events. Cellesci a
re short and form plumes of ash scale generally moderate. The archetype is the 1
888-1890 eruption of Vulcano, located in Italy, in the Aeolian Islands.
1) The eruptions vulcanian
Their characteristics are intermediate between eruptions "Hawaiian" and "vulvien
ne. They manifest themselves by explosions more or less important projecting lar
ge quantities of bombs. This explosive activity is accompanied by lava flows. Th
e archetype is the activity of Stromboli on the island of the same name off Sici
ly
3) Strombolian eruptions
The lava is very hot, fluid, and spread in the form of castings. The explosive a
ctivity has resulted in the fountains of lava more or less high. The shape of th
e volcano that results is the "Shield Volcano" (building very flat, plate-shaped
reversed).
2) The Hawaiian eruptions
This category takes its name from the 1902-1904 eruption of Mount Pelee, famous
volcano in Martinique who had almost 30,000 deaths in 1902. This activity is mar
ked by the formation of a dome sprayed by a powerful lateral blast, followed by
pyroclastic flows (also called "glowing clouds"). 6
4) The eruptions Pelean
Pompeii, a quiet town
In the night of August 23 AD 79 BC, the inhabitants of the city of Pompeii (Ital
y) sleeping like lambs. That day, they celebrated the feast of the god of fire.
Some of them have indeed noticed the steam coming from Vesuvius, a volcano near
the city, but all have ignored the warning signs ... At sunrise, residents under
take their day will be fatal. Several hours after sunrise, the sky is still show
ing signs of fatigue. Then a gray ash fell on the city.€Now the Vesuvius erupts
This rain is becoming more dense. It obstructs the passage of people and street
s is collapsing roofs. A stench fills the air because of sulfur dioxide gas esca
ping from the volcano. It rains even rocks. The inhabitants protect the head wit
h what they can. Some go to sea, others fled into the city running. Families tak
e refuge in the cellar of their house. Suddenly, the speed of light, ash and gas
a little warmer invade the city, killing every living being on its way. Ash fin
ally buried the inhabitants and the city itself. In two days, Pompeii and the ne
arby towns of Herculaneum and Stabia were buried under several meters of volcani
c material. In its existence, it does remain a distant memory and we end up forg
etting even its location. It was only after fifteen centuries we find in the tra
ces during the construction of an aqueduct. Much of the city, freed from the ash
es that covered, appears today to 2000 years apart, perfectly preserved and simi
lar to what it was at the time of his death.
Questions on text
1) What the text says?
.................................................. .............................
.................
.................................................. .............................
................. .................................................. ...........
.................................... ...........................................
....... ............................................... ........................
.......................... ............................................... .....
............................................. ..................................
............. .................................................. ...............
................................ ...............................................
... ...............................................
3) What is the first sign that shows the Vesuvius ?............... .............
..................................... ..........................................
........ ............ 7 2) Describe the eruption of Vesuvius.
.................................................. .............................
..................... ............ 4) What happens to living things? ...........
............................. ..................................................
.................................................. ............ 5) What are the
cities affected ?.......................................... .. ................
.................................. .............................................
..... ............ 6) After how long does one find these cities? ...............
................................... ............................................
...... ............ .................................................. .........
......................................... ............ 7) In what state do they
operate? .................................................. ....................
.............................. ............
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Can we predict eruptions?
The prediction of such disasters is still difficult to establish. However, warni
ng signs, such as small earthquakes, temperature and gas fumes, and let us know
so we can evacuate people around. Thus, if man is not able to control volcanic e
ruptions, it may however provide for such disasters. Various ways exist to predi
ct such eruptions: the most primitive to the most scientific. The first is perha
ps the instinct of animals. It has often noticed a few hours before the awakenin
g of a volcano, the animals are silent and desperately fleeing the threatened ar
ea. But men have invented numerous scientific devices that replace the instincts
of men and animals. The first device is a seismograph, he used to record ground
tremors. This instrument consists of a pendulum heavy enough to resist, thanks
to its inertia and its suspend mode, the ground motions. During an earthquake, t
he camera remains fixed but the ground moves. So by installing under the clock,
a pen in contact with a sheet of paper, it is secured to the ground, therefore,
subject to vibrations, it will record a broken line characteristic is called a s
eismogram. Now, there are, whose pen was replaced by a laser directed onto photo
graphic paper. Moreover, it often happens that the temperature of the fumaroles
of the crater increases before an eruption. Therefore, researchers measure tempe
rature and analyze the changes in the composition of gaseous emissions. On the o
ther hand,€they photograph all the hot spots with infrared satellites (Nimbus a
nd ERTS).
The knowledge of scholars on the bowels of the earth is very small, but one day,
perhaps we will manage to provide all the eruptions and channel all the energy
from volcanism
Questions on text
1) What are the different signs (6) warning for volcanic eruptions? ............
...................................... .........................................
......... .................. ..................................................
.................................................. .................. ..........
........................................ .......................................
........... .................. .................................................
. .................................................. .................. 2) How d
o the animals ?........................................... ..... ...............
................................... ............................................
...... .................. 3) What do you call the device used to record ground s
haking? .................................................. .....................
............................. .................. 4) What do the researchers to m
onitor the fumaroles? .................................................. .......
........................................... .................. .................
................................. ..............................................
.... .................. 5) Which "object" set-it increasingly to monitor volcano
es? .................................................. .........................
......................... .................. 9
The most deadly volcanoes
Volcanoes
Tambora (Indonesia) Krakatoa (Indonesia) Montagne Peleus (Martinique), Unzen (Ja
pan) Laki (Iceland)
The highest volcanoes in the world
of
Europe
Year
1815 1883 1902 1792 1783
Victim Number 92000
36,000 30,000 10,400 10,000
Name of volcano
Africa
Sicily Etna e Altitud 3295 Katla Iceland Iceland Hekla 1500 1447 1267 Vesuvius I
taly Stromboli Italy (Sicily) 926 4565 Cameroon Cameroon Tanzania Mem 4070 Teyde
Rico Canary Islands 3707 Piton de la Reunion 2515
Furnace
Country
Year
1971 1918 1970 1949 1955 1910 1922 1909 1953? 1942 1949 1843 1950 1902 1909 1792
1969 1955
America
Asia
Antarctiqu e
Cotopaxi Anaconga Misti Rainier Mauna Loa Mountain Peleus Korintji Fuji Yama May
on Erebus
Argentina Ecuador Peru USA USA (Hawaii) Martinique -------------- Indonesia Japa
n Philippines
6958 5896 5842 4391 9170 1397 3800 3776 2421 4020
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Of volcanologists FAMOUS
A. THE KRAFFT. Katia and Maurice Krafft, volcanologists renowned died on 06.03.1
991 on the slopes of Unzen while attending the eruption caught by a pyroclastic
flow. KATIA invented the portable gas analyzer:
B. It is a volcanologist Haroun Tazieff Belgian, born in Warsaw in Poland in 191
4, died in Paris in 1998. Haroun Tazieff has made many films (examples: STROMBOL
I, WAKE OF ETNA, HAIL OF FIRE). He became famous in 1951. He published many book
s.
1) What is the highest volcano ?........................................ .......
.... .................................................. ........................
.......................... ................ 2) What is the deadliest volcano ?..
...................................... . .......................................
........... .................................................. ................
3) What is the camera's Katia KRAFFT invented? ................... .............
..................................... ..........................................
........ ................ 4) Give three types of eruption? .....................
............................. .......... .......................................
........... .................................................. ................
5) Cite the names of two famous volcanologists? ............................ ...
............................................... ................................
.................. ................ 6) What flows from the crater? .............
................................... ............................................
...... .................................................. ................ 7) Wh
at is Pompeii? .................................................. ..............
.................................................. ............................
...................... ................ 8) What do you call the unit to prevent
breakouts? . .................................................. ................
.................................. ................ 9) Where are the Tambora vol
cano Krakatoa and? .. .................................................. .......
........................................................... 10) What is the shap
e of a volcano? ............................................... ................
.................................. .............................................
..... ................ 11) What does the magma come together there? ............
......................... .................................................. ...
............................................... ................ 12) What resear
chers hope will happen one day compared to volcanoes? ..........................
........................ .................................................. ....
............
DO YOU HAVE ANY USED?
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