Zou Yushi_Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Shale Formations

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Zou Yushi_Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Shale Formations

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DOI 10.1007/s00603-016-1001-5

ORIGINAL PAPER

on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Shale Formations

Zou Yushi1 Ma Xinfang1 Zhang Shicheng1 Zhou Tong1 Li Han2

Received: 22 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published online: 17 May 2016

Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Abstract Shale formations are often characterized by low anisotropy. This study may help predict the HF growth

matrix permeability and contain numerous bedding planes geometry and optimize the fracturing treatment designs in

(BPs) and natural fractures (NFs). Massive hydraulic shale formations with complex depositional heterogeneity.

fracturing is an important technology for the economic

development of shale formations in which a large-scale Keywords Shale Bedding plane Natural fracture

hydraulic fracture network (HFN) is generated for hydro- Anisotropy Hydraulic fracture network

carbon flow. In this study, HFN propagation is numerically

investigated in a horizontally layered and naturally frac- List of symbols

tured shale formation by using a newly developed complex p Fluid pressure within the fracture

fracturing model based on the 3D discrete element method. pint Initial fluid pressure within the

In this model, a succession of continuous horizontal BP fracture

interfaces and vertical NFs is explicitly represented and a l Fluid dynamic viscosity

shale matrix block is considered impermeable, transversely Qt Total injection rate

isotropic, and linearly elastic. A series of simulations is q Local flow rate within the fracture

performed to illustrate the influence of anisotropy, associ- Fn ; F s Normal and shear forces on a contact

ated with the presence of BPs, on the HFN propagation kn ; ks Normal and shear contact stiffness

geometry in shale formations. Modeling results reveal that Fnmax ; Fsmax Tensile and shear bond strengths of a

the presence of BP interfaces increases the injection pres- contact

s

sure during fracturing. HF deflection into a BP interface Ffric Friction force of a contact

tends to occur under high strength and elastic anisotropy as un ; us Normal and shear displacements

well as in low vertical stress anisotropy conditions, which Dun ; Dus Normal and shear displacement

generate a T-shaped or horizontal fracture. Opened BP increments

interfaces may limit the growth of the fracture upward and w Fracture aperture

downward, resulting in a very low stimulated thickness. wres Fracture residual aperture

However, the opened BP interfaces favor fracture com- rij Cauchy stress tensor

plexity because of the improved connection between HFs bi Body force per unit volume

and NFs horizontally under moderate vertical stress ui;t ; ui;tt Velocity and acceleration

q Rock density

a Damping coefficient

D Elasticity tensor

& Zou Yushi e Strain tensor

zouyushi@126.com A Contact area

Gv Shear modulus parallel to bedding

1

China University of Petroleum, Beijing, China plane

2

Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

123

3598 Z. Yushi et al.

Eh ; E v Youngs moduli parallel and criteria of HFNF interaction and the interference among

perpendicular to bedding plane adjacent fractures by calculating the stress shadow.

mh ; mv Poissons ratios parallel and Several other rock-mechanics-based numerical methods

perpendicular to bedding plane have been used to study HFN generation. Olson (2008) and

T0h ; T0v Tensile strengths parallel and Olson and Dahi-Taleghani (2009) described a pseudo-3D

perpendicular to bedding plane boundary element method (BEM)-based HFN model where

S0h ; S0v Cohesions parallel and multiple fractures growth satisfies the subcritical power

perpendicular to bedding plane law, and both tensile and shear failures are considered

u0h ; u0v Frictional angles parallel and while assuming a constant and uniform hydraulic pressure

perpendicular to bedding plane within the fractures. Dahi-Taleghani and Olson (2009,

kh ; kv Permeability parallel and 2014) presented a 2D plane-strain extended finite element

perpendicular to bedding plane method (XFEM) model which can simulate the creation of

knf Permeability of natural fracture asymmetric fracture wings and the diversion of the fracture

Tnf Tensile strength of natural fracture path along NFs. The above-mentioned BEM and XFEM,

Snf Cohesion of natural fracture which are classified as continuum-based methods, can

unf Frictional angle of natural fracture efficiently treat the fractures of arbitrary pathways without

rhmax ; rhmin and rv Maximum, minimum horizontal and re-meshing. Many significant studies have also been con-

vertical in situ stresses ducted by utilizing the commercially available codes

Drh ; Drv Horizontal and vertical stress PFC2D, UDEC, and 3DEC (Nagel et al. 2013; Nasehi and

anisotropies Mortazavi 2013; Hamidi and Mortazavi 2014). These are

h Intersection angle between hydraulic based on a discontinuum method, commonly known as the

fracture and natural fracture discrete element method (DEM). In this method, the for-

mation comprises numerous mutually bonded particles (in

PFC2D) or deformable blocks (in UDEC and 3DEC), and

several sets of joints between all neighboring particles or

blocks form a flow network to generate HFs (Itasca Con-

1 Introduction sulting Group Inc., 2014). Compared with continuum

methods, the advantage of this method is that the dense

Multistage hydraulic fracturing of a horizontal well is preexisting discontinuities or contacts between the blocks

required for the development of shale formations in which as well as their mechanical behavior during HF develop-

a large-scale hydraulic fracture network (HFN) is gener- ment in a fractured rock mass can be appropriately mod-

ated to transport hydrocarbons to a wellbore. The stimu- eled. DEM was comprehensively introduced in the latest

lated reservoir volume has been interpreted by review by Lisjak and Grasselli (2014). Weng (2015) pre-

microseismic mapping (Fisher et al. 2002; Warpinski et al. sented an overview of the hydraulic fracturing models

2005). To simulate the hydraulic fracturing process in developed and applied to simulate complex fractures in

naturally fractured formations while considering the effect naturally fractured formations.

of natural fractures (NFs) and multiple fracture interac- All models mentioned so far considered the formations

tions, models of varying complexity have been developed. as isotropic, and few studies have focused on the effects of

Xu et al. (2010) and Meyer and Bazan (2011) proposed a formation anisotropy (Zhao et al. 2014). Shale formations

wire-mesh model and a discrete fracture network model, are multilayered and typically exhibit anisotropic proper-

respectively. In both these pseudo-3D models, the HFN ties, which result from the existence of bedding planes

geometry is represented by an elliptical region with two (BPs) or layer interfaces (Gale et al. 2007; Waters et al.

sets of parallel and uniformly spaced vertical fractures 2011; Mokhtari et al. 2014). Figure 1 shows that numerous

along the directions of horizontal principal stress. Weng NFs and BPs (or layer interfaces) exist in the Longmaxi

et al. (2011) presented a pseudo-3D-based complex net- Wufeng shale formations in the Sichuan Basin, China. The

work model known as the unconventional fracture model. effects of shale BPs on the complex HFN growth have been

Similar to the wire-mesh model and discrete fracture net- directly observed through laboratory fracturing tests

work model, the unconventional fracture model considers (Suarez-Rivera et al. 2013; Guo et al. 2014; Zou et al.

some important features that are expected to be involved in 2016). Layer interfaces influence the HF growth in the

a fracturing treatment simulation, such as proppant trans- vertical direction, which was documented through the

port, non-Newtonian fluid behavior, and wellbore and mine-back experiments or/and fracture mapping (Fisher

perforation parameters. More importantly, it can simulate and Warpinski 2012; Rutledge et al. 2014). Furthermore,

the creation of complex HFNs by considering both the the height-growth-limiting mechanism or BP failure

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3599

(a) (b)

799 m 800 m

NFs

1m

BPs

Longmaxi

Layer interface

Wufeng v

799.5 m 800.5 m

h 10 cm

Fig. 1 a A shale outcrop exposed area and b the core section of the h and v in this study represent the directions parallel and perpendic-

LongmaxiWufeng formations in the Sichuan Basin, China. The ular to the BP, respectively

horizontal BPs and vertical NFs are visible. The scripts or subscripts

mechanism induced by HF has been extensively researched Vertical fracture growth, which is similar to the first case,

(Hanson et al. 1981; Cooke and Underwood 2001; Zhang is implicitly assumed to occur in most existing HF design

et al. 2007; Zhang and Jeffrey 2012; Fisher and Warpinski models. As HFs generally propagate along the path with

2012). A HF encountering a BP may result in four cases: the least resistance, the assumption can be reasonable in the

penetration, diversion, offset, and termination (Fig. 2) deep formations, wherein the vertical principal stress is

(Thiercelin et al. 1987). In the first case (Fig. 2a), a HF significantly larger than the horizontal minimum principal

penetrates through the BP without changing the growth stress. Fractures mapped in shale formations in North

path. In the second case (Fig. 2b), a vertical HF is deflected America indicate that the tallest fractures occur in the

into the BP and is divided into two branches. A part of or deepest wells in a specific formation, whereas the shal-

the entire HF may grow along the horizontal BP such that lowest wells in a certain formation generally have the least

the vertical HF eventually terminates at the BP, forming a measured fracture height (Fisher and Warpinski 2012). The

T-shaped fracture. Under some conditions, a HF may also constrained height growth in the shallow formations is

re-initiate and leave a step-over at the BP (Fig. 2c). In an most likely because of the creation of horizontal fractures.

extreme case (Fig. 2d), a HF may terminate at the BP. Therefore, the BP effect must be incorporated in complex

intersections with a BP interface

(Thiercelin et al. 1987) BP

HF

v

Step-over

hmax hmin

123

3600 Z. Yushi et al.

the predefined planes of the BPs and NFs (refer to Sect. 3.1).

The fluid pressure distribution inside the fractures is calcu-

lated by the finite element method (FEM). The fluid pressure

is then exerted on the surrounding blocks (refer to Fig. 4c),

resulting in deformations and changes in the stress states at

the block contacts. If the stress level at the interface between

two blocks exceeds a threshold value either in tension

(maximum tensile stress criterion) or in shear (Coulomb

criterion), a HF is generated, as shown in Fig. 4d (see

Sect. 2.3). The specific numerical method employed in this

study is as follows.

any given fracture with two parallel surfaces is governed

by lubrication equations (Batchelor 1967), which are the

Fig. 3 Shale formation highly fractured by the preexisting discon-

tinuities (e.g., NFs or/and BPs), and multiple hydraulic fractures local mass conservation equation (Eq. 1) and Poiseuilles

created during horizontal well fracturing. This is a numerical law (Eq. 2).

simulation result where the scattered blue rectangles represent the

preexisting discontinuities and the other colors represent the HFs,

which are the same in all the following figures (Color figure online) ow oq

0; 1

ot os

w3 op

fracture models to ensure the accurate prediction of HF q ; 2

growth geometry in shale formations. 12l os

During horizontal well fracturing in a shale formation, where w and p are the fracture aperture and fluid pressure,

multiple HFs connect dense preexisting discontinuities respectively, at position s = s (x, y, z) and time t; q is the

such as BPs and NFs, thereby making the shale rock mass local flow rate inside the HFN; and l is the fluid dynamic

highly fractured. This type of shale rock mass can be viscosity. Given that the shale matrix block is considered

reasonably referred to as a discontinuous medium, which impermeable because of its ultra-low permeability, the

can be modeled well by the DEM as discussed above fluid loss into the matrix is neglected. Therefore, the global

(Fig. 3). Hence, this study proposes a HFN propagation mass conservation in the entire HFN is expressed as

model using DEM to examine the resulting HF geometry follows:

under different geological conditions in a layered and Z

naturally fractured shale formation. This model is validated w ds tQt ; 3

against analytical models and published laboratory frac- Xf

turing test results. The simulation program was coded in where Qt is the total injection rate. Given a single frac-

C??, and the resulting images were processed using the turing interval that includes N perforation clusters and a

commercial software TECPLOT. single HF initiated from each perforation cluster, the sum

of the flow rates into all fractures should be equal to the

P

total injection rate, i.e., Qt Ni1 Qi (Fig. 5). The diver-

2 Model Description sion of the fluid into each fracture depends on the fracture

aperture and fluid pressure within the fracture (refer to

Similar to the conventional DEM (Itasca Consulting Group Eq. 2). Any fracture branch is assumed to be completely

Inc., 2014), the shale rock mass in the current model is filled with fluid, and no flow occurs at the fracture tip. The

divided into several block elements that are bonded by vir- initial pressure inside the DFN is pint.

tual springs (Fig. 4a, b), which transfer interaction forces

among blocks. The motion of each block is determined by 2.2 Rock Deformation Equation

the magnitude of the resultant unbalanced force that acts on

it. The joint elements inserted between all contacting blocks In this study, each block of the rock mass is considered to

build a continuous flow network (called DFN) for generating have limited deformability and to be no-rotational (small

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3601

Fs Fn

n

ks

Block kn s

Fs Fn

Fn-Fs

(c) (d)

Separation Bond breakage

Fmax

s

Bond breakage

Fmax

n

p s Slippage

F fric

kn

1 ks

1

un-us

Fmax

i : bond strength

ki: contact stiffness Overlap

ui: displacement

Fig. 4 Modeling HF propagation based on DEM: a schematic pressure (p) within the HF exerted on the boundaries of the block

representation of the discrete block elements (gray blocks) and joint elements; d constitutive behavior in tension and shear modes (i = n,

elements (blue dotted lines); b neighboring blocks are bonded s). b, d Are re-drawn according to the study of Kazerani and Zhao

together at their contact points with normal and shear springs; c fluid (2010) (Color figure online)

distribution. Red arrows

indicate the directions of the

fluid flow during fracturing

(Color figure online)

Qt

QN Q3 Q2 Q1

displacement without rotation), and its motion follows where nj is the vector normal to the HF surfaces. The

Newtons second law. The dynamic stress equilibrium stressstrain relationship satisfies the linear elastic consti-

equation for the blocks is as follows (Jaeger et al. 2007): tutive law (Jaeger et al. 2007) such that

rij;j bi qui;tt aui;t 0; 4 rij Dijst est ; 6

where rij is the Cauchy stress tensor; bi is the body force where Dijst is the component of the elasticity tensor and est

per unit volume; ui;t and ui;tt are the velocity and acceler- is the component of the strain tensor. Only two elastic

ation, respectively; q is the rock density; and a is the constants are required to describe the full mechanical

damping coefficient. The stress induced by the fluid pres- behavior of an isotropic elastic rock: Youngs modulus E

sure inside the HF can be expressed as and Poissons ratio v. However, many shale formations can

be characterized as transversely isotropic because of their

rij nj pj ; 5

123

3602 Z. Yushi et al.

layered structure. The implication is that the elastic prop- no breakage occurs at the contact point, and the normal

erties are equal in all directions on a BP (isotropic plane) force Fn and shear force Fs are updated as follows:

but different in the direction perpendicular to the BP. In a

Fn : Fn kn Dun ; 11

shale formation with horizontal layers that are oriented

perpendicular to the direction of rv , the elasticity tensor D Fs : Fs ks Dus : 12

is expressed as follows (Itasca Consulting Group Inc., If Fn Fnmax , the tensile failure occurs at the contact

2014):

2 31 point. The normal force Fn and shear force Fs are then

1=Eh mh =Eh mv =Ev 0 0 0 updated as follows:

6 m =E 1=Eh mv =Ev 0 0 0 7

6 h h 7

6 7 Fn 0; 13

6 mv =Ev mv =Ev 1=Ev 0 0 0 7

D6

6 0

7 ;

6 0 0 21 mh =Eh 0 0 77 Fs 0: 14

6 7

4 0 0 0 0 1=Gv 0 5

0 0 0 0 0 1=Gv If jFs j Fsmax , the shear failure occurs at the contact point.

7 The normal force Fn and shear force Fs are then updated as

follows:

where five independent elastic constants, including

Fn : Fn kn Dun ; 15

Youngs moduli Eh, Ev, Poissons ratios vh, vv, and shear

s

modulus Gv, are required to describe linear elastic prop- Fs Ffric tan uFn : 16

erties for a transversely isotropic rock. Lekhnitskii (1981)

suggested that Gv can be determined through Eq. (8) based

2.4 Iterative Coupling

on laboratory testing:

Ev E h The coupling of the fracturing fluid flow inside the DFN

Gv : 8

Eh 1 2mv Ev and the rock deformation is solved by using an iterative

algorithm. By applying the Galerkin FEM, which is one

of the weighted residual methods wherein the trial func-

2.3 Interaction of Contacting Blocks and HF

tion sequence of the approximate solution is treated as the

Propagation

weight function (Yew 1997), the fluid flow equation was

discretized. However, the discrete version of the flow

The mechanical interaction between two contacting blocks

equation is nonlinear because of the direct relation

is determined by the contact constitutive law (Kazerani and

between p and w. The Picard iterative solution method

Zhao 2010; Itasca Consulting Group Inc., 2014), as shown

was used to solve this nonlinear equation (Adachi et al.

in Fig. 4d. Neighboring blocks are initially bonded toge-

2007). For each time step, given the trial solution

ther at their contact points with the normal and shear

wm ; pm , a fixed point strategy based on this approach

springs, which break when the failure criteria (maximum

involves solving the fluid flow equation for pm1 , which is

tensile stress criterion and/or Coulomb criterion) are sat-

then used in the rock deformation equation to calculate

isfied. The forcedisplacement Fn ; un and Fs ; us at a

wm1 . If the convergence criterion is not satisfied, the

contact point in the normal and shear directions, respec-

solutions are modified at each internal iteration step as

tively, are governed by the normal contact stiffness kn ,

follows:

shear contact stiffness ks , tensile strength T0, cohesion S0,

and friction angle u. According to the beam theory, kn and pm1 1 bpm bpm1 ; 17

ks are related to the Youngs modulus E and shear modulus

wm1 1 bwm bwm1 : 18

G by kn EA=L and ks GA=L, respectively, where A is

the contact area and L is the characteristic length of a This process converges for 0\b\0:5 (Adachi et al.

p

contact plane, given by L A (refer to Fig. 4b). The 2007). According to the parallel plate model, the rela-

maximum possible magnitudes of normal force Fnmax and tionship between the initial aperture w0 and permeability k

shear force Fsmax that the spring can endure at a contact of the fracture can be given as (Zimmerman and Bod-

point are calculated as follows: varsson 1996):

Fnmax AT0 ; 9 p

w0 12k: 19

Fsmax AS0 tan uFn : 10

The matrix permeability in directions parallel and per-

The updated values of normal and shear forces Fn and Fs at pendicular to the BP (kh and kv) and NF permeability (knf)

each contact point are calculated after each time step. If must be different; thus, their initial apertures are also dif-

Fn \Fnmax (the tensile force is negative) and jFs j\Fsmax , ferent. Moreover, under the compressional stress, two

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3603

neighboring blocks may interact by embedding and over- z = 3060 m; layer 3: z = 6090 m; and layer 4: z = 90

lapping each other, which will lead to the closure of the 120 m). The NF system that contains 1800 NFs is gener-

fracture existing between them (Fig. 4d). Hence, a residual ated stochastically (Dershowitz and Einstein 1988; Bour

fracture aperture wres, which is equal to the initial fracture et al. 2002; Gale et al. 2007). It exhibits a 0.15-m/m2 linear

aperture w0 in the present study, should be defined to density, which is equal to the total length of all NFs divided

guarantee the convergence and stability in solving the flow by the formation area; a random strike angle (h), corre-

equation. Figure 4d shows that the fracture aperture w is sponding to the intersection angle between the NF and the

equal to the normal relative displacement un between the y-axis; and a 90 dip angle (Fig. 6b). The center point

two contacting blocks. Equation (4) is solved by the coordinates, lengths, and strike directions of the NFs are

dynamic relaxation technique, which is an explicit time- drawn from a uniform distribution, a power-law distribu-

domain integration scheme. For details on this solution tion, and a truncated normal distribution, respectively. All

method, please refer to the Itasca Consulting Group Inc., NFs are represented by smooth planar rectangles, and the

(2014). roughness of the real fracture surface is not considered. The

length of the NFs ranges from 5 to 20 m, whereas the

height of the NFs is fixed at 30 m. The initial aperture of

3 Model Setup and Validation the NFs is related to the average permeability of the NFs

(refer to Eq. 19), as shown in Table 1.

3.1 Model Setup Figure 6c shows the model mesh with the triangular

prism element, which has an average edge length of 1 m. In

A multilayered and naturally fractured formation with three the model meshing process, the BP and NF planes are

horizontal BP interfaces (Fig. 6a) and a NF system treated as predetermined edges (Grasselli et al. 2015). The

(Fig. 6b) is established. The model is 600 m long (y-axis), final HF pattern is strongly related to the element size and

300 m wide (x-axis), and 120 m thick (z-axis). The three geometry because the HF growth path is limited to the

BP interfaces are equally spaced 30 m apart and divide the interface between two neighboring elements. Thus, mesh

formation into four layers (layer 1: z = 030 m; layer 2: refinement should be performed in the potential regions

Fig. 6 Layered and naturally fractured shale formation containing preferentially aligned along the planes of the BPs (black lines) and

a three horizontal BP interfaces and b a preexisting NF system. NFs (pink lines) (Color figure online)

c Model mesh using triangular prism elements with edges

123

3604 Z. Yushi et al.

Table 1 Shale properties used in the numerical simulations z = 55), and four perforation clusters were located at

Parameters (symbol) Unit Value

coordinates (120, 300, 55), (140, 300, 55), (160, 300, 55),

and (180, 300, 55) (unit: m), as shown in Fig. 7.

Matrix

Matrix density, q kg/m3 2600 3.2 Comparison with Analytical Solutions

Permeability, kh and kv lD 1.0; 0.1 and Laboratory Tests

Youngs modulus, Eh and Ev GPa 40; 32

Poissons ratio, mh and mv decimal 0.25; 0.2 The present numerical model is compared with three lim-

Tensile strength, T0h and T0v MPa 8; 5 iting cases for validation, including a bi-wing HF (with a

Cohesion, S0h and S0v MPa 10; 16 120-m fracture height) (Fig. 8a), a horizontal HF (Fig. 8b),

Frictional angle, uh and uv 30; 45 and a bi-wing HF intersected by two NFs (with a fracture

Natural fracture height of 30 m) (Fig. 9). The constant parameters for all

Permeability, knf lD 50 model validations are chosen as follows: l = 5 MPa s,

Tensile strength, T0nf MPa 1.24 Qt = 5 m3/min, pint = 35 MPa, rv 50 MPa, rhmin

Cohesion, S0nf MPa 3.75 45 MPa, and rhmax 60 MPa; however, the third case had

Frictional angle, unf 25 rhmax = 4560 MPa.

The growth of a simple bi-wing HF from a horizontal

well in an isotropic formation without preexisting discon-

tinuities is initially simulated (Fig. 8a). The average values

of the shale properties in the two directions parallel and

perpendicular to the BP are chosen for this simulation, e.g.,

Youngs modulus E Eh Ev =2 (Table 1). The data in

Table 1 are obtained from laboratory tests of the Longmaxi

shale formation (Fig. 1). The comparison of the numerical

result with the full length of the HF presented by using the

PerkinsKernNordgren (PKN) model without leak-off

(Perkins and Kern 1961; Nordren 1972) is shown in

Fig. 10a, which displays a 9.8 % error. However, when the

formation is considered as a layered and transversely iso-

tropic medium, the HF is completely deflected by a BP

interface, resulting in a horizontal fracture (Fig. 8b). The

diameter of this horizontal fracture was compared with that

calculated by the radial model without leak-off (Perkins

and Kern 1961; Geertsma and De Klerk 1969), as shown in

Fig. 10a, which exhibits an 11.7 % error. Both the PKN

and radial models assumed that the energy required to

propagate the fracture was significantly less than that

required to allow fluid flow along the fracture, so the rock

toughness or rock strength in the fracture growth direction

was not considered. In addition, the fluid leak-off was

neglected for both the PKN and radial models in the pre-

Fig. 7 Top view of a horizontal wellbore set along the x-axis sent study, resulting in a high growth rate of the fracture

(y = 300 and z = 55) and four perforation clusters (Perf. 1, Perf. 2,

Perf. 3, and Perf. 4) located at coordinates (120, 300, 55), (140, 300, length. Considering a fluid was injected into an unbounded

55), (160, 300, 55), and (180, 300, 55) fracture (T0 0 MPa) and not allowed to flow into the

surrounding joints, our numerical modeling results (frac-

where the fractures may be generated. The reasonable ture length in Fig. 10a and net pressure in Fig. 10b) match

element size can be assessed by comparing the numerical well the analytical solutions of the PKN and the radial

modeling results with the analytical solutions and labora- models. In this case, the error is reduced to 3.6 and 4.9 %

tory test results, which will be presented in Sect. 3.2. The for the bi-wing and horizontal HFs, respectively.

minimum (rh min ) and maximum (rh max ) horizontal stres- The accuracy of this numerical model in simulating the

ses as well as the vertical stress (rv ) were set in the interaction behavior between HF and NF is demonstrated

directions parallel to the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. A by examining the HF growth path in an isotropic formation

horizontal wellbore was set along the x-axis (y = 300 and (a single layer of 30-m thickness) that contains two NFs

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3605

Fig. 8 Fracture geometry under different formation conditions: a a simple bi-wing HF growth without considering NFs and BPs; b a single

horizontal HF growth along the BP interface

Fig. 9 Two representative results of the HFNF interaction, a HF crossing the NFs without changing the growth path, b HF opening the NFs and

growing along them

exhibiting the properties mentioned in Table 1. The results conducted. Figure 9a, b shows two representative results,

are then compared with published experimental data i.e., the HF crossing the NFs without changing the growth

(Blanton 1986; Warpinski and Teufel 1987; Gu et al. path, and the HF opening the NFs and growing along them

2011). The numerical simulation parameter values are (which is similar to the results of HFBP interaction shown

chosen as similar as possible to those used in the experi- in Fig. 2a, b), respectively. Figure 10c shows all numerical

ments in order to establish compatibility between the results for the HFNF interactions at different h and Drh ,

numerical and experimental results, such as the horizontal which are consistent with the experimental results of

stress anisotropy Drh 0 15 MPa (Drh rh max Blanton (1986), Warpinski and Teufel (1987) and Gu et al.

rh min ) and the intersection angle h 0 90 . A series of (2011). Moreover, Fig. 10c demonstrates that the HF tends

numerical simulations of the HFNF interaction are to cross the NFs under the relatively high Drh and h

123

3606 Z. Yushi et al.

Fig. 10 Comparisons between the numerical model and the PKN curves; b net pressure versus time curves; c the HF crossing (refer to

model for a bi-wing HF, radial model for a horizontal HF, and Fig. 9a) or opening (refer to Fig. 9b) the NFs at different h and Drh

experiments for the HFNF interaction: a fracture length versus time

conditions (on the top right side of the separating line); 4.1 HF Geometry in an Isotropic Formation

otherwise, the HF tends to open the NFs under the rela- Containing a NF System

tively low Drh and h conditions (on the bottom left side of

the separating line). Figure 11 shows the HF geometries for different horizontal

stress anisotropies Drh in an isotropic formation containing

a NF system. When Drh increases, the resulting HFN is

4 Results and Analysis less complex. In the isotropic case of Drh 0 MPa, the

HFs that initiated from the four perforation clusters mainly

Based on the configuration shown in Fig. 6, we primarily grew along the preexisting NF system, resulting in a highly

investigated the effects of vertical stress anisotropy complex HFN (249 m long in the y-axis direction and

Drv rv rh min , elastic anisotropy Eh =Ev , and strength 290 m wide in the x-axis direction) near the horizontal

anisotropy T0h =T0v (set it equal to S0v =S0h ) on the HF growth wellbore (Fig. 11a). For Drh 5 MPa, the resulting HFN

geometry in a layered and naturally fractured shale formation, (375 m long and 158 m wide) became longer, narrower,

which was considered an anisotropic medium. The basic shale and less complex (Fig. 11b). When Drh 10 MPa, multi-

properties used in numerical simulations are listed in Table 1, ple HFs grew mainly along the direction of rh max , and their

and rhmin 45 MPa was fixed. We determined the influence growth paths were slightly influenced by the preexisting

of each parameter when its value varied within a range (e.g., NF system (Fig. 11c, d). Note that all HFs in the HFN were

rhmax = 4565 MPa, rv = 4565 MPa, Eh = 2040 GPa, vertical and had the same height as the formation thickness

T0v = 0.88 MPa, or S0h = 1.6 16 MPa), while all other of 120 m. Moreover, the simultaneously growing HFs from

parameters remained constant. A slick-water fluid of viscosity different perforation clusters were relatively isolated in

l = 5 MPa s was pumped for T = 120 min through four space near the horizontal wellbore. However, these HFs

perforation clusters at a rate of Qt = 12 m3/min. have altered their initial growth paths in the region far from

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3607

Fig. 11 HF geometry for various horizontal stress anisotropies in an isotropic formation containing a NF system, a Drh 0 MPa, b Drh 5

MPa, c Drh 10 MPa, and d Drh 15 MPa

the horizontal wellbore because of the mechanical inter- 4.2 Influence of Anisotropy on the HF Geometry

action among fractures (namely stress shadow), which

affects the resulting HF geometry. In fact, the HFs from the The results presented in Sect. 4.1 reveal the difficulty in

exterior perforation clusters located at coordinates (120, creating a complex HFN in an isotropic formation con-

300, 55) and (180, 300, 55) tend to be deflected away from taining a NF system when Drh [ 10 MPa. Here, we

those from the interior perforation clusters located at examine how a HF can grow in a layered and naturally

coordinates (140, 300, 55) and (160, 300, 55) (Fig. 11c, d). fractured formation containing not only a NF system but

Meanwhile, the HFs from the interior perforation clusters also the BP interfaces when Drh reaches up to 15 MPa. A

tend to merge. Olson (2008) observed that the mechanical series of numerical simulations with different anisotropies

interaction among multiple transverse HFs from a hori- (Drv , Eh =Ev , or T0h =T0v ) were performed. Figures 12, 13,

zontal wellbore was closely related to the ratio of net and 14 present three representative cases to demonstrate a

pressure to horizontal stress anisotropy and fracture change from a single horizontal HF to a complex HFN as

spacing. Drv increases from 5 to 10 MPa and then to multiple

123

3608 Z. Yushi et al.

Fig. 12 A single horizontal HF created when Drv 5 MPa, wellbore in layer 2 (z = 3060 m); c no long fractures are created in

Eh =Ev 1:25, T0h =T0v 10, and t = 20 min: a view of HF geom- layer 4 (z = 90120 m); d the weak-strength BP interface (z = 60 m)

etry (x = 150 m and y = 300 m); b HFs initiated vertically but near the horizontal wellbore is completely opened in both tensile and

cannot propagate far from the perforation clusters of the horizontal shear failure modes

vertical HFs when Drv 15 MPa. Moreover, Fig. 15 continuous BP interface (z = 60 m) on top of the horizontal

shows the critical conditions determined by all the wellbore (Fig. 12d). The weakstrength BP interface opens

numerical results for predicting the HF geometry created in both tensile and shear failure modes. Meanwhile, a large

under a specific anisotropy condition. amount of fracturing fluid from this opened BP interface

Figure 12 demonstrates that a single horizontal HF is leaks off into the closed NF system, creating a fluid invasion

created when Drv 5 MPa, Eh =Ev 1:25, T0h =T0v 10, area, but the NF system cannot be opened in layer 2

and t = 20 min. Figure 12ad shows the views of this HF (Fig. 12b). Figure 13 shows that a complex HFN is created

geometry. Multiple HFs can be seen to initiate vertically under the same conditions as in the previous case, but with

from the four perforation clusters of the horizontal wellbore Drv 10 MPa and t = 120 min. As depicted in Fig. 13b,

in layer 2 (Fig. 12b), but they then stop propagating in both multiple HFs that initiate vertically from the four perforation

length (or y-axis) and height (or z-axis) and thus cannot clusters of the horizontal wellbore in layer 2 can open and

grow into the deeper layers (Fig. 12c). This phenomenon is connect with the NF system. Meanwhile, the growing HFs

mainly caused because the HFs are deflected into a can penetrate through the BP interfaces into adjacent layers

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3609

Fig. 13 HFN created in the case of Drv 10 MPa, Eh =Ev 1:25, becomes less complex because of the decreased amount of opened

T0h =T0v 10, and t = 120 min: a view of the HF geometry NFs as compared to those created in layer 2; d all the three weak-

(x = 150 m and y = 300 m); b HFN propagated in layer 2 strength BP interfaces are opened

(z = 3060 m); c the resulting HFN in layer 4 (z = 90120 m)

(Fig. 13c) and induce the BP interfaces to open as well the horizontal nodal planes as slip planes that largely fol-

(Fig. 13d). Hence, a complex HFN is generated in this case. lowed continuous BP interfaces. When Drv is up to 15 MPa

However, as the HFN grows into the top (layer 4: z = 90 (and t = 120 min), multiple HFs initiated vertically from

120 m) and bottom (layer 1: z = 030 m) layers, it becomes the four perforation clusters of the horizontal wellbore in

less complex because the height growth of certain NFs in the layer 2 (see Fig. 14b) and penetrated through the three BP

central layer (layer 2: z = 3060 m) is impeded by the top interfaces into adjacent layers without any diversion

(z = 60 m) and bottom (z = 30 m) BP interfaces. The (Fig. 14d). Although a large amount of fluid could leak out

occurrence of number of shear failures at the BP interfaces of the HFs into the BP interfaces (Fig. 14a), the HF height

may be responsible for the blunting of the HF tips in the growth was not restricted. All the HFs had well-connected

height direction. Interestingly, Rutledge et al. (2014) pre- pathways between the different layers (Fig. 14b, c) and the

sented a microseismic mapping result of the Barnett shale same height as the formation thickness of 120 m. The HF

where numerous microseismic events were distributed in the growth paths were slightly influenced by both the BP

pattern of horizontal nodal planes. The authors interpreted interfaces and the NF system because of the large vertical

123

3610 Z. Yushi et al.

Fig. 14 Multiple vertical HFs created without an obvious diversion layer 2 (z = 3060 m); c the resulting HF geometry in layer 4

into the BP interfaces when Drv 15 MPa, Eh =Ev 1:25, (z = 90120 m) is the same as that created in layer 2; d no BP

T0h =T0v 10, and t = 120 min: a view of the HF geometry interface is opened

(x = 150 m and y = 300 m); b multiple vertical HFs are created in

(Drv 15 MPa) and horizontal (Drh 15 MPa) stress the vertically initiated HFs are likely to be deflected into

anisotropies. As a whole, the HF geometry created in this and grow along a horizontal BP interface, which results in

case was similar to that shown in Fig. 11d. a T-shaped fracture (Fig. 12). In general, the vertical HF

The results presented here indicate that the BP interfaces area corresponds to a very small part of the entire resulting

significantly influence the HF growth paths, and the HFN HF geometry. More specifically, in an elastic isotropic

can even be created under a high horizontal stress aniso- formation (Eh =Ev 1), the creation of a single horizontal

tropy (Drh 15 MPa) in shale formations. It is fracture occurs under Drv 2:5 MPa for a strength iso-

notable that inducing multiple BP interfaces to open par- tropy T0h =T0v 1 and under Drv 7 MPa for a high

tially is crucial for the HFN creation. The critical condi- strength anisotropy T0h =T0v 10. On the contrary, under

tions related to the anisotropies of elasticity, strength, and high Drv and low T0h =T0v conditions (on the right side of

vertical stress for the HFs opening or/and crossing the BP the crossing lines), the HFs can penetrate through the BP

interfaces are shown in Fig. 15. Under low Drv and high interfaces without any division of the fracture path and

T0h =T0v conditions (on the left side of the opening lines), only a little fluid may leak off into the BP interfaces. In an

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3611

Fig. 15 Prediction of HF geometry for various anisotropies, a under under an intermediate Drv and T0h =T0v , HFs can cross and open the

low Drv and high T0h =T0v conditions (on the left side of the opening BP interfaces, resulting in an orthogonal HFN growth; b illustration

lines), HFs can open and deflect into a BP interface; under high Drv of the three HF geometries: a single horizontal HF, multiple vertical

and low T0h =T0v conditions (on the right side of the crossing lines), HFs, and a HFN

HFs can cross a succession of BP interfaces without any diversion;

without a horizontal component under Drv 4:5 MPa for a

strength isotropy T0h =T0v 1 and under Drv [ 12 MPa for

a high strength anisotropy T0h =T0v 10. Between the

above-mentioned two extremes, a potential intermediate

state is that the HFs can propagate vertically and branch

into the horizontal BP interfaces, which leads to an

orthogonal HFN growth. If this orthogonal HFN connected

with a NF system, a more complex HFN will eventually be

created.

The modeling results mentioned in the preceding para-

graphs suggest that the strength anisotropy and vertical

stress anisotropy control the HF growth pattern in each

layer of the shale formations. Cooke and Underwood Fig. 16 Injection pressure versus time curves for various vertical

(2001) also demonstrated that the strength of the BP differential stresses when Drh 15 MPa, Eh =Ev 1:25, and

interfaces controls the resulting type of HF intersection T0h =T0v 10

with BP interfaces. HF deflection is favored at very weak

BP interfaces, whereas the HFs propagate straight through 4.3 Influence of Anisotropy on the Injection

the BP interfaces. Meanwhile, the opening of BP interfaces Pressure

is more likely to occur under a low vertical stress aniso-

tropy; otherwise, the BP interfaces rarely open under a high The details of the HF patterns are also reflected in the

vertical stress anisotropy, as discussed by Zhang et al. injection pressure responses. In Fig. 16, the time depen-

(2007) and Zou et al. (2016). If we also consider the effect dence of the injection pressures is given for various vertical

of elastic anisotropy for the above-mentioned cases, then stress anisotropies Drv when Drh 15 MPa,

the potential for HF branching and fluid invasion into the Eh =Ev 1:25, and T0h =T0v 10. For all the cases, HFs

BP interfaces would obviously increase. Figure 15 shows initiate vertically from the perforation clusters when the

that for the same strength anisotropy T0h =T0v 10, HFN injection pressure reaches the breakdown pressure of

growth with opened horizontal BP interfaces occurs when approximately 62 MPa. When the HFs encounter the hor-

Drv 7 12 MPa in an elastic isotropic formation izontal BP interfaces on the top and bottom of the hori-

(Eh =Ev 1), whereas it occurs when Drv 9 15 MPa in zontal wellbore, the HF tips and the fluid flow fronts are

an elastic anisotropic formation (Eh =Ev 2). Grasselli blunted, limiting the HFs growth in the vertical direction.

et al. (2015) also observed that the resulting HFN system is During this period, the injection pressure rises dramatically

more extensive and complex around a wellbore when the until it reaches the peak pressure. After the peak pressure,

BP interfaces and elastic anisotropy are considered in the the injection pressure progressively declines and eventually

model. remains at a relatively low and stable value (extension

123

3612 Z. Yushi et al.

interface from the HF (Fig. 17). Only, if this tensile stress

exceeds the BP-parallel tensile strength (the maximum

tensile stress criterion is satisfied), can a vertical fracture be

re-initiated across the BP interface as expected.

Figure 18 demonstrates that the injection pressure

decreases generally and the BP opening width (at

z = 60 m) increases rapidly as the elastic anisotropy Eh =Ev

increases when Drv 7 MPa, Drh 15 MPa, and

T0h =T0v 10. A high elastic anisotropy value implies that

the deformation difference between the directions parallel

and perpendicular to the BP is large, and larger deforma-

tion is more likely in the direction perpendicular to the BP.

Fig. 17 Injection pressure versus time curves with (Eh =Ev 1:25 Thus, the vertical HFs can be deflected into the horizontal

and T0h =T0v 10) and without the BP interfaces (Eh =Ev 1 and BP interfaces easily, and a large amount of fluid invades

T0h =T0v 1) when Drh Drv 15 MPa into the BP interfaces with large opening width, resulting

in a relatively low injection pressure.

pressure) when Drv \8 MPa. This phenomenon can be

explained by the fact that the vertically initiated HFs can

always be completely deflected into a single BP interface at 5 Conclusions

z = 60 m when Drv \8 MPa, and the fracture growth path

and fluid flow path are simple, as shown in Fig. 12. On the A numerical approach based on DEM is presented to

contrary, the extension pressure is relatively high and investigate HFN propagation in a layered and naturally

fluctuant when Drv [ 8 MPa because the multiple vertical fractured formation such as a shale formation. The inherent

fractures propagate simultaneously and interfere with each BPs and NFs of this formation are captured by inserting a

other. Note that the magnitude of the peak and extension series of horizontally continuous and randomly distributed

pressure increases with Drv . This can be explained by the vertical interfaces, respectively. Various factors are con-

fact that the injection pressure for the growth of a single sidered in the numerical experiments, including elasticity,

horizontal HF (when Drv \8 MPa) or of multiple hori- strength, and stress anisotropies between the directions

zontal HFs existing in the HFN (when Drv = 815 MPa) parallel and perpendicular to the layer. Three possible

mainly depends on the vertical stress Drv ; however, when cases of HFs intersecting with BPs are presented, including

Drv [ 15 MPa, the injection pressure is determined pri- the HF penetration through the BP interface without any

marily by the minimum horizontal stress rhmin for the diversion, deflection into the BP interface, and simultane-

multiple vertical HF growth. Overall, the presence of BP ous occurrence of the two previous cases. Therefore, HFN

interfaces blunts the HF tips in the vertical direction, so a propagation is actually not always vertical, which may

greater injection pressure is required to induce a large BP- result in a dramatically different fracture pattern.

Fig. 18 a Injection pressure versus time curves and b maximum opening width of the BP interface at z = 60 m for various elastic anisotropies

when Drv 7 MPa, Drh 15 MPa, and T0h =T0v 10

123

Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network 3613

Considering the above-mentioned effects in the model is Gale JFW, Reed RM, Holder J (2007) Natural fractures in the Barnett

important for the accurate simulation of the HFN growth shale and their importance for hydraulic fracture treatments.

AAPG Bull 91(4):603622

pattern in the shale formations. Geertsma J, de Klerk F (1969) A rapid method of predicting width

Low vertical stress anisotropy is favorable in generating a and extent of hydraulically induced fractures. J Pet Technol

pure horizontal HF along the BP. A relatively low and smooth 21:15711581

injection pressure that commonly responds to this horizontal Grasselli G, Lisjak A, Omid K, Mahabadi OK, Tatone BSA (2015)

Influence of pre-existing discontinuities and bedding planes on

HF creation is insufficient in opening a closed NF system and hydraulic fracturing initiation. Eur J Environ Civ Eng

generating a HFN even under low horizontal stress anisotropy. 19(5):580597

Vertically growing fractures are more likely to branch into a Gu H, Weng X, Lund JB, Mack GM, Ganguly U, Suarez-Rivera R

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orthogonal angles, a criterion, its validation and applications.

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Although opened BP interfaces restrict the fracture-height of Petroleum Engineers

growth, they can increase the interconnectivity between the Guo TK, Zhang SC, Qu ZQ, Zhou T, Xiao YS, Gao J (2014)

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Acknowledgments This paper was supported by the Major National Itasca Consulting Group Inc. (2014) UDEC (universal distinct

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the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2013CB228004). Jaeger JC, Cook NGW, Zimmerman RW (2007) Fundamental of rock

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Kazerani T, Zhao J (2010) Micromechanical parameters in bonded

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